A1 (پایه)


four [number]

The number 4

US /fɔːr/ 
UK /fɔːr/ 



Most animals have four legs.

Oxford Essential Dictionary



on all fours with your hands and knees on the ground:
We went through the tunnel on all fours.

>> fourth pronoun, adjective, adverb 4th

Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English


four /fɔː $ fɔːr/ BrE AmE number, noun
[Language: Old English; Origin: feower]
1. the number 4:
She is married with four children.
They arrived just after four (=four o'clock).
Luke will soon be four (=four years old).
2. on all fours supporting your body with your hands and knees:
He was down on all fours playing with the puppy.
3. in fours in groups of four people or things:
The boxes were stacked in fours. ⇨ ↑foursome
4. [countable] a hit in ↑cricket that scores four ↑runs because it goes over the edge of the playing area
5. [countable] a team of four people who row a racing boat, or the boat that they row
6. the four corners of the Earth/world literary places or countries that are very far away from each other:
People from the four corners of the world have come to Ontario to make it their home.

Oxford Advanced Learner's Dictionary


four [four fours]   [fɔː(r)]  ;   [fɔːr] 

1. number 4  There are examples of how to use numbers at the entry for five.

2. noun a group of four people or things
to make up a four at tennis

a coach and four (= four horses)

3. noun (in cricket) a shot that scores four runs

4. noun a team of four people who row a long narrow boat in races; the boat that they row 

Cambridge Advanced Learner's Dictionary

Cambridge Advanced Learner's Dictionary - 4th Edition

four / fɔː r /   / fɔːr / number

A1 the number 4:

Most animals have four legs.

Their little girl is nearly four.

Collins COBUILD Advanced Learner’s English Dictionary



 1) NUM Four is the number 4.
  Judith is married with four children.
 2) N-COUNT In cricket, if a player hits a four, they score four runs by hitting the ball along the ground so that it crosses the boundary at the edge of the playing area.
  Taylor hit 13 fours and batted for 140 minutes.
 3) N-COUNT A four is a narrow racing boat that is rowed by a team of four people.
 4) PHRASE: PHR after v, v-link PHR If you are on all fours, your knees, feet, and hands are on the ground.
  She crawled on all fours over to the window.

Merriam-Webster's Advanced Learner's Dictionary

Merriam-Webster's Advanced Learner's Dictionary: 


four /ˈfoɚ/ noun, pl fours
1 [count] : the number 4
2 [count] : the fourth in a set or series
• the four of hearts
3 [noncount] : four o'clock
• “What time is it?” “It's four.”
• I leave each day at four.

- see also all fours

- four adj
• waiting for four hours
- four pronoun
Four (of them) are broken.


three [number]

The number 3

US /θriː/ 
UK /θriː/ 



I've got three sisters.

Oxford Essential Dictionary



Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English


three S1 /θriː/ BrE AmE number
[Language: Old English; Origin: thrie, threo]
1. the number 3:
They’ve won their last three games.
We’d better go. It’s almost three (=three o'clock).
My little sister’s only three (=three years old).
2. in threes in groups of three people or things:
Teachers taking part will be asked to work in threes. ⇨ ↑threesome, ↑third

Oxford Advanced Learner's Dictionary


three [three threes]   [θriː]    [θriː]  number
3  There are examples of how to use numbers at the entry for five.
more at in twos and threes at  two
Idiom: three Rs  
Word Origin:

Old English thrīe (masculine), thrīo, thrēo (feminine), of Germanic origin; related to Dutch drie and German drei, from an Indo-European root shared by Latin tres and Greek treis.

Cambridge Advanced Learner's Dictionary

Cambridge Advanced Learner's Dictionary - 4th Edition

three / θriː / number

A1 the number 3:

I've got three sisters.

School finishes at three (o'clock).

Collins COBUILD Advanced Learner’s English Dictionary



 Three is the number 3.
  We waited three months before going back to see the specialist.

Merriam-Webster's Advanced Learner's Dictionary

Merriam-Webster's Advanced Learner's Dictionary: 


three /ˈɵriː/ noun, pl threes
1 [count] : the number 3
2 [count] : the third in a set or series
• the three of hearts
3 [noncount] : three o'clock
• “What time is it?” “It's three.”
• I leave each day at three.
in threes : in groups of three
• You'll be working in threes.
three sheets to the wind
- see 2sheet
two's company, three's a crowd
- see company
- three adj
three feet/dollars/weeks
- three pronoun
• I'll take three, please.
• Seven students passed the test and three failed.


two [number]

The number 2

US /tuː/ 
UK /tuː/ 



They've got two houses.

Oxford Essential Dictionary



in two into two pieces:
The cup fell on the floor and broke in two.

Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English


two /tuː/ BrE AmE number
[Language: Old English; Origin: twa]
1. the number 2:
I’ll be away for almost two weeks.
We have to be there by two (=two o'clock).
His family moved to Australia when he was two (=two years old).
2. in twos in groups of two people or things:
I’d like you to line up in twos, please. ⇨ ↑twosome
3. put two and two together to guess the meaning of something you have heard or seen:
I saw him leaving her house and I put two and two together.
4. that makes two of us spoken used to tell someone that you are in the same situation and feel the same way:
‘But I don’t know anything about children!’ ‘Well, that makes two of us.’
5. two can play at that game spoken used to tell someone that they will not have an advantage over you by doing something because you can do it too
6. a year/a week/a moment/an hour etc or two spoken one or a few years, weeks etc
7. two sides of the same coin used to talk about two ways of looking at the same situation
8. two heads are better than one used to say that two people are more likely to solve a problem or think of an idea than one person working alone
9. be in two minds (about something) British English, be of two minds (about something) American English to be unable to decide what to do, or what you think about something:
I was in two minds about whether to go with him.
10. two cents (worth) American English informal your opinion or what you want to say about a subject:
Everyone had to put in their two cents worth.
11. two’s company, three’s a crowd used to say that it is better to leave two people alone to spend time with each other
don’t care two hoots at ↑hoot1(5), ⇨ two/three etc of a kind at ↑kind1(5), ⇨ be two/ten a penny at ↑penny(11), ⇨ in ones and twos at ↑one1(3), ⇨ it takes two to tango at ↑tango2(2), ⇨ kill two birds with one stone at ↑kill1(13), ⇨ no two ways about it at ↑way1(54), ⇨ fall between two stools at ↑fall1(32)
• • •
pair two things of the same type that you use together. Also used about two people who do something together or who you often see together: a pair of shoes | a pair of socks | Winners will receive a pair of tickets for the show. | The pair were arrested six days after the killing. | They're a funny pair! | The British pair will be playing in the final on Saturday.
a couple (of something) two things of the same type, or a very small number of things: There were a couple of empty seats at the table. | Do you have any stamps? I just need a couple.
couple noun [countable] two people who are married or having a sexual relationship: a married couple | The couple met at university.
twins noun [plural] two children who were born on the same day to the same mother: The twins look very alike. | identical twins
duo noun [countable] two people who perform together or who are often seen together: a comedy duo
duet noun [countable] a piece of music written for two people to play: They played a duet by Brahms.
twice two times adverb: The group meets twice a week. | She sneezed twice.
■ for two people
for two for two people: A table for two, please.
double bed/double room a bed for two people, or a room that has a bed for two people in it: I'd like to book a double room.
twin beds/twin room two separate single beds, or a room with two separate single beds: We asked for a twin room, and they've give us a double room.

Oxford Advanced Learner's Dictionary


two [two twos]   [tuː]    [tuː]  number
2  There are examples of how to use numbers at the entry for five.
more at be in two minds about sth/doing sthbe of two minds about sth/doing sth at  mind  n., in two shakesin a couple of shakes at  shake  n.
Idioms: day/moment/pound or two  fall between two stools  in two  in twos and threes  it takes two to do something  not have two beans/brain cells to rub together  put two and two together  that makes two of us  two sides of the same coin  
Word Origin:

Old English twā (feminine and neuter) of Germanic origin; related to Dutch twee and German zwei, from an Indo-European root shared by Latin and Greek duo. Compare with twain.

Cambridge Advanced Learner's Dictionary

Cambridge Advanced Learner's Dictionary - 4th Edition

two / tuː / number

A1 the number 2:

They've got two houses.

He'll be two (years old) in February.

Collins COBUILD Advanced Learner’s English Dictionary



 1) NUM Two is the number 2.
 2) PHRASE If you say it takes two or it takes two to tango, you mean that a situation or argument involves two people and they are both therefore responsible for it.
  Divorce is never the fault of one partner; it takes two...
  It takes two to tango and so far our relationship has been one-sided.
 3) PHRASE: V inflects If you put two and two together, you work out the truth about something for yourself, by using the information that is available to you.
  Putting two and two together, I assume that this was the car he used.
 4) to kill two birds with one stonesee bird
 two a pennysee penny

Merriam-Webster's Advanced Learner's Dictionary

Merriam-Webster's Advanced Learner's Dictionary: 


two /ˈtuː/ noun, pl twos
1 [count] : the number 2
2 [count] : the second in a set or series
• page two
3 [noncount] : two o'clock
• It was two in the morning.
a bird in the hand is worth two in the bush
- see bird
a thing or two
- see thing
in two : into two equal parts : in half
• He cut the apple in two.
in twos : in groups of two
• You will be working in twos. [=in pairs]
in two shakes
- see 2shake
it takes two, it takes two to tango
- see 1take
of two minds, in two minds
- see 1mind
put two and two together : to make a correct guess based on what you have seen or heard : to figure something out
• You weren't home so I put two and two together and went back to your office to find you.
put/stick two fingers up at someone
- see 1finger
serve two masters
- see 1serve
two by two : in groups of two : in pairs
• The children lined up two by two.
two cents
- see cent
two left feet
- see 1foot
two's company, three's a crowd
- see company
two sides of the same coin
- see 1coin


one [number,determiner] (NUMBER)

The number 1

US /wʌn/ 
UK /wʌn/ 



You've got three bags and I've only got one.

Oxford Essential Dictionary

number, adjective

1 the number 1:
One and one make two (1 + 1 = 2).
Only one person spoke.

2 a person or thing, especially when they are part of a group:
One of my friends is ill.
I've lost one of my books.

3 only:
You are the one person I can trust.

4 used for talking about a particular time, without saying exactly when:
I'll come over one evening.

one by one first one, then the next, etc.; separately:
Please come in one by one.

Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English


I. one1 S1 W1 /wʌn/ BrE AmE number
1. the number 1:
They had one daughter.
one hundred and twenty-one pounds
Come back at one (=one o'clock).
Katie’s almost one (=one year old).
2. one or two a small number of people or things SYN a few:
There are one or two things to sort out before I leave.
one or two of
One or two of us knew him quite well.
3. in ones and twos British English alone or in pairs, rather than in large numbers or groups:
Guests arrived in ones and twos.

Oxford Advanced Learner's Dictionary


one [one ones] number, determiner, pronoun   [wʌn]    [wʌn]

number, determiner
1. the number 1
Do you want one or two?
There's only room for one person.
One more, please!
• a one-bedroomed apartment

• I'll see you at one (= one o'clock).

2. used in formal language or for emphasis before hundred, thousand, etc, or before a unit of measurement
• It cost one hundred and fifty pounds.

• He lost by less than one second.

3. used for emphasis to mean ‘a single’ or ‘just one’

• There's only one thing we can do.

4. a person or thing, especially when they are part of a group
• One of my friends lives in Brighton.

• One place I'd really like to visit is Bali.

5. used for emphasis to mean ‘the only one’ or ‘the most important one’
He's the one person I can trust.
• Her one concern was for the health of her baby.

• It's the one thing I can't stand about him.

6. used when you are talking about a time in the past or the future, without actually saying which one
• I saw her one afternoon last week.

One day (= at some time in the future) you'll understand.

7. the same

• They all went off in one direction.

8. (informal, especially NAmE) used for emphasis instead of a or an
• That was one hell of a game!

• She's one snappy dresser.

9. used with a person's name to show that the speaker does not know the person
Syn:  certain
He worked as an assistant to one Mr Ming.
more at all in one at  all  pron., be in a minority of one at  minority, back to square one at  square  n.  
Word Origin:
Old English ān, of Germanic origin; related to Dutch een and German ein, from an Indo-European root shared by Latin unus. The initial w sound developed before the 15th cent. and was occasionally represented in the spelling; it was not accepted into standard English until the late 17th cent.  
Grammar Point:
one / ones
One/ones is used to avoid repeating a countable noun, but there are some times when you should not use it, especially in formal speech or writing:
After a possessive (my, your, Mary’s, etc.), some, any, both or a number, unless it is used with an adjective: ‘Did you get any postcards?’ ‘Yes, I bought four nice ones.’ ◊ I bought four ones.
It can be left out after superlatives, this, that, these, those, either, neither, another, which, etc: ‘Here are the designs. Which (one) do you prefer?’ ‘I think that (one) looks the most original.’
These ones and those ones are not used in NAmE, and are unusual in BrE: Do you prefer these designs or those?
It is never used to replace uncountable nouns and is unusual with abstract countable nouns: The Scottish legal system is not the same as the English system, is better than …as the English one.

Idioms: as one  at one  for one  get one over somebody  get something in one  go one better  in one  one after the other  one and all  one and only  one and the same  one by one  one for something  one or two  one up  when you've seen/heard one/you've seen/heard them all

Cambridge Advanced Learner's Dictionary

Cambridge Advanced Learner's Dictionary - 4th Edition

one / wʌn / number , determiner (NUMBER)

A1 the number 1:

You've got three bags and I've only got one.

She'll be one year old tomorrow.

Collins COBUILD Advanced Learner’s English Dictionary



 1) NUM One is the number 1.
  They had three sons and one daughter.
  ...one thousand years ago...
  Scotland beat England one-nil at Wembley.
  ...one of the children killed in the crash.
 2) ADJ: det ADJ (emphasis) If you say that someone or something is the one person or thing of a particular kind, you are emphasizing that they are the only person or thing of that kind.
  They had alienated the one man who knew the business...
  His one regret is that he has never learned a language.
 3) DET: DET sing-n (emphasis) One can be used instead of `a' to emphasize the following noun.
  There is one thing I would like to know - What is it about Tim that you find so irresistible?...
  One person I hate is Russ.
 4) DET: DET adj sing-n (emphasis) You can use one instead of `a' to emphasize the following adjective or expression. [INFORMAL]
  If we ever get married we'll have one terrific wedding...
  It's like one enormous street carnival here.
 5) DET: DET n-proper You can use one in front of someone's name to indicate that you have not met them or heard of them before. [FORMAL]
  It seems that the fifth man is one John Cairncross.
  a certain
 6) DET: DET sing-n You can use one to refer to the first of two or more things that you are comparing.
  Prices vary from one shop to another...
  The road hugs the coast for hundreds of miles, the South China Sea on one side, jungle on the other.
 ADJ: det ADJ
 One is also an adjective. We ask why peace should have an apparent chance in the one territory and not the other.
 One is also a pronoun. The twins were dressed differently and one was thinner than the other.
 7) PRON You can use one or ones instead of a noun when it is clear what type of thing or person you are referring to and you are describing them or giving more information about them.
  They are selling their house to move to a smaller one...
  We test each one to see that it flies well.
 8) PRON You use ones to refer to people in general.
  We are the only ones who know.
 9) PRON: PRON of n, PRON that You can use one instead of a noun group when you have just mentioned something and you want to describe it or give more information about it.
  His response is one of anger and frustration...
  The issue of land reform was one that dominated Hungary's parliamentary elections.
 10) DET: DET sing-n You can use one when you have been talking or writing about a group of people or things and you want to say something about a particular member of the group.
  `A college degree isn't enough', said one honors student.
 One is also a pronoun. Some of them couldn't eat a thing. One couldn't even drink.
 11) QUANT: QUANT of adj-superl You use one in expressions such as `one of the biggest airports' or `one of the most experienced players' to indicate that something or someone is bigger or more experienced than most other things or people of the same kind.
  Subaru is one of the smallest Japanese car makers.
 12) DET: DET sing-n You can use one when referring to a time in the past or in the future. For example, if you say that you did something one day, you mean that you did it on a day in the past.
 one daysee day
  How would you like to have dinner one night, just you and me?...
  Then one evening Harry phoned, asking me to come to their flat as soon as possible.
 13) PRON: with supp You can use one to refer to a question, joke, remark, or subject of discussion.
  This is a tricky one to answer...
  Have you heard the one about the Irishman, the Englishman and the American?...
  I told him I'd have to think about that one.
 14) PRON You can use one to refer to an alcoholic drink. [INFORMAL]
  Other members of the committee drifted in for a quick one before closing time.
 15) PRON You use one to make statements about people in general which also apply to themselves. One can be used as the subject or object of a sentence. [FORMAL]
  If one looks at the longer run, a lot of positive things are happening...
  Where does one go from there?...
  Shares and bonds can bring one quite a considerable additional income.
 16) PHRASE: PHR after v If a group of people does something as one, all the people do the same thing at the same time or in the same way. [WRITTEN]
  The 40,000 crowd rose as one.
 17) PHRASE: oft with brd-neg, v-link PHR n/-ing If you say that someone is one for or is a one for something, you mean that they like or approve of it or enjoy doing it.
  I'm not one for political discussions...
  She was a real one for flirting with the boys.
 18) PHRASE: PHR before v (emphasis) You can use for one to emphasize that a particular person is definitely reacting or behaving in a particular way, even if other people are not.
  I, for one, hope you don't get the job.
 19) PHRASE: usu PHR pl-n (emphasis) You can use expressions such as a hundred and one, a thousand and one, and a million and one to emphasize that you are talking about a large number of things or people.
  There are a hundred and one ways in which you can raise money.
 20) PHRASE: pl-n PHR, PHR after v You can use in one to indicate that something is a single unit, but is made up of several different parts or has several different functions.
  ...a love story and an adventure all in one...
  This cream moisturises and repairs in one.
 21) PHRASE: PHR with cl You can use in ones and twos to indicate that people do things or something happens gradually and in small groups.
  They lose interest and start drifting away in ones and twos.
 22) PHRASE: PHR with cl You use one after the other or one after another to say that actions or events happen with very little time between them.
  My three guitars broke one after the other...
  One after another, people described how hard it is for them to get medical care.
 23) PHRASE: PHR n-proper The one and only can be used in front of the name of an actor, singer, or other famous person when they are being introduced on a show.
  ...one of the greatest ever rock performers, the one and only Tina Turner.
 24) PHRASE: PHR with cl You can use one by one to indicate that people do things or that things happen in sequence, not all at the same time.
  We went into the room one by one...
  One by one the houses burst into flames.
 25) PHRASE: usu PHR of pl-n You use one or other to refer to one or more things or people in a group, when it does not matter which particular one or ones are thought of or chosen.
  One or other of the two women was wrong.
 26) PHRASE: oft PHR pl-n, PHR of pl-n One or two means a few.
  We may make one or two changes...
  I've also sold one or two to an American publisher...
  I asked one or two of the stallholders about it.
  a few
 27) PHRASE: PHR to-inf, usu v-link PHR If you say that someone is not one to do something, you think that it is very unlikely that they would do it because it is not their normal behaviour.
  I'm not one to waste time on just anyone.
 28) PHRASE: PHR n, usu v-link PHR, PHR after v If you try to get one up on someone, you try to gain an advantage over them.
  ...the competitive kind who will see this as the opportunity to be one up on you.

