A1 (پایه)


behind [preposition]

At the back (of)

US /bɪˈhaɪnd/ 
UK /bɪˈhaɪnd/ 

پشت سر


Look behind you!

Oxford Essential Dictionary


 preposition, adverb

1 at or to the back of somebody or something:
I hid behind the wall.
I drove off and Jim followed behind.

2 slower or less good than somebody or something; slower or less good than you should be:
She is behind with her work because she is often ill.

3 in the place where somebody or something was before:
I got off the train and left my bag behind (= on the train).

Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English


I. behind1 S1 W1 /bɪˈhaɪnd/ BrE AmE preposition, adverb
[Language: Old English; Origin: behindan, from hindan 'from behind']
1. at or towards the back of a thing or person:
I turned to speak to the person standing behind me.
Someone could easily creep up behind us.
The car behind was hooting impatiently.
Jane shut the door behind her.
The manager was sitting behind a large desk.
close behind/not far behind
He set off down the road with the rest of us following close behind.
► Do not say ‘behind of’: He hid behind a chair (NOT behind of a chair).
2. not as successful or not having made as much progress as someone or something else:
Mark’s always behind the rest of his class in mathematics.
This victory lifts Ferguson’s team into fifth place, nine points behind leaders Norwich.
Europe was falling behind in the important field of computer technology.
3. used to say that someone is late in doing what they have to do:
This work should have been finished yesterday. I’m getting terribly behind.
Victor had fallen behind with his mortgage payments after losing his job.
an important research project that is already two years behind schedule (=not ready at the time planned)
4. used for talking about the hidden reason for something:
I wonder what’s behind this change of plan.
Perhaps a bitter experience lay behind her anger.
5. supporting a person, idea etc:
The workers are very much behind these proposals.
I suppose I’m lucky because my parents were behind me all the way.
6. responsible for a plan, idea etc or for organizing something:
It was alleged that foreign agents were behind the recent violence.
The Rotary Club is behind the fund-raising for the new hospital.
7. if an unpleasant experience or situation is behind you, it no longer upsets you or affects your life:
Now you can put all these worries behind you.
a chance to start a new life and leave all your troubles behind
8. if you have experience behind you, you have gained valuable skills or important qualities that can be used:
Marjorie is one of the top designers in the business, with years of experience behind her.
9. used when the real facts about a situation or someone’s character are hidden by the way things seem or by the way a person behaves:
We were determined to find the truth behind this mystery.
You could see the burning hatred behind Graham’s calm manner.
10. if a student stays behind after school or after a lesson, they stay after it has finished
behind sb’s back at ↑back2(9), ⇨ behind bars at ↑bar1(7), ⇨ behind the times at ↑time1(38)
• • •
behind at or towards the back of something, and often hidden by it: The sun went behind a cloud. | I got stuck behind a truck on the way to the airport.
at the back British English, in (the) back American English behind something, especially a building: There’s a small garden at the back of the cottage. | Their house has a pool in the back.
at/to the rear written behind something, especially a building. At/to the rear sounds rather formal and is used especially in written descriptions: They parked in a small carpark at the rear of the hotel. | There is a small seating area to the rear.
in the background if someone or something is in the background, it is behind the place where the main activity is happening: If you look carefully at the painting, you will see several men sitting at a table in the background.

Oxford Advanced Learner's Dictionary


be·hind preposition, adverb, noun   [bɪˈhaɪnd]    [bɪˈhaɪnd] 

1. at or towards the back of sb/sth, and often hidden by it or them
Who's the girl standing behind Jan?
Stay close behind me.
a small street behind the station
She glanced behind her.
Don't forget to lock the door behind you (= when you leave).
The sun disappeared behind the clouds.

compare  in front of

2. making less progress than sb/sth
He's behind the rest of the class in reading.

We're behind schedule (= late).

3. giving support to or approval of sb/sth

She knew that, whatever she decided, her family was right behind her.

4. responsible for starting or developing sth
What's behind that happy smile (= what is causing it)?

He was the man behind the plan to build a new hospital.

5. used to say that sth is in sb's past
The accident is behind you now, so try to forget it.
She has ten years' useful experience behind her.  
Word Origin:
Old English behindan, bihindan, from bi ‘by’ + hindan ‘from behind’.  
Which Word?:
at the back / at the rear / behind

At the back and at the rear have a similar meaning, but at the rear is used more in formal or official language: What’s that at the back of the fridge? Smoking is only allowed at the rear of the aircraft. It is more usual to talk about the back door of a house but the rear exit of an aircraft or public building. If something is behind something else it is near to the back of it but not part of it. Compare: Our room was at the back of the hotel and There’s a lovely wood just behind our hotel.

Cambridge Advanced Learner's Dictionary

Cambridge Advanced Learner's Dictionary - 4th Edition

behind / bɪˈhaɪnd / preposition , adverb

A1 at the back (of):

Look behind you!

