C1 (پیشرفته)

entrée

entrée [noun] (FOOD)

US the main dish of a meal

UK at very formal meals, a small dish served just before the main part

US /ˈɑːn.treɪ/ 
UK /ˈɒn.treɪ/ 

(رسمی) غذای اصلی

Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English

entrée

entrée /ˈɒntreɪ $ ˈɑːn-/ BrE AmE noun
[Date: 1700-1800; Language: French; Origin: ⇨ ↑entry]
1. [countable] the main dish of a meal, or a dish served before the main course – used in restaurants or on formal occasions:
an entrée of roast duck
2. [uncountable and countable] formal the right or freedom to enter a place or to join a social group
entrée to/into
My family name gave me an entrée into upper class Boston society.

Oxford Advanced Learner's Dictionary

entrée

en·trée [entrée entrées]   [ˈɒntreɪ]    [ˈɑːntreɪ]  noun (from French)

1. countable (in a restaurant or at a formal meal) the main dish of the meal or a dish served before the main course

2. uncountable, countable ~ (into/to sth) (formal) the right or ability to enter a social group or institution

Her wealth and reputation gave her an entrée into upper-class circles.

Cambridge Advanced Learner's Dictionary

entrée / ˈɒn.treɪ /   / ˈɑːn- / noun (FOOD)

[ C ] US the main dish of a meal [ C ] UK at very formal meals, a small dish served just before the main part

Collins COBUILD Advanced Learner’s English Dictionary

entrée

[ɒ̱ntreɪ]
 entrées
 also entree
 1) N-COUNT: oft N into n If you have an entrée to a social group, you are accepted and made to feel welcome by them.
  She had an entree into the city's cultivated society.
 2) N-COUNT At restaurants or formal dinners, the entrée is the main course, or sometimes a dish before the main course.
  Dinner features a hot entrée of chicken, veal, or lamb.

Merriam-Webster's Advanced Learner's Dictionary

Merriam-Webster's Advanced Learner's Dictionary: 

entree

en·trée or en·tree /ˈɑːnˌtreɪ/ noun, pl -trées or -trees
1 [count] : the main dish of a meal especially in a restaurant
• We had steak as an entrée.
2 formal
a [count] : the act or manner of entering something
• She made a graceful entrée [=entrance] into the ballroom.
• His entrée [=entry] into the restaurant business was unexpected.
b [noncount] : the right to enter something
• His family connections have given him entrée [=entry] into the most exclusive clubs in the city.

rage

rage [noun] (EVENT)

an exciting or entertaining event involving a lot of activity

US /reɪdʒ/ 
UK /reɪdʒ/ 

مد روز، تب

مثال: 

The party was a rage.

Oxford Essential Dictionary

rage

 noun
very strong anger:
Sue stormed out of the room in a rage.

Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English

rage

I. rage1 /reɪdʒ/ BrE AmE noun
[Date: 1200-1300; Language: Old French; Origin: Latin rabies 'anger, wildness', from rabere 'to be wild with anger']
1. [uncountable and countable] a strong feeling of uncontrollable anger:
Sobbing with rage, Carol was taken to the hospital.
in a rage
Sam became quite frightening when he was in a rage.
cry/scream/roar etc of rage
Just then, she heard Mr Evan’s bellow of rage.
red/dark/purple with rage
His face was red with rage.
trembling/shaking with rage
Forester stared at his car, trembling with rage.
seething/incandescent with rage (=as angry as a person can possibly be)
Animal rights supporters were incandescent with rage.
Richens was 17 when he flew into a rage and stabbed another teenager.
2. be all the rage informal to be very popular or fashionable:
DiCaprio became all the rage after starring in the film ‘Titanic’.
3. rage for something a situation in which something is very popular or fashionable:
the rage for mobile phones

Cambridge Advanced Learner's Dictionary

rage / reɪdʒ / noun [ C usually singular ] Australian English informal (EVENT)

an exciting or entertaining event involving a lot of activity:

The party was a rage.

Collins COBUILD Advanced Learner’s English Dictionary

rage

[re͟ɪʤ]
 
 rages, raging, raged
 1) N-VAR Rage is strong anger that is difficult to control.
  He was red-cheeked with rage...
  I flew into a rage...
  He admitted shooting the man in a fit of rage.
  Syn:
  fury
 2) VERB You say that something powerful or unpleasant rages when it continues with great force or violence.
  Train services were halted as the fire raged for more than four hours.
  ...the fierce arguments raging over the future of the Holy City...
  [V on] The war rages on and the time has come to take sides.
 3) VERB If you rage about something, you speak or think very angrily about it.
  [V about/against/at n] Monroe was on the phone, raging about her mistreatment by the brothers...
  Inside, Frannie was raging...
  [V with quote] `I can't see it's any of your business,' he raged.
 4) N-UNCOUNT: n N You can refer to the strong anger that someone feels in a particular situation as a particular rage, especially when this results in violent or aggressive behaviour.
 → See also road rage
  Cabin crews are reporting up to nine cases of air rage a week.
 5) N-SING: the N When something is popular and fashionable, you can say that it is the rage or all the rage. [INFORMAL]
  Badges are all the rage in France, Mr Toff explains.
 6) → See also raging

Merriam-Webster's Advanced Learner's Dictionary

Merriam-Webster's Advanced Learner's Dictionary: 

1rage /ˈreɪʤ/ noun, pl rag·es
1 a [noncount] : a strong feeling of anger that is difficult to control
• Her note to him was full of rage.
• He was shaking with rage.
• a fit of rage
- see also road rage synonyms see1anger
b [count] : a sudden expression of violent anger
• She was seized by a murderous rage.
• His rages rarely last more than a few minutes.
• He flew into a rage. [=he suddenly became extremely angry]
2 [singular]
a : something that is suddenly very popular
• Karaoke is (all) the rage these days. [=karaoke is very popular]
b : a strong desire by many people to have or do something - + for
• I don't understand the current rage for flavored coffee. [=I don't understand why flavored coffee is so popular]

 

necessity

necessity [noun]

the need for something

US /nəˈses.ə.t̬i/ 
UK /nəˈses.ə.ti/ 

ضرورت، مورد نیاز

مثال: 

You can come early if you want to, but there's no necessity for it.

Oxford Essential Dictionary

necessity

 noun (plural necessities)
something that you must have:
Food and clothes are necessities of life.