Merriam-Webster's Advanced Learner's Dictionary

Merriam-Webster's Advanced Learner's Dictionary: 

1one /ˈwʌn/ noun, pl ones
1 [count] : the number 1
one, two, three, four, …
2 [count] US : a one-dollar bill
• I don't have any ones. Can you break a five?
3 [noncount] : one o'clock
• I'll be there at one.
4 [count] : the first in a set or series
• On day one of his diet, he cut out sweets.
• She wears a size one.
as one formal
1 : at the same time : all together
• They rose as one and cheered her.
2 : in agreement with each other
• We are as one on this issue.
at one with
1 : in a peaceful state as a part of something else
• I feel at one with nature. [=I feel very closely connected to nature]
2 formal : in a state of agreement with another person
• I am at one with you on this issue.
for one : as an example
• I, for one, disagree. [=I disagree]
• There were many spelling mistakes in the essay. “There” for “their,” for one.
in one : combined in a single thing
• a dictionary and thesaurus (all) in one
• a DVD and VCR player in one
the odd one out
- see 1odd


sun [noun]

The star that the Earth moves around, which provides light and heat for the Earth, or the light or heat that the Earth receives from this star:

US /sʌn/ 
UK /sʌn/ 



The sun rises in the east and sets in the west.

Oxford Essential Dictionary


 noun (no plural)

1 the sun

The word sun sounds just like son.

the big round object in the sky that gives us light in the day, and heat:
The sun is shining.

2 light and heat from the sun:
We sat in the sun all morning.


Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English


I. sun1 S2 W1 /sʌn/ BrE AmE noun
[Language: Old English; Origin: sunne]
1. the sun/the Sun the large bright object in the sky that gives us light and heat, and around which the Earth moves ⇨ solar:
The sky was blue and the sun was shining.
2. [uncountable] the heat and light that come from the sun ⇨ sunny:
Too much sun is bad for you.
in the sun
We sat in the sun, eating ice cream.
the warmth of the afternoon sun
3. [countable] any star around which ↑planets move
4. everything/anything etc under the sun used to emphasize that you are talking about a large range of things:
You can buy jeans in every colour under the sun.
5. catch the sun British English, get some sun American English if someone catches or gets the sun, they become slightly red or brown because they have been outside in the sun
make hay while the sun shines at ↑hay(2)
• • •
COLLOCATIONS (for Meanings 1 & 2)
■ verbs
the sun shines When I woke, the sun was shining.
the sun beats down/blazes down (=shines with a lot of light and heat) The sun beats down on us as we work.
the sun comes out (=appears when cloud moves away) The rain stopped and the sun came out.
the sun rises/comes up (=appears at the beginning of the day) As the sun rises, the birds take flight.
the sun sets/goes down (=disappears at the end of the day) It is a good place to sit and watch the sun go down.
the sun sinks (=gradually disappears at the end of the day) The sun sank lower and the breeze grew cool.
the hot/warm sun The hot sun beat down on the men working.
the blazing/burning sun Tourists trudge around in the blazing sun.
a bright sun It was a warm day with a bright sun overhead.
the morning/afternoon/evening sun We ate breakfast outside in the gentle morning sun.
the midday/noonday sun They all sought shade from the blazing midday sun.
the rising/setting sun (=the sun as it appears/disappears) The fields were ablaze with light from the setting sun.
■ phrases
the sun is high/low in the sky They walked until the sun was low in the sky.
■ nouns
the sun’s rays This moisturiser will also protect skin from the sun’s rays.
• • •
■ in the sky
star a large ball of burning gas in space, which can be seen at night as a point of light in the sky: The dark night sky was clear and full of stars.
planet one of the large objects that goes around the sun, for example the Earth, Saturn, Mercury, or Mars: The planet Uranus was discovered in 1781.
sun the star that gives us light and heat, around which the planets move. There are also many millions of other suns in the universe: The sun came out from behind a cloud. | a dying sun
moon the round object that moves around the Earth every 28 days, or a similar object that goes around another planet: The moon rose in the night sky. | Titan is one of the moons of Saturn.
asteroid a mass of rock that moves around the sun. Most asteroids are found between Jupiter and Mars: the asteroid belt
pulsar a type of star that is far away in space and produces ↑radiation and RADIO WAVES
quasar an object like a star that is far away in space and shines extremely brightly
supernova a very large exploding star
constellation a group of stars that forms a particular pattern and has a name: The constellation of Orion is one of the most easily recognizable patterns of stars in the night sky.
galaxy one of the large groups of stars that make up the universe: Astronomers have detected a galaxy 11 billion light years away.
the universe all space, including all the stars and planets: How many planets in the universe have life?
II. sun2 BrE AmE verb (past tense and past participle sunned, present participle sunning)
sun yourself to sit or lie outside when the sun is shining ⇨ sunbathe:
The beaches were full of families sunning themselves.

Oxford Advanced Learner's Dictionary


sun [sun suns sunned sunning] noun, verb   [sʌn]    [sʌn]

1. the sun, the Sun singular the star that shines in the sky during the day and gives the earth heat and light
the sun's rays
the rising/setting sun
The sun was shining and birds were singing.
• The sun was just setting.

• A pale wintry sun shone through the clouds.

2. (usually the sun) singular, uncountable the light and heat from the sun
Syn:  sunshine
the warmth of the afternoon sun
This room gets the sun in the mornings.
We sat in the sun.
The sun was blazing hot.
Too much sun ages the skin.
We did our best to keep out of the sun.
They've booked a holiday in the sun (= in a place where it is warm and the sun shines a lot).
Her face had obviously caught the sun (= become red or brown) on holiday.
I was driving westwards and I had the sun in my eyes (= the sun was shining in my eyes).

see also  sunny

3. countable (technical) any star around which planets move
more at make hay while the sun shines at  hay, a place in the sun at  place  n.  
Word Origin:
Old English sunne, of Germanic origin; related to Dutch zon and German Sonne, from an Indo-European root shared by Greek hēlios and Latin sol.  
The weather
Good weather
be bathed in/bask in/be blessed with/enjoy bright/brilliant/glorious sunshine
the sun shines/warms sth/beats down (on sth)
the sunshine breaks/streams through sth
fluffy/wispy clouds drift across the sky
a gentle/light/stiff/cool/warm/sea breeze blows in/comes in off the sea
the snow crunches beneath/under sb's feet/boots
Bad weather
thick/dark/storm clouds form/gather/roll in/cover the sky/block out the sun
the sky darkens/turns black
a fine mist hangs in the air
a dense/heavy/thick fog rolls in
the rain falls/comes down (in buckets/sheets)/pours down
snow falls/comes down/covers sth
the wind blows/whistles/howls/picks up/whips through sth/sweeps across sth
strong/gale-force winds blow/gust (up to 80 mph)
a storm is approaching/is moving inland/hits/strikes/rages
thunder rolls/rumbles/sounds
(forked/sheet) lightning strikes/hits/flashes
a (blinding/snow) blizzard hits/strikes/blows/rages
a tornado touches down/hits/strikes/destroys sth/rips through sth
forecast/expect/predict rain/snow/a category-four hurricane
(NAmE) pour (down)/ (BrE) pour (down) with rain
get caught in/seek shelter from/escape the rain
be covered/shrouded in mist/a blanket of fog
be in for/brave/shelter from a/the storm
hear rolling/distant thunder
be battered/buffeted by strong winds
(BrE) be blowing a gale
battle against/brave the elements
The weather improves
the sun breaks through the clouds
the sky clears/brightens (up)/lightens (up)
the clouds part/clear
the rain stops/lets up/holds off
the wind dies down
the storm passes
the mist/fog lifts/clears  
Example Bank:
Don't sit in the sun too long.
He was enjoying the feel of the sun on his back.
It was getting cooler as the sun sank below the horizon.
Just then, a watery sun broke through the clouds.
On children, use a cream with a high sun protection factor.
The clouds darkened, obliterating the sun.
The distant mountains glowed in the light of the setting sun.
The evening sun slanted through the window.
The helmets were glinting in the sun.
The north side of the garden never gets any sun.
The setting sun cast long shadows over the landscape.
The sun caught her dazzling copper hair.
The sun climbed higher in the sky.
The sun glinted on the blades.
The sun moved slowly westward.
The sun reflected off the water.
The sun rises in the east.
The sun sets in the west.
The sun struck the steep blue slates of the roof.
The sun warmed his face.
The sun was up now, and strong.
The sun went in and it started to rain.
The wintry sun was already low in the sky.
There is nothing new under the sun.
They call Norway the land of the midnight sun.
This plant likes a dryish soil in full sun.
Try to avoid prolonged exposure to the sun.
Venus orbits the Sun in just under one Earth year.
We did our best to keep out of the sun.
We had discussions about everything under the sun.
We went out into the sun.
We were lying by the pool, soaking up the afternoon sun.
We've booked a holiday in the sun.
You've caught the sun.
an afternoon of lazing under the warm sun
with the sun in her eyes
wrinkles caused by sun damage
Her face had obviously caught the sun.
They're having a winter break in the sun.
• We sat in the warmth of the afternoon sun.

Idioms: under the sun  with the sun 

Cambridge Advanced Learner's Dictionary

Cambridge Advanced Learner's Dictionary - 4th Edition

sun / sʌn / noun [ S or U ]

A1 the star that the Earth moves around, which provides light and heat for the Earth, or the light or heat that the Earth receives from this star:

The sun rises in the east and sets in the west.

The sun's rays are at their most powerful at midday.

I think I've had a bit too much sun today - I've got a headache.

Shall we go and sit out in the sun?

We thought we'd go out for a walk while the sun was shining .

© Cambridge University Press 2013

Collins COBUILD Advanced Learner’s English Dictionary


 suns, sunning, sunned

 1) N-SING: usu the N The sun is the ball of fire in the sky that the Earth goes round, and that gives us heat and light.
  The sun was now high in the southern sky...
  The sun came out, briefly.
  ...the sun's rays...
  The sun was shining.
 2) N-UNCOUNT: usu the N You refer to the light and heat that reach us from the sun as the sun.
  Dena took them into the courtyard to sit in the sun...
  They were trying to soak up some sun.
 3) VERB: usu cont If you are sunning yourself, you are sitting or lying in a place where the sun is shining on you.
  [V pron-refl] She was last seen sunning herself in a riverside park.
 4) N-COUNT A sun is any star which has planets going around it.
 5) PHRASE: PHR after v Everything under the sun means a very great number of things. Anything under the sun means anything at all.
 a place in the sunsee place
  We sat there for hours talking about everything under the sun...
  The fashion-conscious will go for anything under the sun!

Merriam-Webster's Advanced Learner's Dictionary

Merriam-Webster's Advanced Learner's Dictionary: 

1sun /ˈsʌn/ noun, pl suns
1 a the sun also the Sun : the star that the Earth moves around and that gives the Earth heat and light
• The rain has stopped and the sun is shining.
The sun rises in the east and sets in the west.
the rising/setting sun
• the warmth of the sun's rays
b [count] : any star that has planets which move around it
• They dream of traveling to distant suns.
2 [noncount] : the heat or light produced by the sun : sunshine or sunlight
• The plant needs full sun. [=it should not be in the shade]
• Try to keep out of the sun.
• The cat lay basking in the sun.
• I couldn't see because the sun was in my eyes. [=the bright light of the sun was shining directly in my eyes]
• We went to the beach to get/catch some sun. [=to spend time in the sunlight]
in the sun
✦If someone or something has a day/moment/time, etc., in the sun, that person or thing is popular or gets a lot of attention during a period of time.
• Organic foods are having their moment in the sun.
• The singer is still waiting for his day in the sun.
make hay (while the sun shines)
- see hay
place in the sun : a very good, successful, or desirable position
• After years of struggling as an unknown actor, he has finally found his/a place in the sun.
under the sun : in the world - used to emphasize the large number of things that are being mentioned
• There is nothing under the sun [=nothing at all] that we cannot do.
• We talked about everything under the sun.
• She called me every name under the sun.


leave [verb] (GO AWAY)

to go away from someone or something, for a short time or permanently

US /liːv/ 
UK /liːv/ 

ترک کردن


I'll be leaving at five o'clock tomorrow.

Oxford Essential Dictionary

 verb (leaves, leaving, left /, has left)

1 to go away from a place or a person:
The train leaves at 8.40.
At what age do most people leave school in your country?
We are leaving for France tomorrow.

2 to let somebody or something stay in the same place or in the same way:
Leave the door open, please.

3 to forget to bring something with you:
I left my books at home.
I can't find my glasses. Maybe I left them behind at work.

4 to make something stay; to not use something:
Leave some cake for me!

5 to give something to somebody when you die:
She left all her money to her two sons.

6 to give the responsibility for something to another person:
I'll leave it to you to organize the food.

be left to still be there after everything else has gone:
There is only one piece of cake left.

leave somebody or something alone to not touch, annoy or speak to somebody or something:
Leave me alone – I'm busy!
Leave that bag alone – it's mine!

leave somebody or something out to not put in or do something; to not include somebody or something:
The other children left him out of the game.
I left out question 3 in the exam because it was too difficult.

Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English


I. leave1 S1 W1 /liːv/ BrE AmE verb (past tense and past participle left /left/)
[Language: Old English; Origin: læfan]
1. GO AWAY [intransitive and transitive] to go away from a place or a person:
My baby gets upset when I leave the room.
Before leaving the train, make sure you have all your belongings with you.
Leave the motorway at Junction 7.
leave at
The plane leaves at 12.30.
leave for
I tried calling him, but he’d already left for work.
leave (something/somebody) soon/now/later etc
If he left immediately, he’d catch the 7.30 train.
leave (something/somebody) to do something
Frances left work early to meet her mother.
leave somebody doing something
Never leave children playing near water unattended.
leave somebody to something
I’ll leave you to it (=go away and let you continue with what you are doing).
My youngest boy has not left my side (=has stayed near me) since his daddy was killed.
leave somebody in peace (=go away from someone so that they can think, work etc alone)
Just a few more questions, then we’ll leave you in peace.
2. STOP [intransitive and transitive] if you leave your job, home, school etc, you permanently stop doing that job, living at home etc:
Over the past two years, 20 staffers have left.
leave home/school/college etc
How old were you when you left home (=your parents’ home)?
My daughter got a job after she left school.
The lawsuit will be postponed until the president leaves office.
leave a job/country/Spain etc
Many missionaries were forced to leave the country.
It seems that Tony has left the band for good (=permanently).
leave (somebody/something) to do something
Laura left her native England to live in France.
3. leave somebody/something alone
a) to stop annoying or upsetting someone:
Oh, just leave me alone, will you?
Leave the boy alone, he can make up his own mind.
b) to go away from someone so that they are on their own:
Six-year-old Gemma had been left alone in the house.
c) to stop touching something:
Leave that alone. You’ll break it.
d) (also leave well (enough) alone) to stop being involved in or trying to change a situation:
Why can’t they just leave well alone and let us concentrate on teaching?
4. LET SOMETHING/SOMEBODY STAY [transitive always + adverb/preposition] to make or allow something or someone to stay in a place when you go away
leave something/somebody in/with/behind etc
Are you leaving the kids with Grandma on Saturday?
As soon as I’d shut the door, I realized I’d left the keys inside.
Did anybody leave a jacket behind last night?
She left her son in the care of a friend.
leave somebody to do something
He left Ruth to find her own way home.
Students were left to their own devices (=left alone and allowed to do whatever they wanted) for long periods.
leave somebody for dead
The girl had been attacked and left for dead.
5. NOT CHANGE/MOVE SOMETHING [transitive] to let something remain in a particular state, position, or condition
leave something on/off/out etc
You’ve left your lights on.
She must have left the phone off the hook.
leave something open/empty/untidy etc
I wish you’d stop leaving the door open.
The trial left many questions unanswered.
leave a space/gap etc
Leave the next two lines blank for the tutor’s comments.
Drivers should always leave room for cyclists.
leave something doing something
I’ll just leave the engine running while I go in.
Don’t leave tools lying about.
leave something to do something
Leave the pots to soak overnight.
6. RESULT OF ACCIDENT/ILLNESS/EVENT [transitive] if an event, accident, illness etc leaves you in a particular condition, you are in that condition because of it:
An explosion at a chemical plant has left one worker dead and four injured.
leave somebody with something
Although the infection cleared up, he was left with a persistent cough.
leave somebody doing something
The incident left her feeling confused and hurt.
The announcement has left shareholders nursing huge losses.
7. be left (also have something left) if something is left, it remains after everything else has gone, been taken away, or used:
I’ve only got a few dollars left.
There were a couple of seats left at the back.
We don’t have much time left.
He pointed to what was left of the house (=used when very little is left).
All that was left was a pile of bones.
be left over
After we’ve paid the bills, there’s never much left over.
They ate some bread rolls left over from the night before.
8. LETTER/MESSAGE/THING [transitive] to deliver a message, note, package etc for someone or put it somewhere so that they will get it later:
She left a message on his answerphone.
leave somebody something
Can you leave me some money for the bus?
leave something with somebody
Ian left this note with me.
leave something for somebody
A guy left these flowers for you.
9. DELAY [transitive] to not do something or to do it later than you intended:
Leave the dishes. I’ll do them later.
So much had been left undone.
leave something until the last minute/until last
If you leave your preparation until the last minute, you’ll reduce your chances of passing.
I left the best bit until last.
I want to think about it. Can I leave it for now?
I’m afraid you’ve left it too late to change your ticket.
leave it at that (=used to say that you will not do any more of something, because you have done enough)
Let’s leave it at that for today.
10. LET SOMEBODY DECIDE/BE RESPONSIBLE [transitive] to let someone else decide something or be responsible for something
leave something to somebody
Leave it to me. I’ll make sure it gets posted.
The choice of specialist subject is left entirely to the students.
leave it (up) to somebody to do something
I’ll leave it up to you to decide.
She leaves it to the reader to draw their own conclusions.
leave doing something to somebody
Is it okay if I leave writing the results to you?
leave something with somebody
Leave it with me, I’ll fix it for you.
He’s not the sort to leave things to chance (=take no action and just wait to see what happens).
leave somebody with no choice/option (=force someone to take a particular action)
You leave me with no choice but to fire you.
leave somebody to do something British English:
Clive moved to London, leaving Edward to run the Manchester office.
11. HUSBAND/WIFE ETC [intransitive and transitive] to stop living with or having a relationship with your husband, partner etc:
Martha was always threatening to leave, but I never believed her.
leave somebody for somebody
Mr Rushworth left his partner of 10 years for a younger woman.
12. WHEN YOU DIE [transitive]
a) to arrange for someone to receive your money, property etc after you die SYN bequeath:
Aunt Alice died, leaving almost $5 million.
leave somebody something
Hugo left me his mother’s ring.
In his will, he had left all his children a small sum of money.
leave something to somebody/something
Have you thought of leaving a gift to charity after you die?
b) leave a wife/children etc used when someone dies before their wife, children etc:
PC Davis leaves a wife and three small children.
13. MARK [transitive] to make a mark that remains afterwards
leave a mark/stain/scar etc
The wine had left a permanent mark on the tablecloth.
He staggered to the door, leaving a trail of blood.
Make sure that you don’t leave any footprints.
14. NOT EAT/DRINK [transitive] if you leave food or drink that you have been given, you do not eat or drink it:
‘I’m really hungry now.’ ‘That’s because you left half your lunch.’
He rose from the table, leaving his brandy untouched.
15. leave somebody/something standing (also leave somebody/something in the dust American English) informal to be much better, quicker, more successful etc than someone or something else:
In terms of fitness, he discovered that Kate left him standing.
16. leave a lot/something/much to be desired to be very unsatisfactory:
Inspectors say health and safety procedures at the factory leave a lot to be desired.
17. MATHEMATICS [transitive] in a sum, to have a particular amount remaining:
Three from seven leaves four.
18. leave something aside/to one side to not think about or consider one part of something for a time, so that you can consider another part of it:
Leaving aside for a moment the question of expense, what would your view be of the suggested changes?
19. leave somebody/something be old-fashioned to not upset, speak to, or annoy someone or to not touch something
20. leave go/hold of something British English spoken informal to stop holding something
21. leave it to somebody (to do something) American English spoken informal used to say that no one should be surprised that someone does something, because it is typical or expected of them:
Leave it to you to have the whole day planned out!
22. Elvis/somebody/something has left the building especially American English informal used humorously to emphasize that something is definitely over or that someone has gone and will not return
somebody can take it or leave it at ↑take1(21), ⇨ be left holding the baby/bag at ↑hold1(26)
• • •
■ to leave a place
leave: Just as I was leaving the house, the phone rang. | We left early to avoid the traffic.
go especially spoken to leave somewhere: Come on, boys, it’s time to go. | When does the next bus go?
set off especially British English to leave somewhere and begin a journey: The following day we set off for Vienna.
take off if a plane takes off, it leaves the ground at the beginning of a flight: Our plane took off late because of the fog.
emigrate to leave your own country in order to live permanently in another country: In 2002, his family emigrated to New Zealand.
depart formal to leave – used especially about trains, buses, planes etc: Coaches depart for the airport every 30 minutes.
■ to leave school/college etc
leave especially British English to finish studying at school or college, usually at the age or time when people normally finish: When James left school, he worked for a while with his father. | She found it hard to get a job after leaving university.
graduate to successfully finish your studies at a college or university, or at an American high school: Kelly graduated from Harvard with a degree in East Asian Studies. | Approximately 80% of Americans graduate from high school.
drop out to leave school, college, or university before your course of study has finished, because you do not want to continue with it: I failed my first year exams and decided to drop out and get a job.
quit American English to leave school without finishing your course of study: He quit school at fourteen to work and help support his family.
■ leave your job
leave: I left my last job because the salary was so low. | Why don’t you just leave?
quit to leave your job permanently because you are not happy with it: After enduring months of harassment, Mrs Collins decided to quit her job. | I’ve told them I’m quitting.
resign to officially announce that you have decided to leave your job: The company director was forced to resign over the scandal.
hand in your notice/resignation to write an official letter to your employer saying that you are going to leave your job on a particular date: You have to hand in your notice at least four weeks before you leave.
retire to leave your job in order to stop working permanently, usually because you have reached the age when most people stop working: After forty years of working for the bank, Karl retired in May. | He had to retire because of ill health.
leave somebody/something ↔ behind phrasal verb
1. to not take someone or something with you when you leave a place:
I think I might have left my wallet behind.
He departed for Washington, leaving the children behind with their mother.
2. if a person, country, or organization is left behind, they do not develop as quickly or make as much progress as other people, countries etc:
In class, a child with poor eyesight can soon get left behind.
a fear of being left behind by better-organized rivals
3. (also leave somebody/something behind you) to permanently stop being involved with a person, place or situation:
It’s time to leave the past behind.
Although Armstrong overcame the circumstances of his birth, he never really left New Orleans behind.
4. (also leave somebody/something behind you) to move away from someone or something:
They had left the city behind and were heading into open country.
Sarah, with her long legs, soon left the rest of us far behind.
5. (also leave something behind you) to produce a thing or situation that remains after you have gone:
He drove off, leaving behind him a trail of blue smoke.
the mess the previous government left behind
leave off phrasal verb
1. to stop doing something
take up/pick up/continue (something) etc where somebody left off (=continue something that has stopped for a short time)
Barry took up the story where Justine had left off.
leave off doing something British English informal:
‘Will you leave off nagging?’ he snarled.
2. leave somebody/something off (something) to not include something such as someone’s name in a list or other document:
Why was her name left off the list?
leave somebody/something ↔ out phrasal verb
1. to not include someone or something:
She outlined the case to him, being careful not to leave anything out.
leave somebody/something out of something
Kidd has been left out of the team.
2. be/feel left out to feel that you are not accepted or welcome in a situation:
New fathers often feel left out when baby arrives.
3. leave it out! British English spoken used to tell someone to stop lying, pretending, or being annoying

Oxford Advanced Learner's Dictionary


leave [leave leaves left leaving] verb, noun   [liːv]    [liːv] 


verb (left, left   [left]  ;   [left]  

1. intransitive, transitive to go away from a person or a place
Come on, it's time we left.
~ for… The plane leaves for Dallas at 12.35.
~ sth I hate leaving home.

• The plane leaves Heathrow at 12.35.  


2. intransitive, transitive to stop living at a place, belonging to a group, working for an employer, etc
• My secretary has threatened to leave.

~ sth (BrE) Some children leave school at 16.  


3. transitive ~ sb (for sb) to leave your wife, husband or partner permanently

• She's leaving him for another man.  


4. transitive to not do sth or deal with sth immediately
~ sth Leave the dishes— I'll do them later.

~ sth until… Why do you always leave everything until the last moment?  


5. transitive to make or allow sb/sth to remain in a particular condition, place, etc
~ sb/sth (+ adj.) Leave the door open, please.
The bomb blast left 25 people dead.
~ sb/sth doing sth Don't leave her waiting outside in the rain.

~ sb/sth to do sth Leave the rice to cook for 20 minutes.

6. transitive to make sth happen or remain as a result
~ sth Red wine leaves a stain.
~ sb with sth She left me with the impression that she was unhappy with her job.

~ sb sth I'm afraid you leave me no choice.

7. be left transitive to remain to be used, sold, etc
Is there any coffee left?
How many tickets do you have left?
~ of sth (figurative) They are fighting to save what is left of their business.

~ to sb The only course of action left to me was to notify her employer.

8. transitive to go away from a place without taking sth/sb with you
~ sth/sb (+ adv./prep.) I've left my bag on the bus.
~ sth/sb behind Don't leave any of your belongings behind.

• He wasn't well, so we had to leave him behind.  


9. transitive ~ sth to have a particular amount remaining

• Seven from ten leaves three.  


10. transitive ~ sb to have family remaining after your death

• He leaves a wife and two children.

11. transitive to give sth to sb when you die
Syn:  bequeath
~ sth (to sb) She left £1 million to her daughter.

~ sb sth She left her daughter £1 million.  


12. transitive to allow sb to take care of sth
~ sb/sth + adv./prep. You can leave the cooking to me.
She left her assistant in charge.
Leave it with me — I'm sure I can sort it out.
‘Where shall we eat?’ ‘I'll leave it entirely (up) to you (= you can decide).’
• They left me with all the clearing up.

~ sb/sth to do sth I was left to cope on my own.  


13. transitive to deliver sth and then go away
~ sth (for sb) Someone left this note for you.

~ sb sth Someone left you this note.

Rem: Most idioms containing leave are at the entries for the nouns and adjectives in the idioms, for example leave sb in the lurch is at lurch.
more at sb can take it or leave it at  take 
Word Origin:
v. Old English lǣfan ‘bequeath’ ‘allow to remain, leave in place’ Germanic German bleiben ‘remain’
n. Old English lēaf ‘permission’ West Germanic lief love
leave verb
1. I, T
Come on— it's time we left.
gogo awayget awaygo offset offtake offstart|especially BrE be/go on your way|especially BrE, spoken be off|especially AmE, spoken get out of here|formal departexit
Opp: arrive, Opp: enter
leave/go/go away/get away/set off/take off/start/depart/exit from sb/sth
leave/go/go away/get away/go off/set off/take off/start/be on your way/depart at 9 a.m./midnight, etc.
be ready/about/going to leave/go/go away/set off/take off/start/depart
Leave or go away? Leave is used in ways that emphasize the act or time of leaving sb/sth; go away emphasizes the need or desire of the speaker to be somewhere else or for another person to be somewhere else.
2. T, I
Villagers left to seek work in the towns.
movemove outquitrelocateemigratemigrate
Opp: stay on
move/move out/relocate/emigrate/migrate from to
leave/quit your home/school/college/job
threaten to leave/move out/quit
decide/plan/want to leave/move/move out/quit/relocate/emigrate
3. I, T
Workers are threatening to leave.
resigngive in/hand in your noticeretirestep downstand down|informal quit|AmE business depart
Opp: stay on
leave/resign from/reitre from/step down from/stand down from/quit/depart a post/position
decide to leave/resign/hand in your notice/retire/step down/stand down/quit
be ready/going to leave/resign/retire/step down/stand down/quit
4. T
She's leaving him for another man.
abandondesertstrandturn your back on sb/sthneglect|informal dumpwalk out (on sb)
leave/desert/dump sb for sb else
leave/abandon/desert/neglect/dump/walk out on a husband/wife
leave/abandon/desert/dump a lover
abandon/desert/neglect a child
5. T
I left my bag on the bus.
loseforget|especially BrE, formal mislay
leave/lose/forget/mislay your keys/wallet/bag
6. T
She left £1 million to her daughter in her will.
pass sth on|formal bequeath
leave/pass on/bequeath sth to sb
leave/pass on/bequeath a/an legacy/property/estate
leave/bequeath (sb) your money/art collection
7. T
Leave the cooking to me.
hand sth overrefer sb/sth to sb/sthdelegate|especially AmE turn sth over to sb|formal entrust
leave/hand over/turn over/refer/delegate/entrust sth to sb
leave/entrust sb with sth
leave/hand over/turn over/delegate the task/job/responsibility/management of sth to sb 
Example Bank:
Did you want something? I was just about to leave.
I wanted to leave but they wouldn't let me.
They left for Scotland this morning.
They were being extremely rowdy and the manager had to ask them leave.
They were caught trying to leave the country.
We were all packed and ready to leave.
Are you ready to leave yet?
Come on— it's time we left.
Don't leave any of your belongings behind.
He had left the organization some years before.
He wasn't well, so we had to leave him behind.
Hundreds of villagers have already left to seek work in the towns.
I leave it to you to decide what order to do things in.
I left my bag on the bus.
I worked in Hong Kong after I left university.
I've left my phone somewhere but I can't remember where.
If we leave now, we should make it in time.
John says he left the restaurant at around midnight.
Leave it with me — I'm sure I can sort it out.
My assistant is threatening to leave.
She claims she was forced to leave her job after she became pregnant.
She left school at 14 with no qualifications.
She refused to leave until she had talked to an officer.
She's leaving him for another man.
The family had left in a hurry, leaving all their belongings behind.
They got into an argument and were asked to leave.
Too many teachers are leaving the profession for higher-paid jobs.
Idioms: by your leave  leave go  leave it at that  leave it out  take leave  take leave of your senses  without a by your leave; without so much as a by your leave

Derived: leave off  leave somebody behind  leave somebody off  leave somebody out  leave something aside  left over 

Cambridge Advanced Learner's Dictionary

Cambridge Advanced Learner's Dictionary - 4th Edition

leave / liːv / verb [ I or T ] ( left , left ) (GO AWAY)

A1 to go away from someone or something, for a short time or permanently:

I'll be leaving at five o'clock tomorrow.

He left the house by the back door.

She left the group of people she was with and came over to speak to us.

The bus leaves in five minutes.

leave / liːv / verb [ T ] ( left , left ) (NOT TAKE)

A2 to not take something or someone with you when you go, either intentionally or by accident:

Hey, you've left your keys on the table.

Can I leave a message for Sue?

Why don't you leave the kids with me on Friday?

leave / liːv / verb ( left , left ) (REMAIN)

A2 If something leaves something else, a part or effect of it stays after it has gone or been used:

His shoes left muddy marks on the floor.

[ + two objects ] If I give you £10 that won't leave me enough cash to pay the bill.

[ + obj + adj ] Far from improving things the new law has left many people worse off (= they are now in a worse situation) than before.

B2 [ T ] If you leave something in a particular condition you do not touch it, move it, or act to change it in any way, so that it stays in the same condition:

Leave that chair where it is.

He left most of his dinner (= did not eat much of it) .

[ + obj + adj ] The family were left (= became and continued to be) homeless.

I'll have to go back - I think I've left the iron on.

You can leave the window open.

Leave your sister alone (= stop annoying her) .

C1 [ T + obj + -ing verb ] If you leave something or someone doing something, when you go away they are still doing it:

I left the children watch ing television.

He left the engine runn ing .

leave / liːv / verb [ T ] ( left , left ) (NOT USE ALL)

A2 to not eat or use all of something:

They'd eaten all the cake, but they'd left some sandwiches.

Are there any cookies left?

There's some food left over from the party.

Make sure you leave enough hot water for the rest of us.

leave / liːv / verb [ T ] ( left , left ) (STOP)

A1 to stop doing something, or to leave a place because you have finished an activity:

Many children leave school at 16.

He left work in June for health reasons.

She left home (= stopped living with her parents) at 18.

Could we leave that subject (= stop discussing that subject) for the moment and go on to the next item on the agenda?

leave / liːv / verb [ T ] ( left , left ) (END RELATIONSHIP)

B1 to end a relationship with a husband, wife, or partner and stop living with them :

I'll never leave you.

She left her husband for a younger man.

leave / liːv / verb [ T ] ( left , left ) (WAIT)

C2 If you leave (doing) something, you wait before you do it:

I'll leave these letters till Monday (= write them on Monday) .

Don't leave it too late (= don't wait too long to do it) .

[ + -ing verb ] They left book ing their holiday till/to the last minute.

leave / liːv / verb ( left , left ) (AFTER DEATH)

[ T ] To leave a wife, husband, or other close family member is to die while these family members are still alive:

He left a wife and two children.

C2 [ + two objects ] If you leave money or things that you own to someone, you say they should receive it or them when you die:

He left his nieces all his money./He left all his money to his nieces.

leave / liːv / verb [ T ] ( left , left ) (GIVE RESPONSIBILITY)

to allow someone to make a choice or decision about something, or to make someone responsible for something:

I left the decision (up) to her.

[ + to infinitive ] I left it to her to make the decision.

Leave it (= the problem) with me, I'll see what I can do.

I'll leave it to chance (= wait and see what happens without planning) .

Collins COBUILD Advanced Learner’s English Dictionary


 leaves, leaving, left

 1) VERB If you leave a place or person, you go away from that place or person.
  [V n] He would not be allowed to leave the country...
  [V n] I simply couldn't bear to leave my little girl...
  My flight leaves in less than an hour...
  [V for n] The last of the older children had left for school.
 2) VERB If you leave an institution, group, or job, you permanently stop attending that institution, being a member of that group, or doing that job.
  [V n] He left school with no qualifications...
  I am leaving to concentrate on writing fiction.
  [V-ing] ...a leaving present.
 3) VERB If you leave your husband, wife, or some other person with whom you have had a close relationship, you stop living with them or you finish the relationship.
  [V n] He'll never leave you. You need have no worry...
  [V n for n] I would be insanely jealous if Bill left me for another woman. [Also V]
 4) VERB If you leave something or someone in a particular place, you let them remain there when you go away. If you leave something or someone with a person, you let them remain with that person so they are safe while you are away.
  [V n prep/adv] I left my bags in the car...
  [V n prep/adv] Don't leave your truck there...
  [V n prep/adv] From the moment that Philippe had left her in the bedroom at the hotel, she had heard nothing of him...
  [V n with n] Leave your key with a neighbour in case you lock yourself out one day.
 5) VERB If you leave a message or an answer, you write it, record it, or give it to someone so that it can be found or passed on.
  [V n prep/adv] You can leave a message on our answering machine...
  [V n] Decide whether the ball is in square A, B, C, or D, then call and leave your answer...
  [V n with n] I left my phone number with several people.
 6) VERB If you leave someone doing something, they are doing that thing when you go away from them.
  [V n -ing] Salter drove off, leaving Callendar surveying the scene.
 7) VERB If you leave someone to do something, you go away from them so that they do it on their own. If you leave someone to himself or herself, you go away from them and allow them to be alone.
  [V n to-inf] I'd better leave you to get on with it, then...
  [V n to it] Diana took the hint and left them to it...
  [be V-ed to pron-refl] One of the advantages of a department store is that you are left to yourself to try things on...
  [V n to n] He quietly slipped away and left me to my tears. [Also V n to pron-refl]
 8) VERB To leave an amount of something means to keep it available after the rest has been used or taken away.
  [V n for n] He always left a little food for the next day...
  [V n n] Double rooms at any of the following hotels should leave you some change from ₤150.
 9) VERB If you take one number away from another, you can say that it leaves the number that remains. For example, five take away two leaves three.
 10) VERB To leave someone with something, especially when that thing is unpleasant or difficult to deal with, means to make them have it or make them responsible for it.
  [V n with n] ...a crash which left him with a broken collar-bone...
  [V n with n] He left me with a child to support.
 11) VERB If an event leaves people or things in a particular state, they are in that state when the event has finished.
  [V n adj] ...violent disturbances which have left at least ten people dead...
  [V n prep/adv] The documentary left me in a state of shock...
  [V n prep/adv] So where does that leave me?
 12) VERB If you leave food or drink, you do not eat or drink it, often because you do not like it.
  [V n] If you don't like the cocktail you ordered, just leave it and try a different one.
 13) VERB If something leaves a mark, effect, or sign, it causes that mark, effect, or sign to remain as a result.
  [V n] A muscle tear will leave a scar after healing...
  [V n] She left a lasting impression on him.
 14) VERB If you leave something in a particular state, position, or condition, you let it remain in that state, position, or condition.
  [V n adj] He left the album open on the table...
  [V n adv/prep] I've left the car lights on...
  [V n -ing] I left the engine running.
 15) VERB If you leave a space or gap in something, you deliberately make that space or gap.
  [V n] Leave a gap at the top and bottom so air can circulate.
 16) VERB If you leave a job, decision, or choice to someone, you give them the responsibility for dealing with it or making it.
  [V n to n] Affix the blue airmail label and leave the rest to us...
  [V it to n to-inf] The judge should not have left it to the jury to decide...
  [V n to-inf] For the moment, I leave you to take all decisions.
 17) VERB (disapproval) If you say that something such as an arrangement or an agreement leaves a lot to another thing or person, you are critical of it because it is not adequate and its success depends on the other thing or person.
  [V amount to n] The ceasefire leaves a lot to the goodwill of the forces involved...
  [V amount to n] It's a vague formulation that leaves much to the discretion of local authorities.
 18) VERB To leave someone a particular course of action or the opportunity to do something means to let it be available to them, while restricting them in other ways.
  [V n n] He was left with no option but to resign.
 19) VERB If you leave something until a particular time, you delay doing it or dealing with it until then.
  [V n until/to n] Don't leave it all until the last minute.
  PHRASE: V inflects If you leave something too late, you delay doing it so that when you eventually do it, it is useless or ineffective.
  I hope I haven't left it too late.
 20) VERB If you leave a particular subject, you stop talking about it and start discussing something else.
  [V n] I think we'd better leave the subject of Nationalism...
  [V n prep/adv] He suggested we get together for a drink sometime. I said I'd like that, and we left it there.
 21) VERB If you leave property or money to someone, you arrange for it to be given to them after you have died.
  [V n to n] He died two and a half years later, leaving everything to his wife.
 22) VERB: no cont If you say that someone leaves a wife, husband, or a particular number of children, you mean that the wife, husband, or children remain alive after that person has died. [FORMAL]
  [V n] It is for his humanity as much as his music that his numerous friends and pupils will remember him. He leaves a wife, son and daughter.
 23) N-UNCOUNT: oft on N Leave is a period of time when you are not working at your job, because you are on holiday or vacation, or for some other reason. If you are on leave, you are not working at your job.
  Why don't you take a few days' leave?
  ...maternity leave...
  He is home on leave from the Navy.
 24) N-UNCOUNT: N to-inf If you ask for leave to do something, you ask for permission to do it. [FORMAL]
  ...an application for leave to appeal against the judge's order.
 25) → See also left
 26) PHRASE: V inflects If you leave someone or something alone, or if you leave them be, you do not pay them any attention or bother them.
  Some people need to confront a traumatic past; others find it better to leave it alone...
  Why can't you leave him be?
 27) PHR-PREP: PREP n You use leaving aside or leaving to one side when mentioning a fact or detail that you want to ignore when making a general statement.
  Leaving aside the question of privacy, constant surveillance can be remarkably convenient.
 28) PHRASE: V inflects When you take your leave or take leave of someone, you say goodbye and go. [FORMAL]
  He thanked them for the pleasure of their company and took his leave.
 29) PHRASE: V inflects If someone tells you to leave well alone, they are telling you not to interfere in something, because it is all right as it is and you might only make it worse.
  He knew when to leave well alone and when to interfere.
 30) PHRASE: PHR after v, oft from PHR If something continues from where it left off, it starts happening again at the point where it had previously stopped.
  As soon as the police disappear the violence will take up from where it left off.
 31) to leave a lot to be desiredsee desire
 to leave someone to their own devicessee device
 to take leave of your sensessee sense
 take it or leave itsee take
  Phrasal Verbs:
  - leave behind
  - leave off
  - leave out