 

Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English

necessity

necessity /nəˈsesəti, nɪˈsesəti/ BrE AmE noun (plural necessities)
[Word Family: noun: ↑necessity, the necessaries, the necessary; verb: ↑necessitate; adverb: ↑necessarily ≠ ↑unnecessarily; adjective: ↑necessary ≠ ↑unnecessary]
[Date: 1300-1400; Language: French; Origin: necessité, from Latin necessitas, from necesse; ⇨ ↑necessary]
1. [countable] something that you need to have in order to live OPP luxury:
She saw books as a necessity, not a luxury.
A car is an absolute necessity if you live in the country.
the basic/bare necessities
A lot of families cannot even afford to buy the basic necessities of life.
2. [uncountable] when something is necessary
necessity for
He emphasized the necessity for good planning and management.
the necessity of (doing) something
This illustrates the necessity of keeping accurate records of your work.
Many teachers are now questioning the necessity of formal exams.
through/out of necessity
He only remained with the group out of necessity.
economic/practical/political etc necessity
I’m afraid it’s become a matter of economic necessity.
3. [countable] something that must happen, even if it is unpleasant:
Taxes are a regrettable necessity.
4. of necessity formal used when something happens in a particular way because that is the only possible way it can happen:
Many of the jobs are, of necessity, temporary.
5. necessity is the mother of invention used to say that if someone really needs to do something, they will find a way of doing it

Oxford Advanced Learner's Dictionary

necessity

ne·ces·sity [necessity necessities]   [nəˈsesəti]    [nəˈsesəti]  noun
1. uncountable the fact that sth must happen or be done; the need for sth
~ (for sth) We recognize the necessity for a written agreement.
~ (of sth/of doing sth) We were discussing the necessity of employing more staff.
~ (for sb) to do sth There had never been any necessity for her to go out to work.
• There is absolutely no necessity for you to be involved.

• This is, of necessity, a brief and incomplete account.

2. countable a thing that you must have and cannot manage without
Many people cannot even afford basic necessities such as food and clothing.

• Air-conditioning is an absolute necessity in this climate.

3. countable, usually singular a situation that must happen and that cannot be avoided
Living in London, he felt, was an unfortunate necessity.
more at make a virtue of necessity at  virtue
Idiom: necessity is the mother of invention  
Word Origin:
late Middle English: from Old French necessite, from Latin necessitas, from necesse ‘be needful’.  
Example Bank:
Culling of the animals was born out of the necessity for successful conservation.
Driven by financial necessity, she decided to give up her writing career.
Food is a necessity of life.
He argued that nuclear weapons were a political necessity.
He is changing job out of necessity, not because he particularly wants to.
I've never felt the necessity to rely on such a strict rule.
Most disputes can be resolved without the necessity of going to court.
Most of the women are forced, through economic necessity, to work in part-time low-paid jobs.
Mrs R has been spared the necessity of having to give evidence.
Necessity forced an urgent solution.
Observers stressed the necessity for the ceasefire to be observed.
Policies which address these issues are an urgent necessity.
She saw the necessity to make an immediate impression on him.
Sleep is an absolute necessity for life.
The company sees no necessity for a more cautious approach to investment.
The people in the rural areas use mud bricks only as an immediate, practical necessity.
The visit will, of necessity, be brief.
There's no necessity for you to come.
These animals don't like water but will swim if the necessity arises.
They have accepted the necessity of greater state intervention.
They have nothing but the barest necessities.
This rule is carried no farther than necessity requires.
Where necessity demands, we can seat more guests in the gallery.
You can dial direct without the necessity of going through the operator.
• the necessity to earn a living

• Living in London he felt, was an unfortunate necessity.

Cambridge Advanced Learner's Dictionary

necessity / nəˈses.ɪ.ti /   / -ə.t̬i / noun

C1 [ U ] the need for something:

You can come early if you want to, but there's no necessity for it.

[ + to infinitive ] Is there any necessity to reply to her letter?

The report stresses the necessity of eat ing plenty of fresh fruit and vegetables.

With a personal fortune of six million pounds, she certainly doesn't work out of necessity (= because she needs to) .

We'll employ extra staff to help out as and when the necessity arises (= when we need to) .

 

C1 [ C ] something that you need, especially in order to live:

We brought only the bare necessities with us.

He regarded music as one of life's necessities.

 

Collins COBUILD Advanced Learner’s English Dictionary

necessity

[nɪse̱sɪti]
 necessities
 1) N-UNCOUNT: usu with supp The necessity of something is the fact that it must happen or exist.
  There is agreement on the necessity of reforms...
  As soon as the necessity for action is over the troops must be withdrawn...
  Most women, like men, work from economic necessity...
  Some people have to lead stressful lifestyles out of necessity.
  ●
  PHRASE: usu PHR before v, PHR n/adj/adv If you say that something is of necessity the case, you mean that it is the case because nothing else is possible or practical in the circumstances. [FORMAL]
  The assembly line of necessity kept moving...
  Negotiations between the enemies are of necessity indirect.
  Syn:
  inevitably
 2) N-COUNT A necessity is something that you must have in order to live properly or do something.
  Water is a basic necessity of life.
  ...food, fuel and other daily necessities.
  Syn:
  essential
  Ant:
  luxury
 3) N-COUNT: usu sing A situation or action that is a necessity is necessary and cannot be avoided.
  The President pleaded that strong rule from the centre was a regrettable, but temporary necessity.

Merriam-Webster's Advanced Learner's Dictionary

Merriam-Webster's Advanced Learner's Dictionary: 

necessity

ne·ces·si·ty /nɪˈsɛsəti/ noun, pl -ties
1 [count] : something that you must have or do : something that is necessary
• Sunscreen is an absolute necessity for the beach.
• food, clothes, and other basic necessities
• Getting plenty of rest is a necessity.
• Without a car, living close to work is a necessity.
• All we took with us on our hiking trip were the bare necessities.
• Many families cannot even afford the basic/bare necessities of life. [=things that a person must have in order to survive]
2 [noncount] formal : the quality of being necessary - usually + of or for
• She talked about the necessity of having the right training. [=she said that having the right training is necessary]
• He questioned the necessity for the change. [=he questioned whether the change was necessary]
by necessity or out of necessity : because of conditions that cannot be changed
• The process is by necessity a slow one. [=the process is necessarily slow; the slowness of the process cannot be avoided]
• He works two jobs out of necessity. [=because it is necessary]
make a virtue (out) of necessity
- see virtue
necessity is the mother of invention
- see 1mother
of necessity formal
- used to say that something must happen or must be the way it is
• Further changes to the company will occur of necessity.

corrupt

corrupt [verb] (MAKE BAD)

 to make someone or something become dishonest or immoral

US /kəˈrʌpt/ 
UK /kəˈrʌpt/ 

فاسد کردن، منحرف کردن

مثال: 

The study claimed that violence on television corrupts the minds of children.

Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English

II. corrupt2 BrE AmE verb [transitive]
1. to encourage someone to start behaving in an immoral or dishonest way:
Young prisoners are being corrupted by the older, long-term offenders.
2. to change the traditional form of something, such as a language, so that it becomes worse than it was:
The culture has been corrupted by Western influences.
3. to change the information in a computer, so that the computer does not work properly any more:
a virus which corrupts the data on your hard drive

Oxford Advanced Learner's Dictionary

verb
1. transitive ~ sb to have a bad effect on sb and make them behave in an immoral or dishonest way
• He was corrupted by power and ambition.

• the corrupting effects of great wealth

2. transitive, often passive ~ sth to change the original form of sth, so that it is damaged or spoiled in some way

• a corrupted form of Buddhism

3. transitive, intransitive ~ (sth) (computing) to cause mistakes to appear in a computer file, etc. with the result that the information in it is no longer correct
The program has somehow corrupted the system files.
corrupted data
The disk will corrupt if it is overloaded.
Verb forms:
 
Word Origin:

Middle English: from Latin corruptus, past participle of corrumpere ‘mar, bribe, destroy’, from cor- ‘altogether’ + rumpere ‘to break’.

Cambridge Advanced Learner's Dictionary

corrupt / kəˈrʌpt / verb [ T ] (MAKE BAD)

C1 to make someone or something become dishonest or immoral:

The study claimed that violence on television corrupts the minds of children.

Collins COBUILD Advanced Learner’s English Dictionary

corrupt

[kərʌ̱pt]
 corrupts, corrupting, corrupted
 1) ADJ-GRADED Someone who is corrupt behaves in a way that is morally wrong, especially by doing dishonest or illegal things in return for money or power.
  ...to save the nation from corrupt politicians of both parties.
  ...corrupt police officers...
  He had accused three opposition members of corrupt practices.
  Ant:
  fair, honest, just
  Derived words:
  corruptly ADV-GRADED ADV with v ...several government officials charged with acting corruptly.
 2) VERB: usu passive If someone is corrupted by something, it causes them to become dishonest and unjust and unable to be trusted.
  [be V-ed] It is sad to see a man so corrupted by the desire for money and power.
 3) VERB To corrupt someone means to cause them to stop caring about moral standards.
  [V n] ...warning that television will corrupt us all...
  Cruelty depraves and corrupts.
 4) VERB: usu passive If something is corrupted, it becomes damaged or spoiled in some way.
  [be V-ed] Some of the finer type-faces are corrupted by cheap, popular computer printers...
  [be V-ed] They can ensure that traditional cuisines are not totally corrupted by commercial practices.
  [V-ed] ...corrupted data.

 

Merriam-Webster's Advanced Learner's Dictionary

Merriam-Webster's Advanced Learner's Dictionary: 

1cor·rupt /kəˈrʌpt/ verb -rupts; -rupt·ed; -rupt·ing
1 : to cause (someone or something) to become dishonest, immoral, etc.

[+ obj]

• He believes that violence on television and film is corrupting our children. [=teaching bad beliefs and behaviors to our children]
• a politician corrupted by greed
• music that corrupts the morals of children
corrupting the country's legal system

[no obj]

• the corrupting influence/effects of power
2 [+ obj] : to change (something) so that it is less pure or valuable
• He's convinced that the Internet is corrupting [=ruining] the English language.
• Their idealism has been corrupted by cynicism.
3 [+ obj] : to change (a book, computer file, etc.) from the correct or original form
• The file has been corrupted and no longer works properly.
corrupted databases/files
• a corrupted version of the ancient text
- cor·rupt·er noun, pl -ers [count]
• a corrupter of our nation's youth
- cor·rupt·ibil·i·ty /kəˌrʌptəˈbɪləti/ noun [noncount]
- cor·rupt·ible /kəˈrʌptəbəl/ adj [more ~; most ~]
• young people who are easily corruptible

sacred

sacred [adjective]

considered to be holy and deserving respect, especially because of a connection with a god

US /ˈseɪ.krɪd/ 
UK /ˈseɪ.krɪd/ 

مقدس

مثال: 

This area is sacred to the Apaches.

Oxford Essential Dictionary

sacred

 adjective
with a special religious meaning:
A church is a sacred building.

Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English

sacred

sacred /ˈseɪkrəd, ˈseɪkrɪd/ adjective
[Date: 1300-1400; Origin: Past participle of sacre 'to make holy' (13-17 centuries), from Old French sacrer, from Latin sacrare, from sacer 'holy']
1. relating to a god or religion:
a sacred vow
the miraculous powers of sacred relics
Certain animals were considered sacred.
sacred to
The land is sacred to these tribesmen.
2. very important or greatly respected:
Human life is sacred.
Frontiers which have held for over forty years are no longer sacred.
sacred to
Few things were sacred to Henry, but local history was one of them.
He had no respect for everything I held sacred.
3. is nothing sacred? spoken used to express shock when something you think is valuable or important is being changed or harmed

Oxford Advanced Learner's Dictionary

sacred

sac·red   [ˈseɪkrɪd]    [ˈseɪkrɪd]  adjective
1. connected with God or a god; considered to be holy
a sacred image/shrine/temple
• sacred music

• Cows are sacred to Hindus.

2. very important and treated with great respect
Syn:  sacrosanct
Human life must always be sacred.
For journalists nothing is sacred (= they write about anything).
Some companies offer five-year plans but there is nothing sacred about this length of time (= it can be changed).
Derived Word: sacredness  
Word Origin:
[sacred sacredness] late Middle English: past participle of archaic sacre ‘consecrate’, from Old French sacrer, from Latin sacrare, from sacer, sacr- ‘holy’.  
Example Bank:
The place was sacred to the Apaches.
• the feeling that all life should be held sacred

• a sacred image/grove

Cambridge Advanced Learner's Dictionary

sacred / ˈseɪ.krɪd / adjective

C1 considered to be holy and deserving respect, especially because of a connection with a god:

sacred relics/temples

This area is sacred to the Apaches.

C1 connected with religion:

sacred music/writings

C2 considered too important to be changed:

His daily routine is absolutely sacred to him.

humorous The cricketers wore blue, not their usual white - is nothing sacred?

 

sacredness / -nəs / noun [ U ]

Collins COBUILD Advanced Learner’s English Dictionary

sacred

[se͟ɪkrɪd]
 1) ADJ-GRADED Something that is sacred is believed to be holy and to have a special connection with God.
  The owl is sacred for many Californian Indian people.
  ...shrines and sacred places.
  Ant:
  profane, secular
  Derived words:
  sacredness N-UNCOUNT oft the N of n ...the sacredness of the site.
 2) ADJ: ADJ n Something connected with religion or used in religious ceremonies is described as sacred.
  ...sacred art.
  ...sacred songs or music.
 3) ADJ-GRADED You can describe something as sacred when it is regarded as too important to be changed or interfered with.
  My memories are sacred...
  He said the unity of the country was sacred.
  Syn:
  sacrosanct
  Derived words:
  sacredness N-UNCOUNT ...the sacredness of his given word.

Merriam-Webster's Advanced Learner's Dictionary

Merriam-Webster's Advanced Learner's Dictionary: 

sacred

Function: adjective

1
Synonyms: HOLY 1, blessed, consecrated, hallowed, sanctified, unprofane
Related Words: sacramental; angelic, godly, saintly; cherished
Contrasted Words: lay, secular, temporal; earthly; unhallowed
Antonyms: profane
2 dedicated to or hallowed by association with a deity <sacred songs> 
Synonyms: numinous, spiritual; compare  HOLY 1 
Related Words: hallowed, sanctified
3 protected (as by law, custom, or human respect) against abuse <a fund sacred to charity> 
Synonyms: inviolable, inviolate, sacrosanct
Related Words: defended, guarded, protected, shielded; immune, untouchable

understand

understand [verb] (REALIZE)

to know or realize something because you have been told it

 

US /ˌʌn.dɚˈstænd/ 
UK /ˌʌn.dəˈstænd/ 

درک کردن، فهمیدن

مثال: 

I understand (that) you are interested in borrowing some money from us.

Oxford Essential Dictionary

understand

 verb (understands, understanding, understood /, has understood)

1 to know what something means or why something happens:
I didn't understand what the teacher said.
He doesn't understand Spanish.
I don't understand why you're so angry.

2 to know something because somebody has told you about it same meaning believe:
I understand that the plane from Geneva will be late.

make yourself understood to make people understand you:
My German isn't very good but I can usually make myself understood.

Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English

understand

understand S1 W1 /ˌʌndəˈstænd $ -ər-/ verb (past tense and past participle understood /-ˈstʊd/) [not in progressive]
[Word Family: adjective: understandable, understanding, misunderstood; verb: understand ≠ misunderstand; noun: understanding ≠ misunderstanding; adverb: understandably]
[Language: Old English; Origin: understandan, from under + standan 'to stand']
1. MEANING [intransitive and transitive] to know the meaning of what someone is telling you, or the language that they speak ⇒ misunderstood:
She doesn’t understand English.
I’m sorry, I don’t understand. Can you explain that again?
The woman had a strong accent, and I couldn’t understand what she was saying.
make yourself understood (=make what you say clear to other people, especially when speaking a foreign language)
I’m not very good at German, but I can make myself understood. ⇒ see Thesaurus box on P. 1916
2. FACT/IDEA [intransitive and transitive] to know or realize how a fact, process, situation etc works, especially through learning or experience:
I don’t really understand the political situation in Northern Ireland.
understand how/why/where etc
You don’t need to understand how computers work to be able to use them.
How the drug works isn’t fully understood.
understand (that)
I understand that this treatment may not work.
3. PERSON/FEELINGS [intransitive and transitive] to realize how someone feels and why they behave the way they do, and to be sympathetic:
My parents just don’t understand me.
Just tell him how you feel – I’m sure he’ll understand.
understand how/what etc
I understand how you feel, but I think you’re overreacting.
(can) understand somebody doing something
I can understand her wanting to live alone and be independent.
4. BELIEVE/THINK [transitive] to believe or think that something is true because you have heard it or read it
understand (that)
‘I understand that he was 62 when he died,’ McLeish said.
it is understood (that)
It is understood that the Queen approves of her nephew’s romance.
be understood to be (doing) something
Dillons is understood to be reorganising the company’s management structure.
5. give somebody to understand (that) formal to make someone believe that something is true, going to happen etc, without telling them this directly:
I was given to understand that the property was in good condition.
6. be understood (that) formal if something is understood, everyone knows it, or has agreed to it, and there is no need to discuss it:
From childhood it was understood that your parents would choose your husband.
7. understand something to be/mean something to accept something as having a particular meaning:
In this document, ‘children’ is understood to mean people under 14.
8. do you understand? spoken used when you are telling someone what they should or should not do, especially when you are angry with them:
Never speak to me like that again! Do you understand?
• • •

THESAURUS

understand to know the meaning of something, or the reasons for something: I understand what you’re saying. | Doctors are beginning to understand what causes the disease.
see especially spoken to understand something, especially the truth about a situation or the reasons for something: I can see why you don’t like him. | Do you see what I mean? | Oh, I see!
get informal to understand a joke, what someone says, the reasons why something is true etc: She didn’t seem to get the joke. | Do you get me? | He explained the math homework twice, but I still don’t get it. | I still don’t get why she left.
comprehend formal to understand something, or understand why something is important: The dream was easy to describe, but difficult to comprehend. | They had failed to comprehend the significance of the problem.
know what somebody means spoken to understand what someone is telling you, or what a situation is like, especially because you have some experience or knowledge about this: ‘It can be really hard to give up smoking.’ ‘I know exactly what you mean.’ | We now know what the scientists meant when they warned about global warming.
follow to understand something such as an explanation or story as you hear it, read it etc: The plot is hard to follow. | His instructions were easy to follow.

to understand something difficult

grasp to completely understand an idea or a fact, especially a complicated one: Some of his theories can be rather difficult for the ordinary reader to grasp. | I don’t think Stuart really grasped the point I was making.
fathom /ˈfæðəm/ formal to understand what something means or the reasons for something, after thinking carefully about it: She looked at him, puzzled, trying to fathom the reasons for his actions.
make sense of something to understand something that is not easy to understand, especially by thinking about it: People are still trying to make sense of the news.
can’t make head nor tail of something spoken used when something seems impossible to understand: I can’t make head nor tail of his plays, and I’m not sure that anyone else can either.

Oxford Advanced Learner's Dictionary

understand

under·stand [understand understands understood understanding]   [ˌʌndəˈstænd]    [ˌʌndərˈstænd]  verb (under·stood, under·stood   [ˌʌndəˈstʊd]  ;   [ˌʌndərˈstʊd]  )(not used in the progressive tenses)

 
MEANING
1. transitive, intransitive to know or realize the meaning of words, a language, what sb says, etc
~ (sth) Can you understand French?
Do you understand the instructions?
She didn't understand the form she was signing.
I'm not sure that I understand. Go over it again.
• I don't want you doing that again. Do you understand?