Merriam-Webster's Advanced Learner's Dictionary

Merriam-Webster's Advanced Learner's Dictionary: 

1leave /ˈliːv/ verb leaves; left /ˈlɛft/; leav·ing
1 a : to go away from (a place)

[+ obj]

• What time will you leave the office?
• Don't leave home without your wallet.
• I left the party at seven o'clock.

[no obj]

• We will leave at 10 o'clock.
• Are we leaving soon?
• She left quickly.
• They left by bus.
• The train left an hour ago but another will be arriving soon.
- often + for
• We're leaving for the game in an hour.
• The train left from Paris for Barcelona an hour ago.
b [+ obj] : to go away from (a place) to live in a different place
• They left the country for a new life in the city.
• He left town a month ago.
• He left home [=left his parent's house and lived somewhere else] after graduating from high school.
2 a [+ obj] : to go away from (a person)
• She left her friends and went home.
• We left him so that he could do his work. = We left him to his work. = He had work to do, so we left him to it.
• We left him doing his work. [=he was doing his work when we left him]
b : to stop living with and having a close personal relationship with (someone)

[+ obj]

• His mother left [=abandoned, deserted] him when he was very young.
• He left his wife and children.
• His wife left him for another man.

[no obj]

• He hasn't been the same since his wife left.
3 a [+ obj] : to give up or stop having (a job, position, etc.)
• He left [=quit] his job and went back to school.
• a politician who will be leaving office next year
b : to stop attending, belonging to, or working for (a school, a group, an organization, etc.)

[+ obj]

• She left school and got a job.
• She left our team and joined another one.
• He has one more year before he leaves the army.
• He's going to be leaving the company soon and starting his own business.

[no obj]

• You must give the company two weeks' notice before leaving.
c [+ obj] : to stop participating in (something, such as a game)
• The starting quarterback had to leave the game because of an injury.
• When did she leave the meeting?
4 [+ obj]
a : to go away and allow or cause (something or someone) to remain
• Please leave your books at home.
• You may leave your things in this room. : to put or bring (something or someone) somewhere and go away
• I left the groceries on the table.
• Please leave the package by the door.
• We left a turkey (roasting) in the oven.
• I left my brother at the airport.
• They left their dog in the car.
✦If you leave someone or something with someone, you allow someone to keep and care for someone or something while you are away.
• They went out to dinner and left their children (home) with a babysitter.
• We left our dog with the neighbors while we went on vacation.
c : to go away and forget or neglect to take (something)
• He left [=forgot] his wallet at the restaurant.
• I left my homework in my car.
• Did you leave your key in the door again?
d : to go away permanently without taking (something or someone)
• He left nothing in his old apartment.
- often + behind
• They left behind everything they owned.
• We had to leave our family and friends behind.
• He left it all behind. [=took nothing with him]
• I wanted to leave the past behind. [=forget about the past]
5 [+ obj] : to put (something) in a place for another person to take or have
• Did she leave a package for me?
• We left a good tip for our waitress. = We left our waitress a good tip.
• I left a message (for you) on your answering machine.
• He left his name and phone number.
6 [+ obj]
a : to allow someone else to deal with or do (something) - often + with
• “It's a pretty complicated problem.” “Leave it with me: I'll see what I can do.”
- often + for
• You don't have to wash the dishes. Just leave them for me. [=I will wash the dishes]
- often + to
Leave your computer problems to the experts. [=let the experts solve your computer problems]
• That kind of decision should be left to the parents.
• They left the decision (up) to me.
• She left it to the readers to decide the story's ending.
• I'll leave it (up) to you (to decide) whether or not we go to the movies.
• I'll leave you to draw your own conclusions.
- sometimes used figuratively
• Whether or not we have a picnic will be left (up) to the weather. [=will be determined by the weather]
✦In informal U.S. English, you can say leave it to someone (to do something), when someone has acted in a way that is typical or expected.
Leave it to my mom to make everyone feel comfortable. [=my mom always makes everyone feel comfortable]
✦If people leave you to do something, they do not help you do it.
• He left me to find my own way home.
• She was left to finish the job by herself.
• I'll leave you to draw your own conclusions.
• I was left to fend for myself.
7 [+ obj] : to cause (something or someone) to be or remain in a specified condition or position
• Years of pollution has left [=made] the water undrinkable.
• Their argument left him angry and confused.
• The accident left him paralyzed.
• Your kind words leave me speechless.
• I'll leave the door unlocked for you.
• She left the door/window open.
• Did you leave the lights on?
• Much was left undone.
• Let's just leave it at that. [=let's not change it or discuss it further]
- often + -ing verb
• They cut down the trees but left the rosebushes standing.
• It left them wondering when it would all end.
- often + with
• I don't want to punish you, but your actions leave me (with) no/little choice. [=your actions make it necessary for me to punish you]
• They were left with no option but to sell their car. [=they were forced to sell their car]
8 [+ obj]
a : to allow (something) to remain available or unused
• He wanted to leave a way out for himself. = He wanted to leave himself a way out.
• Please leave space/room for another chair.
• Don't eat too much. You need to leave room for dessert. [=you need to leave enough room in your stomach so that you can eat dessert]
• That doesn't leave much room for discussion.
✦An amount that is left (over) or that you have left (over) is an amount that remains after the rest has been used or taken away.
• There is only one piece of bread left. [=remaining]
• After feeding 20 people, there was nothing left for me.
• How much time do we have left before we can go home?
• There was no one left in the city after the parade.
• Do we have any pizza left over from last night?
• We have many decorations left over from the party.
9 [+ obj] : to cause (something) to remain as a result, mark, or sign
• The cut left an ugly scar.
• The grape juice left a stain on the carpet.
• The rain is leaving a thin layer of ice on the roads.
• The thief was careful not to leave any clues.
• We promise we won't leave a mess.
• His visit left a lasting impression on our family.
• The experience left a bad taste in my mouth. [=the experience made me feel bad or disgusted]
10 [+ obj]
a : to have (family members) living after your death
• He left (behind) a widow and two children.
• She leaves (behind) 7 children and 28 grandchildren.
b : to give (something, such as money or property) to (someone) after your death
• She left a fortune to her husband.
• His parents left him a house and a small amount of money.
11 [+ obj] mathematics : to have (a number) as a remainder
• Taking 7 from 10 leaves 3.
I must love you and leave you
- see 2love
leave much to be desired
- see 1desire
leave no stone unturned
- see 1stone
leave off [phrasal verb]
1 : to stop before finishing a story, conversation, etc.
• Let's begin where we left off.
• Where did we leave off in our conversation?
2 leave off (doing something) informal : to stop (doing something)
• They finally left off trying to reach an agreement.
leave out [phrasal verb] leave out (someone or something) or leave (someone or something) out : to not include or mention (someone or something)
• The movie leaves a lot out of the story.
• You left out the best part.
• Did everyone get a piece of cake? I don't want to leave anyone out.
• They always leave her out of the conversation.
• He always feels left out when his friends talk about sports.
leave (someone) guessing
- see 1guess
leave (someone) in the dust
- see 1dust
leave (someone) in the lurch
- see 3lurch
leave (someone or something) alone : to not bother or touch (someone or something)
• Please leave the baby alone. She needs to sleep.
• Please leave the vase alone.
leave (someone or something) be : to not bother or touch (someone or something)
• Please leave [=let] me be.
leave (someone or something) for dead
- see 1dead
leave (someone) out in the cold
- see 2cold
leave (something) to the imagination
- see imagination
leave well enough alone or Brit leave well alone : to stop changing something that is already good enough
• He just doesn't know when to leave well enough alone.
leave you cold
- see 1cold
leave you to your own devices
- see device
left at the altar
- see altar
take it or leave it
- see 1take


best [adjective]

Of the highest quality, or being the most suitable, pleasing, or effective type of thing or person

US /best/ 
UK /best/ 



That's the best movie I've ever seen! 

آهنگ وترانه: 
You Are The Reason - Chris De Burgh

Oxford Essential Dictionary

adjective (good, better, best)
better than all others:
This is the best ice cream I have ever eaten!
Tom is my best friend.
Jo's the best player on the team.
 opposite worst

Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English


I. best1 S1 W1 /best/ BrE AmE adjective [superlative of good]
[Language: Old English; Origin: betst]
1. better than anything else or anyone else in quality, skill, how effective it is etc:
He won the best actor award.
What’s the best way to cook this fish?
The best thing to do is to stop worrying.
it’s best to do something
It’s best to go later in the season.
easily the best/by far the best (=much better than anything else)
John’s idea is by far the best option.
Our pilots are given the best possible training.
We use only the very best ingredients.
2. best friend the friend that you know and like better than anyone else:
She was my best friend in college.
3. best dress/shoes/clothes etc clothing that you keep for special occasions:
I put on my best suit for the wedding.
4. the next best thing something that is not exactly what you want but is as similar to it as possible:
If sterile equipment isn’t available, the next best thing is to clean equipment with disinfectant.
5. best of all used to introduce the fact about a situation that is even better than the other good things:
It’s clean and well-located, but best of all, it’s affordable.
6. best before British English written on food packets with the date that the food should be eaten before:
Best before 13 July.
a best-before date
be on your best behaviour at ↑behaviour(2), ⇨ your best bet at ↑bet2(2), ⇨ the best/better part of at ↑part1(6)
• • •
■ adverbs
the very best He’s one of the very best players around.
easily the best The series was easily the best TV drama this year.
by far the best One girl stood out as by far the best singer.
■ adjectives
the best possible We sold the house at the best possible time.
the best available The tuition we offer here is the best available.
■ nouns
the best way to do/of doing something The best way to learn a language is to live in a country where it is spoken.
the best thing to do The best thing to do is to apologize immediately.
the best way forward (=the best way to make progress or deal with a problem) We believe that a merger is the best way forward for the business.
make the best use of something Making the best use of space is important in any room.

Oxford Advanced Learner's Dictionary


best [best bests bested besting] adjective, adverb, noun, verb   [best]    [best] 

adjective (superlative of good)
1. of the most excellent type or quality
That's the best movie I've ever seen!
He wrote his best songs before he was 25.
She was one of the best tennis players of her generation.
Is that your best suit?
They've been best friends (= closest friends) since they were children.
the company's best-ever results

• We want the kids to have the best possible education.

2. most enjoyable; happiest

• Those were the best years of my life.

3. most suitable or appropriate
What's the best way to cook steak?
The best thing to do would be to apologize.
He's the best man for the job.
It's best if you go now.

• I'm not in the best position to advise you.

Rem: Idioms containing best adj. are at the entries for the nouns and verbs in the idioms, for example on your best behaviour is at behaviour.  
Word Origin:
Old English betest (adjective), betost, betst (adverb), of Germanic origin; related to Dutch and German best, also to better.  
best adj.
the best way to cook steak
It's best if you go now.
idealoptimumwisesensiblepreferred|formal desirableadvisable|formal, BrE favoured|formal, AmE favored
Opp: worst
be best/wise/sensible/desirable/advisable to do sth
the best/the optimum/a wise/a sensible/an ideal/the preferred choice
the best/a wise/a sensible thing to do  
Example Bank:
Owen judged it best to make no reply.
This is by far the best restaurant in the town.
We aim to give our guests the very best attention.
Who in the class is best at history?
He's the best man for the job.
I'm not in the best position to advise you.
It's best if you go now.
• What's the best way to cook steak?

Idioms: all the best  as best you can  at best  best of a bad bunch  best of three/five  best that money can buy  do/mean something for the best  for the best  get the best of something  make the best of a bad job  make the best of it  make the best of things  the best of your belief  with the best 

Cambridge Advanced Learner's Dictionary

Cambridge Advanced Learner's Dictionary - 4th Edition

best / best / adjective

A1 of the highest quality, or being the most suitable, pleasing, or effective type of thing or person:

This is the best meal I've ever had.

He's one of our best students.

Are you sure this is the best way of doing it?

What's the best (= shortest or quickest) way to get to the station?

Your parents only want what is best for you.

She was my best friend (= the friend I liked most) .

It's best (= it is wise) to get to the supermarket early.

© Cambridge University Press 2013

Collins COBUILD Advanced Learner’s English Dictionary



Frequency: The word is one of the 700 most common words in English.

Best is the superlative of good.
If you want further information the best thing to do is have a word with the driver as you get on the bus...
It’s not the best place to live if you wish to develop your knowledge and love of mountains.

Best is the superlative of well.
James Fox is best known as the author of White Mischief.

The best is used to refer to things of the highest quality or standard.
We offer only the best to our clients...
He’ll have the best of care.
N-SING: the N

Someone’s best is the greatest effort or highest achievement or standard that they are capable of.
Miss Blockey was at her best when she played the piano...
One needs to be a first-class driver to get the best out of that sort of machinery.
N-SING: oft poss N

If you say that something is the best that can be done or hoped for, you think it is the most pleasant, successful, or useful thing that can be done or hoped for.
A draw seems the best they can hope for...
The best we can do is try to stay cool and muddle through.
N-SING: the N

If you like something best or like it the best, you prefer it.
The thing I liked best about the show was the music...
Mother liked it best when Daniel got money...
What was the role you loved the best?
= most
ADV: ADV after v, oft the ADV

Best is used to form the superlative of compound adjectives beginning with ‘good’ and ‘well’. For example, the superlative of ‘well-known’ is ‘best-known’.

see also second best, Sunday best

You can say ‘All the best’ when you are saying goodbye to someone, or at the end of a letter.
Wish him all the best, and tell him we miss him.
CONVENTION [formulae]

You use best of all to indicate that what you are about to mention is the thing that you prefer or that has most advantages out of all the things you have mentioned.
It was comfortable and cheap: best of all, most of the rent was being paid by two American friends.
PHRASE: PHR with cl/group

If someone does something as best they can, they do it as well as they can, although it is very difficult.
The older people were left to carry on as best they could.
PHRASE: V inflects, PHR after v

You use at best to indicate that even if you describe something as favourably as possible or if it performs as well as it possibly can, it is still not very good.
This policy, they say, is at best confused and at worst non-existent...
PHRASE: PHR with cl/group

If you do your best or try your best to do something, you try as hard as you can to do it, or do it as well as you can.
I’ll do my best to find out...
It wasn’t her fault, she was trying her best to help...
PHRASE: V inflects, oft PHR to-inf

If you say that something is for the best, you mean it is the most desirable or helpful thing that could have happened or could be done, considering all the circumstances.
Whatever the circumstances, parents are supposed to know what to do for the best.
PHRASE: PHR after v, v-link PHR

If two people are the best of friends, they are close friends, especially when they have had a disagreement or fight in the past.
Magda is now married to George Callerby and we are the best of friends.
PHRASE: usu v-link PHR

If you say that a particular person knows best, you mean that they have a lot of experience and should therefore be trusted to make decisions for other people.
He was convinced that doctors and dentists knew best.
PHRASE: V inflects

If you make the best of something, you accept an unsatisfactory situation cheerfully and try to manage as well as you can. In British English, you can also say that you make the best of a bad job.
She instilled in the children the virtues of good hard work, and making the best of what you have.
PHRASE: V inflects

to the best of your ability: see ability
to hope for the best: see hope
to the best of your knowledge: see knowledge
best of luck: see luck
the best part: see part
at the best of times: see time
the best of both worlds: see world

Merriam-Webster's Advanced Learner's Dictionary

Merriam-Webster's Advanced Learner's Dictionary: 

1best /ˈbɛst/ adj superlative form of 1good or of 2well
1 a : better than all others in quality or value
• You should wear your best clothes tonight.
• He took us to the (very) best restaurants in the city.
• We ate the best food and drank the best wines.
• You're our best customers.
• His modesty and sense of humor are his best qualities.
• Is that your best offer?
• I've had the best time with you! [=I've had a very enjoyable time with you]
• The best [=most valuable] things in life are free.
• Which of these do you think tastes best?
• Mary sends you her very best wishes/regards.
• He's my best friend. [=my closest/dearest friend] = He and I are best friends.
b : most skillful, talented, or successful
• She's the best student in her class.
• He won the award for best actor in a drama.
• the team's best player
2 : most appropriate, useful, or helpful
• She truly believes that this is the best way to solve the problem.
• She's the team's best hope/chance for a medal.
• She thought waiting was best. = She thought that the best thing to do was to wait. = She thought that it was best to wait.
• It's best to leave early if you want to be sure of arriving on time.
• We want to do what's best for you.
• He's the best man for the job.
• You should do whatever you think is the best thing to do. = You should do whatever you think best.
• We're making the best possible use of these materials.
best of all
✦The phrase best of all is often used to refer to the most important or appealing part of something that has many good parts.
• The machine is easy to use, easy to clean, and best of all, it's absolutely free when you order these books.
next best
✦A person or thing that is next best is not as good as the best person or thing but is better than all others.
• The shortstop is the best player on the team, and the catcher is the next best player.
• We can't see each other often, but calling each other on the telephone is the next best thing.
on your best behavior
✦If you are on your best behavior you are behaving very politely and well.
• Remember to be on your best behavior with your grandmother.
• The children promised to be on their best behavior.


language [noun]

A system of communication consisting of sounds, words, and grammar, or the system of communication used by people in a particular country or type of work

US /ˈlæŋ.ɡwɪdʒ/ 
UK /ˈlæŋ.ɡwɪdʒ/ 



She does research into how children acquire language.