~ what… I don't understand what he's saying.  

 

HOW STH WORKS/HAPPENS
2. transitive, intransitive to know or realize how or why sth happens, how it works or why it is important
~ (sth) Doctors still don't understand much about the disease.
No one is answering the phone— I can't understand it.
~ why, what, etc… I could never understand why she was fired.
They're too young to understand what is happening.
~ sb/sth doing sth I just can't understand him taking the money.
(formal) I just can't understand his taking the money.

~ that… He was the first to understand that we live in a knowledge economy.  

 

KNOW SB
3. transitive, intransitive to know sb's character, how they feel and why they behave in the way they do
~ sb Nobody understands me.
He doesn't understand women at all.
We understand each other, even if we don't always agree.
~ what, how, etc… They understand what I have been through.
I understand how hard things have been for you.
~ (that…) I quite understand that you need some time alone.
• If you want to leave early, I'm sure he'll understand.

~ sb doing sth I quite understand you needing some time alone.  

 

THINK/BELIEVE
4. transitive (formal) to think or believe that sth is true because you have been told that it is
~ (that)… I understand (that) you wish to see the manager.
Am I to understand that you refuse?
~ sb/sth to be/have sth The Prime Minister is understood to have been extremely angry about the report.

it is understood that… It is understood that the band are working on their next album.  

 

BE AGREED
5. transitive it is understood that… to agree sth with sb without it needing to be said

• I thought it was understood that my expenses would be paid.  

 

MISSING WORD
6. transitive, usually passive ~ sth to realize that a word in a phrase or sentence is not expressed and to supply it in your mind
In the sentence ‘I can't drive’, the object ‘a car’ is understood.
more at give sb to believe/understand at  give  v.
Idiom: make yourself understood
Verb forms:

Word Origin:
Old English understandan (see under-, stand).  
Word Family:
understand verb (≠ misunderstand)
understandable adjective
misunderstood adjective
understanding adjective noun (≠ misunderstanding) 
Synonyms:
understand
see get follow grasp comprehend
These words all mean to know or realize sth, for example why sth happens, how sth works or what sth means.
understandto know or realize the meaning of words, a language, what sb says, etc; to know or realize how or why sth happens, how it works or why it is important: I don't understand the instructions. Doctors still don't understand much about the disease.
seeto understand what is happening, what sb is saying, how sth works or how important sth is: ‘It opens like this.’ ‘Oh, I see .’ Oh yes, I see what you mean .
get(informal) to understand a joke, what sb is trying to tell you, or a situation that they are trying to describe: She didn't get the joke. I don't get you.
followto understand an explanation, a story or the meaning of sth: Sorry— I don't quite follow. The plot is almost impossible to follow.
graspto come to understand a fact, an idea or how to do sth: They failed to grasp the importance of his words.
understand or grasp?
You can use understand or grasp for the action of realizing the meaning or importance of sth for the first time: It's a difficult concept for children to understand/grasp. Only understand can be used to talk about languages, words or writing: I don't grasp French/the instructions.
comprehend(often used in negative statements) (formal) to understand a fact, idea or reason: The concept of infinity is almost impossible for the human mind to comprehend.
to understand/see/get/follow/grasp/comprehend what/why/how…
to understand/see/grasp/comprehend that…
to understand/see/get/grasp the point/idea (of sth)
to be easy/difficult/hard to understand/see/follow/grasp/comprehend
to fully understand/see/grasp/comprehend sth 
Example Bank:
Her behaviour wounded him in a way he did not really understand.
I can't understand what all the fuss is about.
I could barely understand a word of his story.
I don't claim to understand it.
I finally understood what she meant.
I fully understand the reason for your decision.
If I've understood you correctly…
It is difficult to understand why he reacted in that way.
Only specialists can hope to understand them.
She intuitively understood his need to be alone.
She realized that she had never properly understood him.
She soon learnt to understand English.
The effects of these chemicals on the body are still poorly understood.
The girl understands immediately and promises to be more careful.
The reasons for this decision are not easily understood.
These beliefs are best understood as a form of escapism.
These categories help us to better understand our readers.
They won't necessarily understand the pros and cons of the matter.
We came to understand why certain things happened in certain ways.
We understand little about this disease.
What is generally understood by ‘democracy’?
a complex topic which I only partially understand
a woman struggling to understand an incomprehensible situation
Do you understand French?
Doctors still don't understand much about the disease.
He couldn't understand what she was saying.
He doesn't understand women at all.
I don't understand the instructions.
I don't want you doing that again. Do you understand?
I just can't understand him taking the money.
If you want to leave early, I'm sure he'll understand.
It's understood that the band are already working on their next album.
She said she didn't understand the form she was signing.
She understood that this was her last chance.
The disease is still not fully understood.
• The prime minister is understood to have been extremely angry about the report.

• We understand each other, even if we don't always agree.

Cambridge Advanced Learner's Dictionary

understand / ˌʌn.dəˈstænd /   / -dɚ- / verb ( understood , understood ) (REALIZE)

C1 [ T ] formal to know or realize something because you have been told it:

[ + (that) ] I understand (that) you are interested in borrowing some money from us.

[ + that ] The Director had given her to understand (= told her) that she would be promoted.

[ + obj + to infinitive ] A secret buyer is understood to have paid £1 million for the three pictures (= there is unofficial news that this has happened) .

[ I or T ] formal used when making certain that someone knows what you mean and that they will do as you want:

I don't want you to see that boy again. Understand?/Do you understand?/Is that understood?

it is understood formal used to refer to something such as a rule that everyone knows and accepts:

In the library it is understood that loud talking is not permissible.

 

Collins COBUILD Advanced Learner’s English Dictionary

understand

[ʌ̱ndə(r)stæ̱nd]
 
 understands, understanding, understood
 1) VERB: no cont If you understand someone or understand what they are saying, you know what they mean.
  [V n] I think you heard and also understand me...
  [V n] Rusty nodded as though she understood the old woman...
  [V wh] I don't understand what you are talking about...
  [make pron-refl V-ed] He was speaking poor English, trying to make himself understood.
 2) VERB: no cont If you understand a language, you know what someone is saying when they are speaking that language.
  [V n] I couldn't read or understand a word of Yiddish, so I asked him to translate.
 3) VERB: no cont To understand someone means to know how they feel and why they behave in the way that they do.
  [V n] It would be nice to have someone who really understood me, a friend...
  [V n] Trish had not exactly understood his feelings...
  [V wh] She understands why I get tired and grumpy.
 4) VERB: no cont You say that you understand something when you know why or how it happens.
  [V wh] They are too young to understand what is going on...
  [V wh] She didn't understand why the TV was kept out of reach of the patients...
  [V n] In the effort to understand AIDS, attention is moving from the virus to the immune system.
 5) VERB: no cont If you understand that something is the case, you think it is true because you have heard or read that it is. You can say that something is understood to be the case to mean that people generally think it is true.
  [V that] We understand that she's in the studio recording her second album...
  [V that] I understand you've heard about David...
  [V it] As I understand it, you came round the corner by the cricket field and there was the man in the road...
  [be V-ed to-inf] The management is understood to be very unwilling to agree to this request...
  [it be V-ed that/to-inf] It is understood that the veteran reporter had a heart attack.
 6) PHRASE: give inflects, usu PHR that If someone is given to understand that something is the case, it is communicated to them that it is the case, usually without them being told directly.
  I am given to understand that he was swearing throughout the game at our fans.
 7) CONVENTION You can use understand in expressions like do you understand? or is that understood? after you have told someone what you want, to make sure that they have understood you and will obey you.
  You do not hit my grandchildren, do you understand?...
  I don't need it, understand?...
  I don't want to hear another word about it. Is that understood, Emma?

Merriam-Webster's Advanced Learner's Dictionary

Merriam-Webster's Advanced Learner's Dictionary: 

understand

un·der·stand /ˌʌndɚˈstænd/ verb -stands; -stood /-ˈstʊd/ ; -stand·ing
1 : to know the meaning of (something, such as the words that someone is saying or a language) : comprehend

[+ obj]
• Do you understand English?
• “Did you understand what he said?” “Not a word (of it).”
• I can't understand a word you're saying.
• I don't understand these directions.
• I didn't understand what you told me. = I didn't understand you.
• If I understand you correctly [=if I understand what you are saying correctly], this needs to be changed.

[no obj]
• I want you to stay away from her. Do you understand?
• The work has to be finished today. Understand? [=do you understand what I am telling you?]
2 [+ obj] : to know how (something) works or happens
• They understand local politics.
• I don't understand how this is supposed to work.
• He doesn't really understand the situation.
• You should read the book in order to understand more about the subject.
• I can't understand why she would do such a thing.
• She's beginning to understand what's going on.
• You have to understand that I had no other choice.
• We still don't fully understand the causes of the disease. = The causes of the disease are still not fully understood.
3 a [+ obj] : to know how (someone) thinks, feels, or behaves
• I understand [=know] him well enough to know that he won't want to go.
• She understands children.
• At first we didn't get along, but I think we understand each other now.
b : to feel sympathy for someone's feelings or situation

[+ obj]
• She had a similar experience, so she understands what I'm going through.
• I can understand your/you feeling annoyed. [=I think you have good reason for feeling annoyed]

[no obj]
• They will understand if you need some time off.
• My cousin doesn't understand about these things.
4 [+ obj]
a : to think or believe (something)
• She was given to understand [=she was led to believe] that the job was hers.
- used to say what you believe to be true based on what you have heard, read, etc.
• I understand that they will arrive today.
• As I understand it, this has been a problem for several years.
• I understand that some doctors disagree.
• He understood that he would be paid for the work.
b
- used to say that something is agreed to or accepted and does not need to be discussed; usually used as (be) understood
• It's understood that more time will be needed. [=we all know/accept that more time will be needed]
• He believed it was understood [=believed that everyone had agreed] that he would be paid for the work.
5 [+ obj] : to think that (something) has a particular meaning : interpret
• I understood the letter to be a refusal.
6 [+ obj]
- used to say that a word or phrase is thought of as having been said even though it is not actually said; usually used as (be) understood
• When people say “they're engaged,” the phrase “to be married” is understood. [=“they're engaged” is understood to mean “they're engaged to be married”]
make yourself understood
- see 1make

triumph

triumph [noun]

a very great success, achievement, or victory (= when you win a war, fight, or competition) , or a feeling of great satisfaction or pleasure caused by this

US /ˈtraɪ.əmf/ 
UK /ˈtraɪ.əmf/ 

پیروزی، موفقیت

مثال: 

The signing of the agreement was a personal triumph for the prime minister.

Oxford Essential Dictionary

triumph

 noun
great success:
The race ended in triumph for the German team.

 

Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English

triumph

I. triumph1 /ˈtraɪəmf/ BrE AmE noun
[Date: 1300-1400; Language: Old French; Origin: triumphe, from Latin triumphus]
1. [countable] an important victory or success after a difficult struggle:
Winning the championship is a great personal triumph.
triumph for
a tremendous diplomatic triumph for France
triumph over
the triumph over hardship
2. [uncountable] a feeling of pleasure and satisfaction that you get from victory or success:
a shout of triumph
in triumph
He rode in triumph to the Tsar.
3. [singular] a very successful example of something
triumph of
The gallery is a triumph of design.
• • •
THESAURUS
victory noun [uncountable and countable] a situation in which you win a battle, game, election, or ↑dispute: The crowds celebrated Italy’s victory against England. | The party won a comfortable victory in the general election. | We’re very confident of victory.
win noun [countable] a victory in a sports game or in a competition: It was an important win for the Yankees. | A couple from London are celebrating a big lottery win.
triumph noun [countable] written an important victory, especially in war or politics: Thatcher’s greatest triumph was becoming the UK’s first female Prime Minister.
conquest noun [countable] a situation in which one country wins a war against another country and takes control of it: the Spanish conquest of Mexico | Caesar is well-known for his military conquests.
landslide noun [countable] an election victory in which one party or ↑candidate gets far more votes than their opponents: In 1945, there was a Labour landslide.
walkover especially British English, cakewalk American English noun [countable] informal a very easy victory: The match was expected to be a walkover for Brazil.
upset noun [countable] a situation in which the person, team, party etc that was expected to win is defeated: Truman pulled off the greatest election upset in United States history.

Cambridge Advanced Learner's Dictionary

triumph / ˈtraɪ.əmf / noun [ C or U ]

C1 a very great success, achievement, or victory (= when you win a war, fight, or competition) , or a feeling of great satisfaction or pleasure caused by this:

The book celebrates the hostages' remarkable triumph over appalling adversity.

The signing of the agreement was a personal triumph for the prime minister.

It was the Republican Party's third election triumph in a row.

The eradication of smallpox by vaccination was one of medicine's greatest triumphs.

The constitutional changes have been hailed as a triumph for democracy.

The match ended in triumph for the French team.

He returned in triumph from the sales with a half-price stereo system.