Oxford Essential Dictionary



1 (plural languages) words that people from a particular country say and write:
'Do you speak any foreign languages?' 'Yes, I speak French and Italian.'

2 (no plural) words that people use to speak and write:
This word is not often used in spoken language.

Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English


language S1 W1 /ˈlæŋɡwɪdʒ/ BrE AmE noun
[Date: 1200-1300; Language: Old French; Origin: langue 'tongue, language', from Latin lingua]
1. ENGLISH/FRENCH/ARABIC ETC [uncountable and countable] a system of communication by written or spoken words, which is used by the people of a particular country or area:
How many languages do you speak?
one of the best-known poems in the English language
2. COMMUNICATION [uncountable] the use of written or spoken words to communicate:
the origins of language
3. STYLE/TYPE OF WORDS [uncountable] a particular style or type of words
legal/medical/technical etc language
The letter was written in complicated legal language.
spoken/written language
The expression is mainly used in written language.
ordinary/everyday language
He is able to explain complicated ideas in simple everyday language.
literary/poetic language
The plays are full of old-fashioned poetic language.
language of
the language of science
4. SWEARING [uncountable] informal words that most people think are offensive
mind/watch your language spoken (=stop swearing)
bad/foul/abusive language
5. strong language
a) angry words used to tell people exactly what you mean
b) words that most people think are offensive SYN swearing
6. COMPUTERS [uncountable and countable] technical a system of instructions for operating a computer:
a programming language for the web
7. SIGNS/ACTIONS/SOUNDS [uncountable and countable] signs, movements, or sounds that express ideas or feelings
language of
the language of bees
the language of dolphins
⇨ ↑body language, ↑sign language, ⇨ speak the same language at ↑speak(11)
• • •
■ verbs
speak a language Can you speak a foreign language?
use a language The children use their native language at home.
learn a language Immigrants are expected to learn the language of their new country.
master a language (=succeed in learning a language well) She had had a long struggle to master the Russian language.
know a language He had lived in Japan, but did not know the language.
■ ADJECTIVES/NOUN + language
a foreign language He found learning a foreign language extremely difficult.
the English/Japanese/Spanish etc language She had some knowledge of the Spanish language.
sb’s first/native language (=the language someone first learned as a child) His first language was Polish.
a second language (=a language you speak that is not your first language) Most of the students learned English as their second language.
modern languages (=languages that are spoken now) The school has a good modern languages department.
a dead language (=a language that is no longer spoken) She didn’t see the point of learning a dead language.
an official language (=the language used for official business in a country) Canada has two official languages: English and French.
a common language (=a language that more than one person or group speaks, so that they can understand each other) Most of the countries of South America share a common language: Spanish.
■ language + NOUN
the language barrier (=the problem of communicating with someone when you do not speak the same language) Because of the language barrier, it was hard for doctors to give good advice to patients.
a language student/learner Language learners often have problems with tenses.
a language teacher a book for language teachers
language teaching recent developments in language teaching
■ phrases
sb’s command of a language (=someone’s ability to speak a language) Does he have a good command of the language?
• • •
■ different kinds of language
dialect a form of a language that is spoken in one area of a country, with different words, grammar, or pronunciation from other areas: Cantonese is only one of many Chinese dialects. | the local dialect
accent the way that someone pronounces words, because of where they were born or live, or their social class: Karen has a strong New Jersey accent. | an upper class accent
slang very informal spoken language, used especially by people who belong to a particular group, for example young people or criminals: Teenage slang changes all the time. | ‘Dosh’ is slang for ‘money’.
terminology formal the technical words or expressions that are used in a particular subject: musical terminology | Patients are often unfamiliar with medical terminology.
jargon especially disapproving words and phrases used in a particular profession or subject and which are difficult for other people to understand: The instructions were written in complicated technical jargon. | ‘Outsourcing’ is business jargon for sending work to people outside a company to do. | The letter was full of legal jargon.
■ techniques used in language
metaphor a way of describing something by referring to it as something different and suggesting that it has similar qualities to that thing: The beehive is a metaphor for human society.
simile an expression that describes something by comparing it with something else, using the words as or like, for example ‘as white as snow’: The poet uses the simile ‘soft like clay’.
irony the use of words that are the opposite of what you really mean, often in order to be amusing: ‘I’m so happy to hear that,’ he said, with more than a trace of irony in his voice.
bathos a sudden change from a subject that is beautiful, moral, or serious to something that is ordinary, silly, or not important: The play is too sentimental and full of bathos.
hyperbole a way of describing something by saying that it is much bigger, smaller, worse etc than it actually is – used especially to excite people’s feelings: In his speeches, he used a lot of hyperbole. | journalistic hyperbole
alliteration the use of several words together that all begin with the same sound, in order to make a special effect, especially in poetry: the alliteration of the ‘s’ sound in ‘sweet birds sang softly’
imagery the use of words to describe ideas or actions in a way that makes the reader connect the ideas with pictures in their mind: the use of water imagery in Fitzgerald’s novel ‘The Great Gatsby’ | She uses the imagery of a bird’s song to represent eternal hope.
rhetorical question a question that you ask as a way of making a statement, without expecting an answer: When he said ‘how can these attitudes still exist in a civilized society?’, he was asking a rhetorical question.

Oxford Advanced Learner's Dictionary


lan·guage [language languages]   [ˈlæŋɡwɪdʒ]    [ˈlæŋɡwɪdʒ]  noun

1. countable the system of communication in speech and writing that is used by people of a particular country or area
the Japanese language
It takes a long time to learn to speak a language well.
Italian is my first language.
All the children must learn a foreign language.
She has a good command of the Spanish language.
a qualification in language teaching
They fell in love in spite of the language barrier (= the difficulty of communicating when people speak different languages).
Why study Latin? It's a dead language (= no longer spoken by anyone).
Is English an official language in your country?

see also  modern language  


2. uncountable the use by humans of a system of sounds and words to communicate
• theories about the origins of language

• a study of language acquisition in two-year-olds  


3. uncountable a particular style of speaking or writing
bad/foul/strong language (= words that people may consider offensive)
literary/poetic language
the language of the legal profession
• Give your instructions in everyday language.

see also  bad language  


4. countable, uncountable a way of expressing ideas and feelings using movements, symbols and sound
the language of mime
the language of dolphins/bees

see also  body language, sign language  


5. countable, uncountable a system of symbols and rules that is used to operate a computer
a programming language
Idioms: mind your language  talk the same language  
Word Origin:
Middle English: from Old French langage, based on Latin lingua ‘tongue’.  
language noun
1. C, U
Italian is my first language.
dialect|formal idiom|literary old-fashioned tongue
speak in a/an language/dialect/idiom/tongue
sb's native language/dialect/tongue
speak/understand/use/learn/study a language/dialect
2. U
The document was written in very formal language.
in… language/terms/vocabulary/terminology/usage
formal/informal/everyday language/terms/vocabulary/usage
use … language/wording/terms/vocabulary/terminology 
vocabulary terms wording terminology
These are all terms for the words and expressions people use when they speak or write, or for a particular style of speaking or writing.
languagea particular style of speaking or writing: Give your instructions in everyday language. the language of the legal profession
vocabularyall the words that a person knows or uses, or all the words in a particular language; the words that people use when they are talking about a particular subject: to have a wide/limited vocabulary The word has become part of advertising vocabulary.
termsa way of expressing yourself or of saying sth: I'll try to explain in simple terms.
wording[usually sing.] the words that are used in a piece of writing or speech, especially when they have been carefully chosen: It was the standard form of wording for a consent letter.
terminology(rather formal) the set of technical words or expressions used in a particular subject; words used with particular meanings: medical terminology Scientists are constantly developing new terminologies.
Literary/poetic terminology is used for talking about literature or poetry. Literary/poetic language is used for writing in a literary or poetic style.
formal/informal/everyday language/vocabulary/terms
business/scientific/technical/specialized language/vocabulary/terminology
A word enters the language/the vocabulary. 
Example Bank:
Computers will never be able to understand natural language.
Her command of language is very advanced for a six-year-old.
His letter was couched in very formal language.
His strength is that he addresses his readers in plain language.
How many foreign languages does she speak?
I got by with broken Chinese and sign language.
Latin is a dead language.
Most local cinemas show films in the original language, with German subtitles.
Not all deaf people use sign language.
Portuguese is the national language of Brazil.
She could speak some Chinese, but never studied the written language.
She grew up in Mexico, so her first language is Spanish.
She reserved her harshest language for those she believed had betrayed her.
Some minority languages are dying out.
The referee told the players to mind their language.
The writer's use of language reflects the personality of each character.
You could tell from his body language that he was very embarrassed.
idiomatic expressions that enrich the language
manuscripts written in an unknown language
new methods of language learning
people using foul language
the teaching of English as a second language
Have you got a qualification in language teaching?
He has a good command of the Spanish language.
Italian is my first language.
She's got a degree in modern languages.
The following programme contains strong language.
They fell in love in spite of the language barrier.
• They were shouting and using bad/foul language.

• Why study Latin? It's a dead language.

Cambridge Advanced Learner's Dictionary

Cambridge Advanced Learner's Dictionary - 4th Edition

language / ˈlæŋ.ɡwɪdʒ / noun [ C or U ]

A1 a system of communication consisting of sounds, words, and grammar, or the system of communication used by people in a particular country or type of work:

She does research into how children acquire language.

Do you speak any foreign languages?"

I'm hopeless at learning languages.

the English language

legal/technical language

the language of business

Java and Perl are both important computer programming languages (= systems of writing instructions for computers) .

Word partners for language

learn / speak a language • a foreign language • spoken / written language • sb's first / native / second language • the official language • abusive / bad / foul / strong language

© Cambridge University Press 2013

Collins COBUILD Advanced Learner’s English Dictionary



Frequency: The word is one of the 1500 most common words in English.

A language is a system of communication which consists of a set of sounds and written symbols which are used by the people of a particular country or region for talking or writing.
...the English language...
Students are expected to master a second language...

Language is the use of a system of communication which consists of a set of sounds or written symbols.
Students examined how children acquire language...

You can refer to the words used in connection with a particular subject as the language of that subject.
...the language of business.
N-UNCOUNT: the N of n, supp N

You can refer to someone’s use of rude words or swearing as bad language when you find it offensive.
Television companies tend to censor bad language in feature films...
There’s a girl gonna be in the club, so you guys watch your language.
N-UNCOUNT: adj N, poss N

The language of a piece of writing or speech is the style in which it is written or spoken.
...a booklet summarising it in plain language...
The tone of his language was diplomatic and polite...
N-UNCOUNT: with supp

You can use language to refer to various means of communication involving recognizable symbols, non-verbal sounds, or actions.
Some sign languages are very sophisticated means of communication.
...the digital language of computers.
N-VAR: supp N, N of n

Merriam-Webster's Advanced Learner's Dictionary

Merriam-Webster's Advanced Learner's Dictionary: 


lan·guage /ˈlæŋgwɪʤ/ noun, pl -guag·es
1 a [noncount] : the system of words or signs that people use to express thoughts and feelings to each other
• spoken and written language
• the origin of language
- often used before another noun
language acquisition
language skills
- see also body language
b [count] : any one of the systems of human language that are used and understood by a particular group of people
• the English language
• How many languages do you speak?
• a foreign language
• French is her first/native language.
• The book has been translated into several languages.
• He's learning English as a second language.
• After a few days in France, I realized that I didn't know the language [=I didn't know the French language] as well as I had thought.
• a new word that has recently entered the language
• a language instructor/teacher
• foreign language classes
• A language barrier existed between the two countries. [=people in the two countries did not understand each other because they spoke different languages]
- see also sign language
2 [noncount] : words of a particular kind
• the formal language of the report
• the beauty of Shakespeare's language
• She expressed her ideas using simple and clear language.
• He is always careful in his use of language.
• bad/foul/obscene/strong/vulgar language
• You'd better watch your language [=be careful about the words you use] when you're talking to her.
3 [noncount] : the words and expressions used in a particular activity or by a particular group of people
• the language of diplomacy/lawyers
• legal/military language
4 [count] : a system of signs and symbols that is used to control a computer
• a programming language
5 [count] : a system of sounds or movements by which animals communicate with each other
• the language of bees/dolphins
speak/talk the same language : to understand each other well because of shared ideas and feelings
• She and I will never get along. We just don't speak the same language.


Brazilian [adjective]

belonging to or relating to Brazil or its people

US /brəˈzɪl.jən/ 
UK /brəˈzɪl.jən/ 

برزیلی، وابسته به کشور برزیل و مردم آن


Brazilian football

فوتبال برزیلی

Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English


I. Brazilian1 /brəˈzɪliən/ BrE AmE adjective
relating to Brazil or its people

Oxford Advanced Learner's Dictionary


Bra·zil·ian 7 [Brazilian Brazilians] adjective, noun   [brəˈzɪliən]    [brəˈzɪliən]


from or connected with Brazil

Collins COBUILD Advanced Learner’s English Dictionary



 Brazilian means belonging or relating to Brazil, or to its people or culture.
 A Brazilian is a person who comes from Brazil.


run [verb] (GO QUICKLY)

(of people and some animals) to move along, faster than walking, by taking quick steps in which each foot is lifted before the next foot touches the ground

US /rʌn/ 
UK /rʌn/ 



I can run a mile in five minutes.

Oxford Essential Dictionary

 verb (runs, running, ran /, has run)

1 to move very quickly on your legs:
I was late, so I ran to the bus stop.

2 to control something and make it work:
Who runs the business?

3 to work:
The car had stopped but the engine was still running.

4 to go; to make a journey:
The buses don't run on Sundays.

5 to move something somewhere:
He ran his fingers through his hair.

6 to pass or go somewhere:
The road runs across the fields.

7 to flow:
The river runs into the North Sea.

run after somebody or something to try to catch a person or an animal same meaning chase:
The dog ran after a rabbit.

run away to go quickly away from a place same meaning escape:
She ran away from home when she was 14.

run into somebody to meet somebody by chance:
Guess who I ran into today?

run into somebody or something to crash into somebody or something:
The bus went out of control and ran into a line of people.

run out of something to have no more of something:
We've run out of coffee. Will you go and buy some?

run over somebody or something to hit a person or an animal with your car or other vehicle:
The dog was run over by a bus.

Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English


I. run1 S1 W1 /rʌn/ BrE AmE verb (past tense ran /ræn/, past participle run, present participle running)
[Word Family: noun: ↑run, ↑rerun, ↑runner, ↑running, ↑overrun; verb: ↑run, ↑outrun, ↑overrun, ↑rerun; adjective: ↑running, ↑runny; adverb: ↑running]
[Language: Old English; Origin: rinnan]
a) [intransitive] to move very quickly, by moving your legs more quickly than when you walk
run down/up/to/towards etc
I ran down the stairs as fast as I could.
He was running towards the door.
She turned and ran away.
The boys ran off into the crowd.
run to do something
Several people ran to help her when she fell.
The children came running out of the house.
Women ran screaming, with children in their arms.
Jane struggled free and ran for her life (=ran in order to avoid being killed).
Hurry! Run for it (=run as quickly as possible in order to escape)!
He picked up the child and ran like hell (=ran very quickly, especially in order to escape). not polite
b) [transitive] to run a particular distance:
Firefighters are to run 500km to raise money for a children’s charity.
He ran the length of the corridor.
a) [intransitive and transitive] to run in a race:
I’d never run a marathon before.
run in
Murray has said she will consider running in the 3000 metres.
b) [transitive usually passive] if a race is run at a particular time or in a particular place, it happens at that time or in that place:
The Derby will be run at 3 o'clock.
3. ORGANIZE/BE IN CHARGE OF [transitive] to organize or be in charge of an activity, business, organization, or country:
For a while, she ran a restaurant in Boston.
Many people don’t care who runs the country.
Courses are currently being run in London and Edinburgh.
Many people belong to a pension scheme run by their employers.
well/badly run
The hotel is well-run and extremely popular.
a state-run (=controlled by the government) television station
4. DO SOMETHING/GO SOMEWHERE QUICKLY [intransitive] to do something or go somewhere quickly:
Run and ask your mother where she’s put the keys.
run to
I need to run to the store for some more milk.
a) [intransitive] if a bus, train etc service runs, it takes people from one place to another at fixed times:
The buses don’t run on Sundays.
run to
The number 61 bus runs to the city centre.
b) [transitive] if a company or other organization runs a bus, train etc service, they make it operate:
They’re running special trains to and from the exhibition.
a) [intransitive] if a computer program runs, it operates
run on
The software will run on any PC.
b) [transitive] if you run a program, you make it operate:
The RS8 system runs both Unix and MPX-32.
a) [intransitive] if a machine or engine runs, it operates:
She got out of the car and left the engine running.
run on electricity/gas/petrol etc (=get its power from electricity etc)
Most cars run on unleaded fuel.
run off something (=use something for power)
It runs off batteries.
b) [transitive] if you run a machine or engine, you make it operate:
You shouldn’t keep the engine running when the car is standing still.
I often run the washing machine more than once a day.
a) [intransitive usually progressive] if a tape is running, it is recording:
She didn’t realize the tape was running as she spoke.
b) [transitive] if you run a tape, you make it move backwards or forwards:
Run the tape back to the beginning.
a) [transitive] to print something in a newspaper or magazine, or broadcast something on television:
The company is running a series of advertisements in national newspapers.
A local TV station ran her story.
b) [intransitive] if a program runs on television, it is shown. If a story runs in a newspaper or magazine, it is printed:
The series ran for 20 episodes and was extremely popular.
Conan Doyle’s stories ran in ‘The Strand’ magazine.
10. FAST/OUT OF CONTROL [intransitive always + adverb/preposition] to move too fast or in an uncontrolled way:
Her car ran off the road and into a tree.
The truck ran out of control and hit a house.
11. USE A VEHICLE [transitive] especially British English to own and use a vehicle:
I can’t afford to run a car.
A bicycle is relatively cheap to buy and run.
12. TAKE SOMEBODY IN YOUR CAR [transitive always + adverb/preposition] informal to take someone somewhere in your car SYN drive:
Shall I run you home?
run somebody to something
Let me run you to the station.
13. IN AN ELECTION [intransitive] especially American English to try to be elected in an election SYN stand British English
run for
Salinas is running for a second term as President.
an attempt to encourage more women to run for office
run against
Feinstein will win if she runs against Lungren.
14. SOMETHING LONG [intransitive, transitive always + adverb/preposition] if something long such as a road or wire runs in a particular direction, that is its position, or that is where you put it:
The road runs along a valley.
Developers want to run a road right through his farm.
Run the cables under the carpet.
The Sierra mountain range runs the length of the north west coast of Majorca.
15. MOVE SOMETHING ON A SURFACE [transitive always + adverb/preposition] to move something lightly along a surface:
Charles ran his fingers through her hair.
Run the scanner over the bar codes.
16. FLOW [intransitive always + adverb/preposition] to flow in a particular direction or place:
Tears started to run down her cheeks.
Water was running off the roof.
17. TAP [intransitive and transitive] if a ↑tap is running, water is coming out of it, or if you run a tap, you make water come out of it:
Did you leave the tap running?
He ran the tap until the water was really hot.
18. run a bath to fill a bath with water:
I could hear her running a bath upstairs.
run somebody a bath
Could you run me a nice hot bath while I finish my meal?
19. SB’S NOSE [intransitive] if someone’s nose is running, liquid is flowing out of it
20. OFFICIAL PAPERS [intransitive] if something runs for a particular length of time, it can officially be used for that time:
The contract runs for a year.
My car insurance only has another month to run.
21. PLAY/FILM [intransitive] to continue being performed regularly in one place:
The play ran for two years.
22. HAPPEN [intransitive] to happen in a particular way or at a particular time:
Andy kept things running smoothly (=happening in the way they should) while I was away.
He was given a further three month prison sentence to run concurrently.
The course runs over a three year period.
23. AMOUNT/PRICE [intransitive] to be at a particular level, amount, or price
run at
Inflation was running at 5%.
run to
The cost of repairing the damage could run to $5000.
24. STORY/ACCOUNT ETC [intransitive and transitive] if a story, discussion etc runs in a particular way, it has those particular words or events:
The story runs that someone offered Lynch a further $500.
‘President’s marriage really over’ ran the headline in a national newspaper.
25. run its course if something runs its course, it continues in the way you expect until it has finished:
Recession in the country has run its course and left an aftermath of uncertainty.
26. something will run and run British English if a subject, discussion, event etc will run and run, people will continue to be interested in it for a long time:
This is a story that will run and run.
27. THOUGHTS/FEELINGS [intransitive always + adverb/preposition] if a feeling runs through you, or a thought runs through your mind, you feel it or think it quickly
run through/down
A feeling of excitement ran through her body as they touched.
The same thought kept running through his mind.
A cold shiver ran down my back.
I felt a sharp pain run down my leg.
28. run high if feelings run high, people are very angry, upset, excited etc:
Tension ran high and fights broke out among the crowd.
Feelings have been running high in the town, following the murder of a young girl.
29. run sb’s life informal to keep telling someone what they should do all the time, in a way that annoys them:
Don’t try to run my life!
30. run for cover
a) to run towards a place where you will be safe, especially to avoid bullets:
He was shot in the leg as he ran for cover.
b) to try to protect yourself from a bad situation or from being criticized:
His success at backing winning horses has had the bookmakers running for cover.
31. COLOUR IN CLOTHES [intransitive] if colour runs, it spreads from one piece of clothing or one area of cloth to another when the clothes are wet:
The T-shirt ran and made all my other clothes pink.
32. PAINT/INK [intransitive] if paint runs, it moves onto an area where you did not intend it to go
33. run a check/test/experiment etc to arrange for someone or something to be checked or tested
run a check/test/experiment etc on
Ask your doctor to run a test on your blood sugar levels.
34. HOLE IN CLOTHES [intransitive] if a hole in ↑tights or ↑stockings runs, it gets bigger in a straight line
35. run drugs/guns to bring drugs or guns into a country illegally in order to sell them ⇨ ↑drug runner, ↑gun-running
36. run in the family if something such as a quality, disease, or skill runs in the family, many people in that family have it:
Diabetes appears to run in families.
37. run a temperature/fever to have a body temperature that is higher than normal, because you are ill
38. run a mile informal to try very hard to avoid a particular situation or person because you do not want to deal with them:
If someone asked me to marry them, I’d probably run a mile.
39. run late/early/on time to arrive, go somewhere, or do something late, early, or at the right time:
I’m running late, so I’ll talk to you later.
If the train runs on time, we’ll be there by ten.
40. be running scared to feel worried because someone who you are competing against is becoming very successful or powerful:
The party are running scared.
41. come running
a) informal to react in a very eager way when someone asks or tells you to do something:
He thinks he’s only got to look at me and I’ll come running.
b) especially spoken to ask someone for help, advice, or sympathy when you have a problem
come running to
Well I warned you, so don’t come running to me when it all goes wrong!
42. run your eyes over/along etc something to look quickly at something:
He ran his eyes along the books on the shelf.
43. run before you can walk to try to do something difficult before you have learned the basic skills you need:
A lot of language students want to run before they can walk.
44. run a (red) light informal to drive quickly through a red TRAFFIC LIGHT instead of stopping
⇨ ↑running1, ⇨ cut and run at ↑cut1(38), ⇨ be/run/go counter to something at ↑counter3, ⇨ run deep at ↑deep2(4), ⇨ run dry at ↑dry1(4), ⇨ run low at ↑low1(4), ⇨ run somebody ragged at ↑ragged(5), ⇨ run rings around somebody at ↑ring1(8), ⇨ run riot at ↑riot1(2), ⇨ be running short at ↑short2(2), ⇨ run somebody/something to earth at ↑earth1(14), ⇨ run to fat at ↑fat2(6), ⇨ run somebody/something to ground at ↑ground1(19), ⇨ run to seed at ↑seed1(4), ⇨ run wild at ↑wild2(1), ⇨ be up and running at ↑up1(22)
• • •
run to move very quickly, by moving your legs more quickly than when you walk: My five-year-old son runs everywhere. | I go running twice a week.
jog to run quite slowly for exercise over a long distance: A few people were jogging in the park.
race/dash to run somewhere as quickly as you can, especially because you have to do something urgently: He dashed across the road to the police station. | We raced to the bus stop and got there just in time.
sprint to run as fast as you can for a short distance: I saw the runners sprinting past. | He sprinted up the stairs.
tear to run very quickly and without really looking where you are going, because you are in a hurry: He tore down the street and around the corner.
charge to run quickly and with a lot of energy, so that you might knock down anyone or anything that gets in your way: They all charged out of the school gates at 4 o'clock. | Dennis charged through the door into my office.
take to your heels to start running away very quickly, especially to escape or because you are afraid: The men took to their heels as soon as they saw the police.
leg it British English informal to run away very quickly, in order to escape from someone or something: I legged it before the cops came.
lope especially literary to run easily with long steps – used especially about tall people with long legs: John loped across the street to meet me.
■ animals running
trot to run fairly slowly, taking short steps – used especially about horses and dogs: A little dog was trotting behind her.
gallop if a horse gallops, it runs very quickly: The horse galloped off across the field.
bolt to suddenly run somewhere very fast, especially in order to escape: Suddenly a fox bolted out from beneath a hedge.
run across somebody/something phrasal verb
to meet someone or find something by chance:
I ran across him at a conference in Milan.
I ran across some old love letters while I was clearing out a cupboard.
run after somebody/something phrasal verb
1. to chase someone or something:
He ran after her, calling her name.
2. informal to try to start a sexual relationship with someone:
He’s always running after younger women.
3. spoken to do a lot of things for someone else as though you were their servant:
I can’t keep running after you all day!
run along phrasal verb spoken
used to tell a child to leave, or to tell someone that you must leave:
Run along now! I’ve got work to finish.
Oh, it’s late. I’d better be running along.
run around (also run round British English) phrasal verb
1. to run in an area while you are playing:
The children were running around in the garden.
2. informal to be very busy doing many small jobs:
Maria was running around trying to get the house tidy.
We were all running around like headless chickens (=trying to do a lot of things, in an anxious or disorganized way). ⇨ ↑runaround
run around after somebody phrasal verb informal
to do a lot of things for someone else as though you were their servant:
I’ve spent all day running around after the kids.
run around with somebody phrasal verb informal
to spend a lot of time with someone, especially someone that other people disapprove of:
He started running around with a gang of teenagers.
run away phrasal verb
1. to leave a place, especially secretly, in order to escape from someone or something
run away from
Toby ran away from home at the age of 14. ⇨ ↑runaway2
2. to try to avoid dealing with a problem or difficult situation
run away from
You can’t just run away from your responsibilities.
3. to secretly go away with someone in order to marry them or live with them:
They ran away together to get married.
run away with somebody/something phrasal verb
1. to secretly go away with someone in order to marry them or live with them – usually used to show disapproval:
His wife has run away with another man.
2. run away with you if your feelings, ideas etc run away with you, they start to control how you behave:
Don’t let your imagination run away with you!
3. your tongue runs away with you if your tongue runs away with you, you say something that you did not intend to say
4. run away with the idea/impression (that) spoken to think that something is true when it is not:
Don’t run away with the impression that he doesn’t care.
5. informal to win a competition or sports game very easily:
The Reds ran away with the championship.
run something by/past somebody phrasal verb
1. to tell someone something so that they can give you their opinion:
Let me run some figures by you.
I just wanted to run it past you and see what you thought.
2. run that by me again spoken used to ask someone to repeat what they have just said because you did not completely understand it
run down phrasal verb
1. run somebody/something ↔ down to drive into a person or animal and kill or injure them:
Their daughter was run down by a car.
2. run somebody/something ↔ down informal to criticize someone or something in a way that is unfair:
There’s a lot of good things about homeopathic treatment. I’m certainly not running it down.
3. if a clock, machine, ↑battery etc runs down, it has no more power and stops working
4. to make a company, organization etc gradually reduce in size, especially in order to close it in the future, or to gradually reduce in size
run something ↔ down
Many smaller local hospitals are being run down.
The business had been running down for a long time.
5. if a supply of something runs down, or if you run it down, there gradually becomes less of it:
Crude oil reserves are running down.
run something ↔ down
Electricity generating companies are running down stocks and cutting purchases.
6. run down something to read a list of people or things:
Let me just run down the list of people who’ve been invited.
7. run somebody/something down to find someone or something after searching for a long time:
I finally ran him down at his new office in Glendale. ⇨ ↑rundown, ↑run-down
run somebody/something ↔ in phrasal verb British English
1. to drive a new car slowly and carefully for a period of time so you do not damage its engine
2. old-fashioned if the police run a criminal in, they catch him or her
run into somebody/something phrasal verb
1. to start to experience a difficult or unpleasant situation:
He ran into criticism after remarks he made in a television interview.
run into trouble/problems/difficulties
The business ran into financial difficulties almost immediately.
2. run into hundreds/thousands etc to reach an amount of several hundred, several thousand etc:
The cost of repairing the damage could run into millions.
The list ran into hundreds of pages.
3. to hit someone or something with a vehicle SYN crash into:
He ran into the back of another car.
4. informal to meet someone by chance:
Guess who I ran into in town today! ⇨ run yourself into the ground at ↑ground1(13)
run off phrasal verb
1. to leave a place or person in a way that people disapprove of:
Amy’s husband had run off and left her with two children to bring up.
2. run something ↔ off to quickly print several copies of something:
I’ll run off a few more copies before the meeting.
3. run somebody off something to force someone to leave a place:
Someone tried to run me off the road.
Smith had run them off his property with a rifle.
4. run something ↔ off to write a speech, poem, piece of music etc quickly and easily:
He could run off a five-page essay in an hour.
5. run off at the mouth American English informal to talk too much
6. run something ↔ off to get rid of weight by running:
I’m trying to run off some of my excess fat!
run off with somebody/something phrasal verb informal
1. to secretly go away with someone in order to marry them or live with them – used to show disapproval:
Liz shocked us all by running off with a married man.
2. to steal something and go away:
a con-man who makes a habit of running off with people’s savings
run on phrasal verb
to continue happening for longer than expected or planned:
These things always run on longer than people imagine.
run out phrasal verb
a) to use all of something and not have any more left:
I’ve got money you can borrow if you run out.
run out of
They ran out of money and had to abandon the project.
He’d run out of ideas.
b) if something is running out, there will soon be none left:
We must act now because time is running out.
My patience was running out.
His luck had run out (=there was none left).
2. if an agreement, official document etc runs out, the period for which it is legal or has an effect ends SYN expire:
My contract runs out in September.
3. run out of steam informal (also run out of gas American English) to have no more energy or no longer be interested in what you are doing:
The team seemed to have run out of gas.
4. run somebody out of town old-fashioned to force someone to leave a place, because they have done something wrong
5. run somebody ↔ out to end a player’s ↑innings in the game of ↑cricket by hitting the ↑stumps with the ball while they are running
run out on somebody phrasal verb
to leave someone when they are in a difficult situation – used to show disapproval:
He ran out on her when she became pregnant.
run over phrasal verb
1. run somebody/something ↔ over to hit someone or something with a vehicle, and drive over them:
He was run over and killed by a bus.
She got run over outside the school.
2. run over something to think about something:
Mark’s mind raced, running over all the possibilities.
3. run over something to explain or practise something quickly:
I’ll just run over the main points again.
4. run over (something) to continue happening for longer than planned:
The meeting ran over.
The talks have run over the 15 November deadline.
5. if a container runs over, there is so much liquid inside that some flows out SYN overflow
run something past somebody phrasal verb
to ↑run something ↑by someone
run round phrasal verb British English
to ↑run around
run through phrasal verb
1. run through something to repeat something in order to practise it or make sure it is correct:
Let’s run through the first scene again.
2. run through something to read, look at, or explain something quickly:
Briefly, she ran through details of the morning’s events.
3. run through something if a quality, feature etc runs through something, it is present in all of that thing:
This theme runs through the whole book.
4. run somebody through literary to push a sword completely through someone ⇨ ↑run-through
run to somebody/something phrasal verb
1. to reach a particular amount:
The cost of repairing the damage could run to $1 million.
The treaty ran to 248 pages.
2. [usually in negatives] British English to be or have enough money to pay for something:
Our budget won’t run to replacing all the computers.
3. to ask someone to help or protect you:
You can’t keep running to your parents every time you have a problem.
4. sb’s taste runs to something if someone’s taste runs to something, that is what they like:
His taste ran to action movies and thrillers.
run up something phrasal verb
1. run up a debt/bill etc to use so much of something, or borrow so much money, that you owe a lot of money:
She ran up an enormous phone bill.
2. to achieve a particular score or position in a game or competition:
He quickly ran up a big lead in the polls.
3. run something ↔ up to make something, especially clothes, very quickly:
She can run up a dress in an evening.
4. run something ↔ up to raise a flag on a pole
run up against something/somebody phrasal verb
to have to deal with unexpected problems or a difficult opponent:
The museum has run up against opposition to its proposals.
run with something phrasal verb
to be covered with a liquid that is flowing down:
His face was running with blood.

Oxford Advanced Learner's Dictionary


run [run runs ran running] verb, noun   [rʌn]    [rʌn]

verb (running, ran   [ræn]  ;   [ræn]  run

1. intransitive to move using your legs, going faster than when you walk
Can you run as fast as Mike?
They turned and ran when they saw us coming.
She came running to meet us.
I had to run to catch the bus.
The dogs ran off as soon as we appeared.
He ran home in tears to his mother.  In spoken English run can be used with and plus another verb, instead of with to and the infinitive, especially to tell somebody to hurry and do something
• Run and get your swimsuits, kids.

• I ran and knocked on the nearest door.

2. transitive ~ sth to travel a particular distance by running
• Who was the first person to run a mile in under four minutes?

see also  mile

3. intransitive (sometimes go running) to run as a sport
• She used to run when she was at college.

• I often go running before work.  


4. intransitive, transitive to take part in a race
~ (in sth) He will be running in the 100 metres tonight.
There are only five horses running in the first race.
~ sth to run the marathon
• Holmes ran a fine race to take the gold medal.

see also  runner  (1)

5. transitive, often passive ~ sth to make a race take place

• The Derby will be run in spite of the bad weather.  


6. intransitive + adv./prep. to hurry from one place to another
• I've spent the whole day running around after the kids.

see also  rat run  


7. transitive ~ sth to be in charge of a business, etc
to run a hotel/store/language school
He has no idea how to run a business.
Stop trying to run my life (= organize it) for me.
The shareholders want more say in how the company is run.
a badly run company
• state-run industries

see also  running  n. (2


8. transitive ~ sth to make a service, course of study, etc. available to people
Syn:  organize

• The college runs summer courses for foreign students.  


9. transitive ~ sth (BrE) to own and use a vehicle or machine

• I can't afford to run a car on my salary.

10. intransitive, transitive to operate or function; to make sth do this
Stan had the chainsaw running.
(figurative) Her life had always run smoothly before.
~ on sth Our van runs on (= uses) diesel.

~ sth Could you run the engine for a moment?  


11. intransitive (+ adv./prep.) to travel on a particular route
Buses to Oxford run every half-hour.
• Trains between London and Brighton run throughout the day.

• All the trains are running late (= are leaving later than planned).

12. transitive ~ sth (+ adv./prep.) to make buses, trains, etc. travel on a particular route

• They run extra trains during the rush hour.  


13. transitive ~ sb + adv./prep. (informal) to drive sb to a place in a car

• Shall I run you home?  


14. intransitive + adv./prep. to move, especially quickly, in a particular direction
The car ran off the road into a ditch.
A shiver ran down my spine.
• The sledge ran smoothly over the frozen snow.

• The old tramlines are still there but now no trams run on them.

15. transitive ~ sth + adv./prep. to move sth in a particular direction
• She ran her fingers nervously through her hair.

• I ran my eyes over the page.  


16. intransitive, transitive to lead or stretch from one place to another; to make sth do this
+ adv./prep. He had a scar running down his left cheek.
• The road runs parallel to the river.