Collins COBUILD Advanced Learner’s English Dictionary

triumph

[tra͟ɪʌmf]
 
 triumphs, triumphing, triumphed
 1) N-VAR A triumph is a great success or achievement, often one that has been gained with a lot of skill or effort.
  The championships proved to be a personal triumph for the coach, Dave Donovan...
  Cataract operations are a triumph of modern surgery, with a success rate of more than 90 percent...
  In the moment of triumph I felt uneasy.
 2) N-UNCOUNT Triumph is a feeling of great satisfaction and pride resulting from a success or victory.
  Her sense of triumph was short-lived...
  He was laughing with triumph.
 3) VERB If someone or something triumphs, they gain complete success, control, or victory, often after a long or difficult struggle.
  All her life, Kelly had stuck with difficult tasks and challenges, and triumphed...
  [V over n] The whole world looked to her as a symbol of good triumphing over evil.

 

Merriam-Webster's Advanced Learner's Dictionary

Merriam-Webster's Advanced Learner's Dictionary: 

1tri·umph /ˈtrajəmf/ noun, pl -umphs
1 [count]
a : a great or important victory
• They earned/gained a magnificent triumph over the invading army.
• They celebrated their triumph with a parade through the steets of the city.
• They were able to achieve an important triumph against their chief rivals.
b : a great success or achievement
• Quitting smoking was a personal triumph for her.
• The party was a triumph.
• The bridge is an engineering triumph.
2 [noncount] : the very happy and joyful feeling that comes from victory or success
• They had a feeling of triumph after finishing the project.
• shouts of triumph
• They stood atop the mountain in triumph.
3 [count] : something good that is an excellent example of a particular method, quality, etc.
• The design is a triumph of simplicity. [=the design is very good and simple]

anguish

anguish [noun]

extreme unhappiness caused by physical or mental suffering

 

US /ˈæŋ.ɡwɪʃ/ 
UK /ˈæŋ.ɡwɪʃ/ 

تشویش و نگرانی، درد و رنج روحی

مثال: 

His anguish at the outcome of the court case was very clear.

Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English

anguish

anguish /ˈæŋɡwɪʃ/ BrE AmE noun [uncountable] written
[Date: 1100-1200; Language: Old French; Origin: angoisse, from Latin angustiae 'extreme upset', from angustus 'narrow']
mental or physical suffering caused by extreme pain or worry:
the anguish of not knowing what had happened to her
—anguished adjective:
an anguished cry for help
• • •
THESAURUS
■ the feeling of being worried
worry the feeling of not being happy or relaxed and thinking a lot about a problem or something that is wrong: She was sick with worry over her daughter. | the look of worry on his face
anxiety the feeling of being worried because you think that something bad has happened or will happen, and you feel that you have no control over the situation: The thought of having to give a speech filled me with anxiety. | The increase in heating costs is causing a lot of anxiety among elderly people.
concern a worried feeling – use this especially when many people are worried about a problem that affects everyone: The shortage of water is beginning to cause widespread concern.
stress the feeling of being worried all the time, for example about work or personal problems, which can make you ill or very tired: Her financial problems were causing her a lot of stress.
anguish a feeling of extreme mental suffering caused by worry: How could her parents survive the anguish of not knowing what had happened to her? | When she spoke, her voice was full of anguish.
angst a strong feeling of worry and anxiety because you are worried about your life, your future, or what you should do in a particular situation: The letter was full of teenage angst - would she ever be able to find another boyfriend? | There was much angst about the decision.

Oxford Advanced Learner's Dictionary

anguish

an·guish [anguish anguishes anguished anguishing]   [ˈæŋɡwɪʃ]    [ˈæŋɡwɪʃ]  noun uncountable (formal)
severe pain, mental suffering or unhappiness
He groaned in anguish.
Tears of anguish filled her eyes.
Derived Word: anguished  
Word Origin:
Middle English: via Old French from Latin angustia ‘tightness’, (plural) ‘distress’, from angustus ‘narrow’.  
Example Bank:
He looked across at Kate's anguished face.
Jack looked anguished, almost desperate.
She read the letter, gave an anguished cry and collapsed.
 
Example Bank:
He suffered the anguish of watching his son go to prison.
His mouth felt dry with anguish.
In her anguish, she turned to her father for help.
The loss of a pet can cause some people real anguish.
• his anguish at the death of his son

• to cry out/groan/scream in anguish

Cambridge Advanced Learner's Dictionary

anguish / ˈæŋ.ɡwɪʃ / noun [ U ]

extreme unhappiness caused by physical or mental suffering:

His anguish at the outcome of the court case was very clear.

In her anguish she forgot to leave a message.

 

anguished / ˈæŋ.ɡwɪʃt / adjective

an anguished cry

Collins COBUILD Advanced Learner’s English Dictionary

anguish

[æ̱ŋgwɪʃ]
 N-UNCOUNT
 Anguish is great mental suffering or physical pain. [WRITTEN]
  A cry of anguish burst from her lips...
  Mark looked at him in anguish.

Merriam-Webster's Advanced Learner's Dictionary

Merriam-Webster's Advanced Learner's Dictionary: 

anguish

an·guish /ˈæŋgwɪʃ/ noun [noncount] : extreme suffering, grief, or pain
• tears/cries of anguish
• He experienced the anguish of divorce after 10 years of marriage.
• mental anguish
• They watched in anguish as fire spread through the house.
- an·guished /ˈæŋgwɪʃt/ adj [more ~; most ~]
• She looked at me with an anguished expression.
• I will never forget their anguished cries.

 

loneliness

loneliness [noun]

 the state of being lonely

 

US /ˈloʊn.li.nəs/ 
UK /ˈləʊn.li.nəs/ 

تنهایی، بی کسی

Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English

loneliness

See main entry: lonely
 

 

lonely

lonely S3 /ˈləʊnli $ ˈloʊn-/ BrE AmE adjective (comparative lonelier, superlative loneliest)
1. unhappy because you are alone or do not have anyone to talk to SYN lonesome American English:
a lonely old man
Don’t you get lonely being on your own all day?
► Do not use lonely to mean ‘without anyone else’. Use alone: She is afraid to travel alone (NOT travel lonely).
2. a lonely experience or situation makes you unhappy because you are alone or do not have anyone to talk to:
a lonely journey
lonely life/existence
He led a lonely life with few friends.
3. the lonely [plural] people who are lonely
4. a lonely place is a long way from where people live and very few people go there SYN lonesome American English, remote, desolate
lonely place/road/spot etc
—loneliness noun [uncountable]
• • •
THESAURUS
lonely (also lonesome American English) unhappy because you are alone or do not have any friends: Tammy felt very lonely when she first arrived in New York. | Our neighbor George is a very lonely man. | I get so lonesome here with no one to talk to.
isolated lonely because your situation makes it difficult for you to meet people: People caring for sick relatives often feel very isolated. | Children of very rich parents can grow up isolated from the rest of society.
alienated feeling that you do not belong in a particular place or group: She felt very alienated as the only woman in the company. | In high school she felt somehow different and alienated from other students.
homesick unhappy because you are a long way from your home and the people who live there: When I first went to Germany, I was very homesick.
miss somebody used when saying that you feel unhappy because someone is not there with you: I miss you. | She misses her friends.
 

Oxford Advanced Learner's Dictionary

loneliness

 

lone·li·ness   [ˈləʊnlinəs]  ;   [ˈloʊnlinəs]  noun uncountable
• a period of loneliness in his life

Main entry: lonelyderived

Cambridge Advanced Learner's Dictionary

loneliness / ˈləʊn.li.nəs /   / ˈloʊn- / noun [ U ]

C1 the state of being lonely

Collins COBUILD Advanced Learner’s English Dictionary

loneliness

[lo͟ʊnlinəs]
 N-UNCOUNT
 Loneliness is the unhappiness that is felt by someone because they do not have any friends or do not have anyone to talk to.
  I have so many friends, but deep down, underneath, I have a fear of loneliness.

Merriam-Webster's Advanced Learner's Dictionary

Merriam-Webster's Advanced Learner's Dictionary: 

lonely

lone·ly /ˈloʊnli/ adj lone·li·er; -est [also more ~; most ~]
1 : sad from being apart from other people
• He was/felt lonely without his wife and children.
• a lonely old man
• feeling lonely
• She was a lonely child with few friends.
2 : causing sad feelings that come from being apart from other people
• It was lonely living out in the country.
• She spent too many lonely nights at home.
• She had a lonely childhood.
• It's lonely at the top. [=powerful and successful people often have few friends]
3 : not visited by or traveled on by many people
• a lonely spot in the woods
• a lonely stretch of road
- lone·li·ness /ˈloʊnlinəs/ noun [noncount]

progressive

progressive [adjective] (GRADUAL)

developing or happening gradually

US /prəˈɡres.ɪv/ 
UK /prəˈɡres.ɪv/ 

پيش‌رونده

مثال: 

There's been a progressive decline in the standard of living over the past few years.

Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English

progressive

I. progressive1 /prəˈɡresɪv/ BrE AmE adjective
[Word Family: noun: ↑progress, ↑progression, ↑progressive; verb: ↑progress; adverb: ↑progressively; adjective: ↑progressive]
1. supporting new or modern ideas and methods, especially in politics and education:
a progressive administration
progressive and forward-looking policies
2. happening or developing gradually over a period of time
progressive decline/reduction/increase etc
the progressive increase in population
Britain’s progressive decline as a world power
3. technical the progressive form of a verb is used to show that an action or activity is continuing to happen. In English, it consists of the verb ‘be’ followed by the ↑present participle, as in ‘I was waiting for the bus’. SYN continuous

Oxford Advanced Learner's Dictionary

progressive

pro·gres·sive [progressive progressives] adjective, noun   [prəˈɡresɪv]    [prəˈɡresɪv] 

adjective
1. in favour of new ideas, modern methods and change
• progressive schools

Opp:  retrogressive

2. happening or developing steadily
• a progressive reduction in the size of the workforce

• a progressive muscular disease

3. (also con·tinu·ous) (grammar) connected with the form of a verb (for example I am waiting or It is raining) that is made from a part of be and the present participle. Progressive forms are used to express an action that continues for a period of time. 
Word Origin:
early 17th cent.: from French progressif, -ive or medieval Latin progressivus, from progress- ‘gone forward’, from the verb progredi, from pro- ‘forward’ + gradi ‘to walk’.  
Example Bank:
highly progressive in outlook
Are you in favour of progressive teaching methods?
• He is progressive, open-minded, and sincerely concerned with civil-rights struggles.

Derived Word: progressivism 

Cambridge Advanced Learner's Dictionary

progressive / prəˈɡres.ɪv / adjective (GRADUAL)

C1 developing or happening gradually:

There's been a progressive decline in the standard of living over the past few years.

a progressive disease   

 

progressive / prəˈɡres.ɪv / adjective (MODERN)

B2 describes ideas or systems that are new and modern, encouraging change in society or in the way that things are done:

progressive ideas/attitudes

The left of the party is pressing for a more progressive social policy.

 

a progressive school

progressive / prəˈɡres.ɪv / adjective (TAX)

describes a tax system in which the rate of tax is higher on larger amounts of money

 

progressive / prəˈɡres.ɪv / adjective (GRAMMAR)

describes the form of a verb that is used to show that the action is continuing. It is formed with the verb 'be' followed by the present participle (= -ing form of the verb) :

'He's working hard at the moment' is an example of the present progressive form of the verb 'work'.

'I was eating when the phone rang' is an example of the past progressive.

Collins COBUILD Advanced Learner’s English Dictionary

progressive

[prəgre̱sɪv]
 progressives
 1) ADJ-GRADED Someone who is progressive or has progressive ideas has modern ideas about how things should be done, rather than traditional ones.
  ...a progressive businessman who had voted for Roosevelt in 1932 and 1936...
  Willan was able to point to the progressive changes he had already introduced...
  The children go to a progressive school.
  Ant:
  conservative
 N-COUNT
 A progressive is someone who is progressive. The Republicans were deeply split between progressives and conservatives.
 2) ADJ: usu ADJ n A progressive change happens gradually over a period of time.
  One prominent symptom of the disease is progressive loss of memory.
  ...the progressive development of a common foreign and security policy.
  Syn:
  gradual
  Ant:
  sudden
  Derived words:
  progressively ADV ADV compar, ADV with v Her symptoms became progressively worse... The amount of grant the council received from the Government was progressively reduced.
 3) ADJ: ADJ n In grammar, progressive means the same as continuous.

 

Merriam-Webster's Advanced Learner's Dictionary

Merriam-Webster's Advanced Learner's Dictionary: 

1pro·gres·sive /prəˈgrɛsɪv/ adj
1 : moving forward
• the progressive movements of the hands of a clock
2 : happening or developing gradually over a period of time
• a progressive disease
3 [more ~; most ~] : using or interested in new or modern ideas especially in politics and education
• a progressive community/school
• a progressive candidate
4 grammar : of or relating to the progressive tense of a verb
• a progressive verb form

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