~ sth + adv./prep. We ran a cable from the lights to the stage.  


17. intransitive ~ (for sth) to continue for a particular period of time without stopping
• Her last musical ran for six months on Broadway.

• This debate will run and run!

18. intransitive ~ (for sth) to operate or be valid for a particular period of time
• The permit runs for three months.

• The lease on my house only has a year left to run.  


19. intransitive (usually used in the progressive tenses) to happen at the time mentioned
+ adv./prep. Programmes are running a few minutes behind schedule this evening.

• The murderer was given three life sentences, to run concurrently.  


20. transitive ~ sth (+ adv./prep.) to bring or take sth into a country illegally and secretly
Syn:  smuggle
• He used to run guns across the border.

see also  runner  


21. intransitive, transitive to have particular words, contents, etc
• Their argument ran something like this…

+ speech ‘Ten shot dead by gunmen,’ ran the newspaper headline.  


22. intransitive + adv./prep. to flow
• The tears ran down her cheeks.

• Water was running all over the bathroom floor.

23. transitive to make liquid flow
~ sth (into sth) She ran hot water into the bucket.
to run the hot tap (= to turn it so that water flows from it)
~ sth for sb I'll run a bath for you.

~ sb sth I'll run you a bath.

24. intransitive to send out a liquid
Who left the tap running?
Your nose is running (= mucus  is flowing from it).

• The smoke makes my eyes run.

25. intransitive (usually used in the progressive tenses) ~ with sth to be covered with a liquid
• His face was running with sweat.

• The bathroom floor was running with water.  


26. intransitive if the colour runs in a piece of clothing when it gets wet, it dissolves and may come out of the clothing into other things

• The colour ran and made all my underwear pink.  


27. intransitive (of a solid substance) to melt
• The wax began to run.

see also  runny  


28. intransitive + adj. to become different in a particular way, especially a bad way
The river ran dry (= stopped flowing) during the drought.
Supplies are running low.
We've run short of milk.

• You've got your rivals running scared.

29. intransitive ~ at sth to be at or near a particular level

• Inflation was running at 26%.  


30. transitive ~ sth to print and publish an item or a story

• On advice from their lawyers they decided not to run the story.  


31. transitive ~ a test/check (on sth) to do a test/check on sth

• The doctors decided to run some more tests on the blood samples.  


32. intransitive to be a candidate in an election for a political position, especially in the US
Bush ran a second time in 2004.
~ for sb/sth to run for president
~ in sth to run in the election

compare  stand  v. (16


33. intransitive (NAmE) if tights or stockings run, a long thin hole appears in them

Syn:  ladder

Rem: Most idioms containing run are at the entries for the nouns and adjectives in the idioms, for example run riot is at riot.
more at a close run thing at  close2 adv., hit the ground running at  hit  v.
Word Origin:
Old English rinnan, irnan (verb), of Germanic origin, probably reinforced in Middle English by Old Norse rinna, renna. The current form with -u- in the present tense is first recorded in the 16th cent.  
run verb
1. I, T
He ran to catch the bus.
sprinttearchargejogboundpoundtrotgallopstampede|written race
run/sprint/charge/jog/bound/pound/trot/gallop/race towards sb/sth
run/sprint/charge/bound/pound/trot/gallop/race after sb/sth
run/sprint/tear/bound/pound/trot/gallop/race along (sth)
run/sprint/bound/race away
2. T
She ran a small business for many years.
managecontrolbe in chargebe responsible for sb/sthadministerdirect
run/manage/control a/an company/business/organization
run/manage/control/be in charge of/be responsible for/administer/direct a project
run/manage/be responsible for/administer a service
Run or manage? Managing a business, department, etc. means making decisions about how it should operate and organizing other employees. Run emphasizes organizing the necessary tasks.
3. T, I
Could you run the engine for a moment?
Stan had the chainsaw running.
operatecontrol|especially spoken workgo|formal functionmanipulate
run/operate/control/work a machine
run/operate/control a/an engine/motor
run/operate machinery
run/operate/work/function efficiently/reliably/smoothly/normally
Run, operate or control? A person operates or runs a machine; machines are often controlled by the controls, such as a computer, knob or lever.
4. I
The buses run every ten minutes.
run/go/come/travel from/to sth
5. I
Tears ran down her cheeks.
flowpourstreamgushcirculatetrickle|written cascade
run/flow/pour/stream/gush/trickle out of sth
run/flow/pour/stream/gush/cascade/trickle down (sth)
water runs/flows/pours/streams/gushes/circulates/trickles/cascades
blood runs/flows/pours/streams/gushes/circulates/trickles 
Example Bank:
He hopes to run for president in 2016.
He just wanted to run away and hide.
He ran headlong into an enemy patrol.
He ran out of the house.
He ran unsuccessfully for the Senate in New York.
He was given two twelve-month sentences to run concurrently.
In many respects his poetical development had run parallel to Wordsworth's.
John can run very fast.
Local buses run regularly to and from the school.
Our car only runs on unleaded petrol.
She ran quickly downstairs.
She turned and ran blindly down the street.
Stop trying to run my life for me.
The engine was running very smoothly.
The group is run independently of college authorities.
The programme will be jointly run with NASA in the US.
The railway line runs right past the house.
The road and the canal run parallel to each other.
The road runs alongside the canal.
The school is jointly run with the local parish.
The train was running late, as usual.
The two experiments are run in parallel.
Things ran very smoothly for a while.
We soon had the sound system up and running.
(in stories) Sharon ran as fast as her legs could carry her.
Alan was running for a bus when he slipped on some ice.
Billy turned the corner and ran headlong into Mrs Bradley.
Don't run away! I only want to talk to you!
He claimed that 95 per cent of trains run on time.
He tried to run the restaurant himself, but soon got into financial difficulties.
I like to go running in the mornings before work.
I ran four miles today.
I've spent the whole day running around after the kids.
It is a small, privately run hotel.
Our van runs on diesel.
Quick— run for it!
Run after her and tell her she's forgotten her bag.
She ran quickly up the stairs.
Terrified, he ran all the way home.
The ball hit the hole and ran past.
The boy went running off to get the ball.
The buses run every thirty minutes.
The college runs several English classes for adults.
The course teaches some of the skills you need to set up and run a business.
The office had never been so well run.
The old tramlines are still there but no trams run on them now.
The sledge ran smoothly over the snow.
They ran a series of lectures on the subject.
They've seen us! Run for your life!
Try to run round the block a few times every morning.
Volunteer counsellors run a 24-hour helpline.
What applications were you running when the problem occurred?
When does the London Underground stop running at night?
Which operating system have you got running?
Who is running the event?
Your nose is running.
Idioms: come running  common, general, ordinary, usual run  give get the run of something  give somebody a run for their money  on the run  run for it  up and running

Derived: run across somebody  run after somebody  run along  run around with somebody  run at somebody  run away  run away from something  run away with something  run away with you  run back over something  run down  run into somebody  run into something  run off  run off with somebody  run off with something  run on  run on something  run out  run out on somebody  run over  run over something  run somebody down  run somebody in  run somebody out  run somebody over  run somebody through  run something by somebody  run something down  run something in  run something into somebody  run something off  run something past somebody  run something up  run through something  run to something  run up against something  run with somebody  run with something 

Cambridge Advanced Learner's Dictionary

Cambridge Advanced Learner's Dictionary - 4th Edition

run / rʌn / verb ( present participle running , past tense ran , past participle run ) (GO QUICKLY)


A1 [ I or T ] (of people and some animals) to move along, faster than walking, by taking quick steps in which each foot is lifted before the next foot touches the ground:

[ + to infinitive ] The children had to run to keep up with their father.

I can run a mile in five minutes.

The sheep ran away/off in fright.

A little girl ran up to (= came quickly beside) me, crying for her daddy.

Are you running against each other or against the clock?

The first two races will be run (off) (= will happen) in 20 minutes.

[ T ] If you run an animal in a race, you cause it to take part:

Thompson Stables are running three horses in the next race.

[ I + adv/prep ] to go quickly or in a hurry:

Would you run round to the post office and get me some stamps?

You don't put on weight when you spend all day running round after small children.

run for sth to run fast in order to get or avoid something:

I ran for the bus but it drove off.

run on the spot to move your legs as if running, while you stay in one place:

I run on the spot to warm up before I play football.

run / rʌn / verb [ I or T , usually + adv/prep ] ( present participle running , past tense ran , past participle run ) (TRAVEL)

B2 to (cause something to) travel, move, or continue in a particular way:

Trains are still running, despite the snow.

A bus runs (= goes on a particular route at particular times) three times a day into town.

Skis are waxed on the bottom so that they run smoothly over the snow.

The route/railway/road runs (= goes) across the border/ into Italy/ through the mountains.

A climbing rose bush runs (= grows) around the front door.

There's a beautiful cornice running around/round all the ceilings.

The film runs (= lasts) for two hours.

The show/course/film runs (= continues) for another week.

A magazine subscription usually only runs (= can be used) for one year.

Buses are running an hour late , because of an earlier accident.

The truck's brakes failed and it ran (= went) off the road.

Trains run on rails (= move along on top of them) .

Electricity is running through (= moving along within) this cable.

An angry muttering ran through (= went through) the crowd.

A shiver of fear ran through his (body).

She ran her finger along/down the page/list, looking for her name.

Could you run the tape/film/video back/forwards , please?

Could you possibly run me (= take me in your car) home/to the station?

He ran (= pushed) his fingers through his hair and looked up at me.


run / rʌn / verb ( present participle running , past tense ran , past participle run ) (OPERATE)

B2 [ I or T ] to (cause something to) operate:

Keep clear of the machines while they're running.

The government took desperate measures to keep the economy running.

Do you know how to run this sort of machinery?

The mechanic asked me to run the engine (= switch it on and allow it to work) for a minute.

They had the new computer system up and running (= working) within an hour.

We've run the computer program, but nothing happens.

We're running (= doing) an experiment.

B1 [ T ] to be in control of something:

He's been running a restaurant/his own company since he left school.

The local college runs (= provides) a course in self-defence.

a well-run/badly-run organization/business/course

run a tight ship to control a business or other organization firmly and effectively:

Ruth runs a tight ship and has no time for shirkers.

[ T ] If you run a car, you own one, drive it, and pay for the costs:

I can't afford to run a car.

[ T ] to organize the way you live or work:

Some people run their lives according to the movements of the stars.

run / rʌn / verb [ I or T ] ( present participle running , past tense ran , past participle run ) (FLOW)

B2 to (cause something to) flow, produce liquid, or (especially of colours in clothes) to come out or spread:

I can feel trickles of sweat running down my neck.

Don't cry, or your make-up will run (= become liquid and move down your face) .

The walls were running with damp.

The river runs (down) to/into the sea.

The hot tap is running cold (= producing cold water) !

I turned the tap on and ran some cold water on the burn.

[ + two objects ] I'll run you a hot bath (= fill a bath with water for you) .

My nose and eyes have been running all week because of hay fever.

I must have washed my dress at too high a temperature, because the colour has run.

If the first layer isn't dry before you add the next one, the colours will run into each other (= mix) .

figurative After twelve hours at her word processor, the words began to run into one another (= seem mixed together) .

run / rʌn / verb [ L only + adj ] ( present participle running , past tense ran , past participle run ) (BECOME)

to be or become:

Differences between the two sides run deep (= are serious) .

The river/reservoir/well ran dry (= its supply of water finished) .

Supplies are running low (= there's not much left) .

We're beginning to run short of money/Money is beginning to run short (= there's not much left) .


run / rʌn / verb [ I ] ( present participle running , past tense ran , past participle run ) (HOLE)

If tights (= thin clothing that covers the legs) run, a long, thin hole appears in them:

Oh no, my tights have run!

run / rʌn / verb ( present participle running , past tense ran , past participle run ) (SHOW)

C1 [ T ] to show something in a newspaper or magazine, on television, etc.:

All the newspapers ran (= printed) stories about the new peace talks.

Channel 4 is running a series on the unfairness of the legal system.

[ I ] Indian English If a film is running at a particular place, you can see it there:

What's running at the the Metro this week?


run / rʌn / verb [ I ] ( present participle running , past tense ran , past participle run ) (POLITICS)

to compete as a candidate in an election:

Mrs Thatcher wanted to run a fourth time.

He's going to run against Smith/ for president/ for re-election.

run / rʌn / verb [ T ] ( present participle running , past tense ran , past participle run ) (TAKE)

to take guns or drugs illegally from one place to another:

He was arrested for running drugs across the border into America.

© Cambridge University Press 2013

Collins COBUILD Advanced Learner’s English Dictionary


(runs, running, ran)

Frequency: The word is one of the 700 most common words in English.

Note: The form 'run' is used in the present tense and is also the past participle of the verb.

When you run, you move more quickly than when you walk, for example because you are in a hurry to get somewhere, or for exercise.
I excused myself and ran back to the telephone...
He ran the last block to the White House with two cases of gear...
Antonia ran to meet them.
VERB: V adv/prep, V n/amount, V

Run is also a noun.
After a six-mile run, Jackie returns home for a substantial breakfast.
N-COUNT: usu sing

When someone runs in a race, they run in competition with other people.
...when I was running in the New York Marathon...
Phyllis Smith ran a controlled race to qualify in 51.32 sec.
VERB: V, V n

When a horse runs in a race or when its owner runs it, it competes in a race.
The owner insisted on Cool Ground running in the Gold Cup...
If we have a wet spell, Cecil could also run Armiger in the Derby.
VERB: V, V n

If you say that something long, such as a road, runs in a particular direction, you are describing its course or position. You can also say that something runs the length or width of something else.
...the sun-dappled trail which ran through the beech woods.
VERB: V prep/adv

If you run a wire or tube somewhere, you fix it or pull it from, to, or across a particular place.
Our host ran a long extension cord out from the house and set up a screen and a projector.
VERB: V n prep/adv

If you run your hand or an object through something, you move your hand or the object through it.
He laughed and ran his fingers through his hair...
VERB: V n prep

If you run something through a machine, process, or series of tests, you make it go through the machine, process, or tests.
They have gathered the best statistics they can find and run them through their own computers.
VERB: V n through n

If someone runs for office in an election, they take part as a candidate.
It was only last February that he announced he would run for president...
It is no easy job to run against John Glenn, Ohio’s Democratic senator...
Women are running in nearly all the contested seats in Los Angeles.
= stand
VERB: V for n, V against n, V

A run for office is an attempt to be elected to office. (mainly AM; in BRIT, usually use bid)
He was already preparing his run for the presidency.
N-SING: N for n

If you run something such as a business or an activity, you are in charge of it or you organize it.
His stepfather ran a prosperous paint business...
Is this any way to run a country?...
...a well-run, profitable organisation.
VERB: V n, V n, V-ed

If you talk about how a system, an organization, or someone’s life is running, you are saying how well it is operating or progressing.
Officials in charge of the camps say the system is now running extremely smoothly.
...the staff who have kept the bank running.
VERB: usu cont, V adv, V

If you run an experiment, computer program, or other process, or start it running, you start it and let it continue.
He ran a lot of tests and it turned out I had an infection called mycoplasma...
You can check your program one command at a time while it’s running.
VERB: V n, V

When you run a cassette or video tape or when it runs, it moves through the machine as the machine operates.
He pushed the play button again and ran the tape...
The tape had run to the end but recorded nothing.
= play
VERB: V n, V

When a machine is running or when you are running it, it is switched on and is working.
We told him to wait out front with the engine running.
...with everybody running their appliances all at the same time.
VERB: usu cont, V, V n

A machine or equipment that runs on or off a particular source of energy functions using that source of energy.
Black cabs run on diesel...
VERB: V on/off n

If you run a car or a piece of equipment, you have it and use it. (mainly BRIT)
I ran a 1960 Rover 100 from 1977 until 1983.

When you say that vehicles such as trains and buses run from one place to another, you mean they regularly travel along that route.
A shuttle bus runs frequently between the Inn and the Country Club.
...a government which can’t make the trains run on time.
VERB: V prep, V

If you run someone somewhere in a car, you drive them there. (INFORMAL)
Could you run me up to Baltimore?
= drive
VERB: V n prep/adv

If you run over or down to a place that is quite near, you drive there. (INFORMAL)
I’ll run over to Short Mountain and check on Mrs Adams.
= drive
VERB: V adv

A run is a journey somewhere.
...doing the morning school run.

If a liquid runs in a particular direction, it flows in that direction.
Tears were running down her cheeks...
Wash the rice in cold water until the water runs clear.
= flow
VERB: V prep/adv, V adj

If you run water, or if you run a tap or a bath, you cause water to flow from a tap.
She went to the sink and ran water into her empty glass...

If a tap or a bath is running, water is coming out of a tap.
You must have left a tap running in the bathroom...
VERB: only cont, V

If your nose is running, liquid is flowing out of it, usually because you have a cold.
Timothy was crying, mostly from exhaustion, and his nose was running.
VERB: usu cont, V

If a surface is running with a liquid, that liquid is flowing down it.
After an hour he realised he was completely running with sweat...
VERB: usu cont, V with n

If the dye in some cloth or the ink on some paper runs, it comes off or spreads when the cloth or paper gets wet.
The ink had run on the wet paper.

If a feeling runs through your body or a thought runs through your mind, you experience it or think it quickly.
She felt a surge of excitement run through her...
= go
VERB: V through n

If a feeling or noise runs through a group of people, it spreads among them.
A buzz of excitement ran through the crowd.
= go
VERB: V through n

If a theme or feature runs through something such as someone’s actions or writing, it is present in all of it.
Another thread running through this series is the role of doctors in the treatment of the mentally ill...
There was something of this mood running throughout the Congress’s deliberations.
VERB: V through n, V throughout n

When newspapers or magazines run a particular item or story or if it runs, it is published or printed.
The newspaper ran a series of four editorials entitled ‘The Choice of Our Lives.’
...an editorial that ran this weekend entitled ‘Mr. Cuomo Backs Out.’
VERB: V n, V

If an amount is running at a particular level, it is at that level.
Today’s RPI figure shows inflation running at 10.9 per cent...
= stand
VERB: V at n

If a play, event, or legal contract runs for a particular period of time, it lasts for that period of time.
It pleased critics but ran for only three years in the West End...
The contract was to run from 1992 to 2020...
I predict it will run and run.
VERB: V for amount, V prep, V

If someone or something is running late, they have taken more time than had been planned. If they are running to time or ahead of time, they have taken the time planned or less than the time planned.
Tell her I’ll call her back later, I’m running late again...
VERB: usu cont, V adv/prep

If you are running a temperature or a fever, you have a high temperature because you are ill.
The little girl is running a fever and she needs help.

A run of a play or television programme is the period of time during which performances are given or programmes are shown.
The show will transfer to the West End on October 9, after a month’s run in Birmingham...
N-COUNT: with supp

A run of successes or failures is a series of successes or failures.
The England skipper is haunted by a run of low scores...
N-SING: usu N of n

A run of a product is the amount that a company or factory decides to produce at one time.
Wayne plans to increase the print run to 1,000...
N-COUNT: usu supp N

In cricket or baseball, a run is a score of one, which is made by players running between marked places on the field after hitting the ball.
At 20 he became the youngest player to score 2,000 runs in a season.

If someone gives you the run of a place, they give you permission to go where you like in it and use it as you wish.
He had the run of the house and the pool.
N-SING: the N of n

If there is a run on something, a lot of people want to buy it or get it at the same time.
A run on sterling has killed off hopes of a rate cut...
N-SING: N on n

A ski run or bobsleigh run is a course or route that has been designed for skiing or for riding in a bobsleigh.
N-COUNT: usu n N

see also running, dummy run, test run, trial run

If something happens against the run of play or against the run of events, it is different from what is generally happening in a game or situation. (BRIT)
The decisive goal arrived against the run of play...

If you run someone close, run them a close second, or run a close second, you almost beat them in a race or competition.
The Under-21 team has defeated Wales and Scotland this season, and ran England very close...
PHRASE: V inflects

If a river or well runs dry, it no longer has any water in it. If an oil well runs dry, it no longer produces any oil.
Streams had run dry for the first time in memory.
= dry up
PHRASE: V inflects

If a source of information or money runs dry, no more information or money can be obtained from it.
Three days into production, the kitty had run dry.
= dry up
PHRASE: V inflects

If a characteristic runs in someone’s family, it often occurs in members of that family, in different generations.
The insanity which ran in his family haunted him.
PHRASE: V inflects

If you make a run for it or if you run for it, you run away in order to escape from someone or something.
A helicopter hovered overhead as one of the gang made a run for it...
PHRASE: V inflects

If people’s feelings are running high, they are very angry, concerned, or excited.
Feelings there have been running high in the wake of last week’s killing.
PHRASE: V inflects

If you talk about what will happen in the long run, you are saying what you think will happen over a long period of time in the future. If you talk about what will happen in the short run, you are saying what you think will happen in the near future.
Sometimes expensive drugs or other treatments can be economical in the long run...
In fact, things could get worse in the short run.
PHRASE: PHR with cl, PHR with v

If you say that someone would run a mile if faced with something, you mean that they are very frightened of it and would try to avoid it.
Yasmin admits she would run a mile if Mark asked her out.
PHRASE: V inflects

If you say that someone could give someone else a run for their money, you mean you think they are almost as good as the other person.
...a youngster who even now could give Meryl Streep a run for her money.
PHRASE: V inflects

If someone is on the run, they are trying to escape or hide from someone such as the police or an enemy.
Fifteen-year-old Danny is on the run from a local authority home.
PHRASE: v-link PHR, PHR after v

If someone is on the run, they are being severely defeated in a contest or competition.
His opponents believe he is definitely on the run...
PHRASE: usu v-link PHR

If you say that a person or group is running scared, you mean that they are frightened of what someone might do to them or what might happen.
The administration is running scared.
PHRASE: V inflects

If you are running short of something or running low on something, you do not have much of it left. If a supply of something is running short or running low, there is not much of it left.
Government forces are running short of ammunition and fuel...
We are running low on drinking water...
PHRASE: V inflects

Merriam-Webster's Advanced Learner's Dictionary

Merriam-Webster's Advanced Learner's Dictionary: 

1run /ˈrʌn/ verb runs; ran /ˈræn/; run; run·ning
1 [no obj]
a : to move with your legs at a speed that is faster than walking
• How fast can you run?
• He runs faster than anyone else on the team.
• She ran up the stairs to get her jacket.
• We ran for the train—but missed it.
• I heard her scream and ran to help.
• She ran to me for help.
• The dog ran away from me.
• The dog ran toward me.
• When I called the dog, he came running.
• Don't expect me to come running every time you want something. I'm not your servant.
• The chickens were running loose in the yard.
• The horses ran wild.
• He ran at me with a knife. [=he ran toward me with a knife in his hand]
- often used figuratively
• He ran back to his ex-girlfriend after I dumped him.
• You can't keep running away from your problems.
• Don't come running to me when you get in trouble.
• Don't let your imagination run wild. I'm sure nothing bad has happened.
b : to leave a place quickly by running
• When the alarm sounded, the robbers ran.
• He dropped the gun and ran.
• Quick! Run and get a doctor!
• The ambushed soldiers ran for cover.
• They had the enemy running scared.
- often + away
• When she saw all the people in the audience, she had a sudden urge to run away.
• They ran away screaming.
- often + off
• When they saw the police, they quickly ran off.
2 a : to run as part of a sport, for exercise, or in a race

[no obj]

• He ran on the track team in college.
• She's running in the marathon this year.
• The horse will not be running in this race.

[+ obj]

• I run six miles every day.
• She ran a great race. [=she ran very well in the race]
• He ran track in college.
• She's running the marathon this year.
• The marathon will be run tomorrow. [=people will be running the marathon tomorrow]
b American football : to carry and run with (the ball)

[+ obj]

• He ran the football for a 20-yard gain.
• He ran the kick back to the 40-yard line.

[no obj]

• He ran for 15 yards.
c baseball : to run from base to base

[no obj]

• He runs well and might attempt a steal.

[+ obj]

• He runs the bases well.
3 [+ obj] : to cause (an animal) to run
• He ran the horse through the fields.
4 [no obj] chiefly US : to be a candidate in an election for a particular office - often + for
• She is running [=(Brit) standing] for mayor.
- often + against
• He is running against her in the upcoming election.
5 [+ obj]
a : to direct the business or activities of (something)
• She runs [=manages] the restaurant/hotel/store.
• He runs the after-school program.
• The President is doing a good job running the country.
• The company is badly/privately run.
• state/family-run companies
• I'm old enough to run my own life! [=make my own decisions]
b : to do (a test or check) on someone or something
• The doctors need to run some more tests.
- often + on
• The doctors ran some tests on the blood samples.
• The police ran a security check on him.
6 a [+ obj] : to use and control (something)
• I'm not licensed to run [=operate] a forklift.
b [+ obj] : to put (something) into operation
• You should run the engine for a few minutes before you start driving.
• He ran the program (on the computer).
c [no obj] : to function or operate
• Never leave your car unattended while the engine is running.
• He didn't know the camera was still running.
• He had his new computer up and running in no time.
- often + on
• This software runs on most computers.
• The car runs on [=uses] diesel.
7 a usually followed by an adverb or preposition [no obj] : to go on a particular route or at particular times
• The bus/ferry runs every hour.
• The train runs between New York and Washington.
• Trains no longer run on this track.
• The buses are running late. [=the buses are late]
b [+ obj] : to have (a bus, train, ferry, etc.) traveling on a route
• They run extra trains on Saturdays.
8 a [no obj] : to make a quick trip to a place for something
• She ran (up/down) to the store for bread and milk.
• He ran over to the neighbors for some sugar.
b [+ obj] : to drive (someone) a short distance to a place or event
• I have to run the kids to soccer practice.
c always followed by an adverb or preposition [+ obj] : to bring (something) quickly to someone who is at a particular place
• Wait here. I'm just going to run this in/inside to her.
• He ran an umbrella out to her before she drove off.
d [+ obj] : to do (something that involves making a quick trip) : to do (an errand)
• I have a few errands to run after I leave work today.
9 always followed by an adverb or preposition
a [+ obj] : to cause (a driver or vehicle) to move in a particular direction
• That car tried to run me off the road!
• She ran her car off the road.
• He ran the car into a tree.
b [no obj] of a driver or vehicle : to move in a particular direction
• His car ran off the road. = He ran off the road.
- see also run into (below), run over (below)
10 always followed by an adverb or preposition
a [+ obj] : to cause (something) to pass through, over, along, or into something else
• She ran her fingers through my hair.
• He ran a brush over the dog's fur.
• I quickly ran my eyes over/down the list of names.
b [no obj] : to travel or spread in a fast or uncontrolled way
• Whispers ran through the crowd.
• A chill ran up/down my spine.
11 always followed by an adverb or preposition [no obj]
a : to go or extend in a particular direction
• The boundary line runs east.
• The road runs through the mountain.
• The highway runs from Boston to New York.
- sometimes used figuratively
• My tastes in novels run to/toward science fiction and thrillers. [=I tend to like science fiction and thrillers]
• Such behavior runs counter to [=such behavior does not agree with] the values of our society.
• He does nothing that would run against [=go against] his moral principles.
- used to describe the position of a road, path, etc.
• The highway runs close to the shore.
• The route runs the length of the eastern coast.
• A path runs along the ridge.
• The pipes run beneath the floor.
• There was a scratch running down the side of the car.
12 [+ obj] : to cause (something, such as a wire or cable) to go or extend from one point to another
• He ran the wires up from the basement.
13 [+ obj] : to bring (something) from one country into another country illegally and secretly
• He was arrested for running [=smuggling] drugs into the country.
14 a [no obj] : to flow
• He left the water running. : to flow in a particular direction
• The river runs down to the valley.
• The river runs into the gulf.
• The tide was running out.
• Sand ran out of the bag.
• Steam runs through the pipes.
• Blood was running down his leg.
b [+ obj] : to cause (something) to flow or to produce a flow of water
• She ran the tap/faucet.
Run the water until it gets hot.
c [+ obj] : to prepare (a bath) by running a faucet
• She ran a hot bath for her husband. = She ran her husband a hot bath.
15 [no obj]
a : to produce a flow of liquid
• Chopping the onions made my eyes run. [=water]
• I knew I was getting sick when my nose started to run.
• a running sore
b : to spread or flow into another area
• Your eyeliner is running.
• Mascara ran from her eyes.
• The paint ran in some spots.
• The writing was blurred where the ink ran.
c : to have a color that spreads onto other pieces of clothing when clothes are washed together
• Her red shirt ran and made my blue jeans look purple.
• colors that run
16 always followed by an adverb or preposition [no obj] : to continue or remain effective for a particular period of time
• His contract runs until next season.
• She received six months on each charge, and the sentences are to run concurrently.
• The course runs over a six-week period of time.
• The televised game ran 30 minutes over the scheduled time.
• The play has run for six months.
• Things ran smoothly at the office while the boss was away.
17 [no obj] : to be or to begin to be something specified
• The well has run dry.
• Her creativity has run dry.
• We are running low on fuel. [=our supply of fuel is getting low]
• Supplies were running low/short.
• We ran short of money. [=we did not have enough money]
• I have to hurry. I'm running late. [=I'm late; I'm behind schedule]
• The project is running behind schedule.
18 [no obj] : to include everything between specified limits : range
• The prices for tickets run from $10 to $50.
19 [+ obj] : to allow charges on (a bill) to add up before paying
• He ran a tab at the bar.
20 a [+ obj] : to have (an amount of money) as a price
• The rooms run [=cost] $100 a night.
b [no obj] : to have or reach a particular length, size, or amount
• The book runs (to) nearly 500 pages.
• Their annual budget runs to about 5 million dollars.
• Their yearly income runs into/to six figures. [=their yearly income is more than $100,000]
• Gas is running at over $4 per gallon. [=gas prices are over $4 per gallon]
21 a [+ obj] : to print or broadcast (something)
• Every newspaper in the city ran the story.
• The ad was run in yesterday's newspaper.
• The news station ran a feature on how to eat healthier.
b [no obj] : to appear in print or on television
• Many of his stories ran in national magazines.
• The show has run for five seasons.
22 [+ obj] : to produce (a copy of a document, newspaper, etc.) using a printer or copying machine
• 10,000 copies were run for the first edition.
- see also run off (below)
23 a [+ obj] : to have (particular words) in writing or print
• “We Will Not Lose” ran the headline. [=the headline was/said “We Will Not Lose”]
b [no obj] : to be expressed in words
• The definition runs as follows …
24 [+ obj] : to drive past or through (a stop sign or red traffic light) illegally without stopping
• He ran a red light. = He ran the light.
• She ran the stop sign.
25 [no obj] US of stockings : to start to have a long hole that continues to get longer
• The nylons are guaranteed not to run. [=(Brit) ladder]
26 [+ obj] chiefly Brit : to own and maintain (a vehicle)
• I can't afford to run a car on my salary.

In addition to the phrases shown below, run occurs in many idioms that are shown at appropriate entries throughout the dictionary. For example, cut and run can be found at 1cut and run a tight ship can be found at 1ship.

run across [phrasal verb] run across (someone or something) : to meet (someone) or find (something) by chance
• I ran across [=ran into] an old roommate of mine today.
• I ran across some old photos from when I was a kid.
run a fever/temperature
✦If you are running a fever/temperature, you have a body temperature that is higher than normal.
run after [phrasal verb]
1 run after (someone or something) : to run toward (someone or something) in an attempt to catch that person or thing
• The dog ran after [=chased] the squirrel.
2 run after (someone) informal + disapproving : to try to start a romantic relationship with (someone)
• He's always running after younger women.
run along [phrasal verb] informal + somewhat old-fashioned : to go away : leave
• He told the boy to run along home.
Run along now, kid. This doesn't concern you.
run around or chiefly Brit run about or run round [phrasal verb]
1 : to run in an area while playing
• The children were running around outside.
2 informal : to go from place to place in a busy or hurried way
• I spent the whole day running around doing errands.
3 run around/about/round with (someone) informal + disapproving : to spend a lot of time with (someone)
• He runs around with younger women.
run away [phrasal verb]
1 : to leave your home suddenly without permission and go somewhere else to live
• He ran away (from home) at a young age.
• They ran away [=ran off] together because their families objected to their marriage.
- see also runaway
2 : to avoid a person or situation that makes you feel uncomfortable
• You shouldn't keep running away. You should face your mom and tell her how you feel.
3 a run away with (someone) disapproving : to leave a person or place in order to live with and have a sexual relationship with (someone)
• He left his wife and ran away with [=ran off with] his secretary.
• She ran away with a man old enough to be her father.
b run away with (something) : to leave a place with (something that does not belong to you)
• The butler ran away with [=stole, ran off with] the family silver.
4 run away with (something) informal
a : to be the best or most popular performer in (a performance)
• She ran away with [=stole] the show.
b : to win (something) very easily
• She ran away with the election.
• He ran away with first place.
5 run away with (someone) : to make (someone) do something that is not sensible or reasonable
• Don't let your imagination run away with you. [=don't let yourself imagine all kinds of things that aren't true]
- see also 1run 1b (above)
run by/past [phrasal verb] run (something) by/past (someone) : to tell (something) to (someone) so that it can be considered, approved, etc.
• You'd better run this past the boss. [=you'd better tell the boss about this and find out if he/she thinks it is a good idea]
• He ran some ideas by her.
• (informal) Can you run that by me again? [=can you repeat what you just said?]
run down [phrasal verb]
1 run (someone or something) down or run down (someone or something) : to hit and knock down (a person or animal) with a vehicle
• He says she deliberately tried to run him down.
2 a run (someone or something) down or run down (someone or something) : to chase after and catch (a person or animal)
• The cops ran the robber down in an alley.
b : to find (someone or something) after searching
• He wasn't in his office, but I finally ran him down in the faculty lounge.
3 run down or run down (something) or run (something) down
a : to use up or cause (something) to use up all of its power
• The clock ran down. [=the clock slowed down and stopped working because it did not have any more power]
• The watch's battery ran down.
• Turn off the radio so you don't run down the batteries.
b Brit : to become or cause (something, such as a business or activity) to become gradually smaller
• The company has been running down for decades.
• The company has been running down its factories/inventory.
4 run (someone or something) down or run down (someone or something) informal : to criticize (someone or something) in usually an unfair way
• Don't keep running yourself down like that: you have a lot to offer!
5 run down (something) : to say or repeat (a list of people or things) from the beginning to the end
• Let me just run down all the things we need to do.
• He ran down the list of names.
- see also rundown
run for it informal : to run to avoid being caught
• It's the cops! Run for it!
run high : to be or become very strong or intense
• Passions often run high in these debates. [=people often get very angry in these debates]
• Emotions are running high between the two teams.
run in [phrasal verb]
1 run (someone) in or run in (someone) informal + somewhat old-fashioned : to arrest (someone)
• The police ran him in for being drunk and disorderly.
2 run (something) in or run in (something) Brit : to drive (a new vehicle) carefully for a period of time until it is ready for regular use
• You shouldn't drive a new car too fast while you're running it in. [=breaking it in]
run into [phrasal verb]
1 run into (someone or something) : to move into (someone or something) in a sudden or forceful way
• He went off the road and ran into a tree. = His car went off the road and ran into a tree.
• Some guy on a bike almost ran into me!
• She wasn't paying attention and ran right into the table.
2 run into (someone) : to meet (someone) by chance
• I ran into [=ran across] an old classmate the other day.
3 run into (something) : to experience (something that is unpleasant or difficult) : encounter
• We ran into some bad weather on our way home.
• We ran into some problems setting up the computer.
run its course
✦When something runs its course, it begins, continues for a time, and then ends.
• The disease usually runs its course in a few days.
run off [phrasal verb]
1 a : to leave or abandon a person or place
• Her husband ran off and left her with two small children to care for.
- see also 1run 1b (above)
b run off with (someone or something) informal : to leave a place with (someone or something) : to run away with (someone or something)
• Her husband ran off with his secretary.
• She ran off with all the money.
2 run off (something) or run (something) off : to repeat or produce (something) quickly
• Would you please run off five copies of this letter?
- see also 1run 22 (above)
3 run (someone or something) off or run off (someone or something) US : to force (a person or animal) off your land
• He ran us off his property.
run on [phrasal verb]
1 : to talk about something for a long time
• He ran on (and on) about politics until everybody was bored.
2 : to keep going without being stopped or interrupted for a long period of time
• The meeting ran on for hours.
run out [phrasal verb]
1 a : to come to an end
• Time ran out [=expired] before we could tie the game.
• My contract will run out soon.
b : to become used up
• The gasoline ran out before we got to Denver.
• Our money finally ran out. [=our money was all used; we had no more money]
2 run (someone) out or run (someone) out of (something) old-fashioned : to force (someone) to leave a place
• An angry mob ran him out of town.
3 run out (something) or run (something) out baseball of a batter : to run hard to first base after hitting (a batted ball)
• His manager got angry because he failed to run out a grounder.
4 run out or run out of (something) : to use up the available supply of (something)
• We're low on gas. We'd better stop before we run out.
• He ran out of space and had to put his address on the other side of the paper.
• You have to work faster. We're running out of time.
5 run out on (someone) informal : to leave (someone you should stay with) : to abandon or desert (someone)
• She ran out on her husband and children to be with a man old enough to be her father.
run over [phrasal verb]
1 : to go beyond a limit
• The meeting ran over. [=the meeting was longer than it was expected or planned to be]
2 a : to flow over the top or edge of something : overflow
• The water was running over onto the floor.
b of a container : to have a liquid flow over its edge : overflow
• His cup ran over.


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