I hung my coat behind the door.

Alex led, and I followed along behind.

mainly UK As hard as she tried, she always fell behind the other swimmers in the races.

figurative I knew that behind (= hidden by) her smile was sadness.


behind / bɪˈhaɪnd / preposition

C1 responsible for or the cause of:

He wondered what was behind his neighbour's sudden friendliness.

Marie Curie was the woman behind enormous changes in the science of chemistry.

© Cambridge University Press 2013

Collins COBUILD Advanced Learner’s English Dictionary


Frequency: The word is one of the 700 most common words in English.
Note: In addition to the uses shown below, 'behind' is also used in a few phrasal verbs, such as ‘fall behind’ and ‘lie behind’.
Please look at category 14 to see if the expression you are looking for is shown under another headword.
If something is behind a thing or person, it is on the other side of them from you, or nearer their back rather than their front.
I put one of the cushions behind his head...
They were parked behind the truck...

Behind is also an adverb.
Rising into the hills behind are 800 acres of parkland...
She was attacked from behind.
ADV: usu n ADV, from ADV
If you are walking or travelling behind someone or something, you are following them.
Keith wandered along behind him...
Myra and Sam and the children were driving behind them.

Behind is also an adverb.
The troopers followed behind, every muscle tensed for the sudden gunfire.
ADV: ADV after v
If someone is behind a desk, counter, or bar, they are on the other side of it from where you are.
The colonel was sitting behind a cheap wooden desk...
He could just about see the little man behind the counter.
When you shut a door or gate behind you, you shut it after you have gone through it.
I walked out and closed the door behind me...
He slammed the gate shut behind him.
The people, reason, or events behind a situation are the causes of it or are responsible for it.
It is still not clear who was behind the killing...
He is embarrassed about the motives behind his decision.
If something or someone is behind you, they support you and help you.
He had the state’s judicial power behind him.
If you refer to what is behind someone’s outside appearance, you are referring to a characteristic which you cannot immediately see or is not obvious, but which you think is there.
What lay behind his anger was really the hurt he felt at Grace’s refusal...
If you are behind someone, you are less successful than them, or have done less or advanced less.
Food production has already fallen behind the population growth.
ahead of

Behind is also an adverb.
The rapid development of technology means that she is now far behind, and will need retraining...
ADV: be ADV, ADV after v
If an experience is behind you, it happened in your past and will not happen again, or no longer affects you.
Maureen put the nightmare behind her...
If you have a particular achievement behind you, you have managed to reach this achievement, and other people consider it to be important or valuable.
He has 20 years of loyal service to Barclays Bank behind him...
PREP: have/with n PREP pron
If something is behind schedule, it is not as far advanced as people had planned. If someone is behind schedule, they are not progressing as quickly at something as they had planned.
The work is 22 weeks behind schedule...
ahead of
PREP: oft n PREP n
If you stay behind, you remain in a place after other people have gone.
About 1,200 personnel will remain behind to take care of the air base.
ADV: ADV after v
If you leave something or someone behind, you do not take them with you when you go.
The rebels fled into the mountains, leaving behind their weapons and supplies...
ADV: ADV after v

Merriam-Webster's Advanced Learner's Dictionary

Merriam-Webster's Advanced Learner's Dictionary: 

2behind prep
1 : in or to a place at the back of or to the rear of (someone or something)
• Look behind you.
• He was standing in front of me and she was standing behind [=in back of] me.
• The older students entered the room first with the younger students following behind them.
• The house is behind some trees. [=there are some trees in front of the house]
• The cat hid behind the couch.
• The sun went/hid/was behind a cloud.
- see also behind the eight ball at eight ball
2 : losing to (someone or something) in a race or competition
• “How far behind the other runners was she?” “At least 50 yards (behind them).”
• They were ahead of us by 5 points earlier in the game, but now they're behind us by 7.
• The polls show that he is behind the other candidates.
• The company is now behind the competition.
3 : in a less advanced position than (someone or something)
• He was a year behind me in school. [=he finished school a year after I did] : not happening or proceeding as quickly as (someone or something)
• He was behind the other students in his studies.
• This year's sales have lagged considerably/significantly behind last year's sales. [=sales have not been as good this year as they were last year]
• We're running about five minutes behind schedule. [=late]
4 a : in the past for (someone or something)
• Those problems are behind us now.
• Her best work is behind her. [=her best work was in the past]
• He has many years of experience behind him. [=he has many years of experience in his past]
b : out of the mind or thoughts of (someone)
• Let's put our troubles behind us. [=let's stop thinking/worrying about our troubles]
5 a : providing the reason or explanation for (something)
• We need to learn more about the conditions behind the strike. [=the conditions that led to the strike]
• What was really behind his murder? [=what was the real reason for his murder?]
b : responsible for (something)
• We'll get to the bottom of this conspiracy and find out who's behind it!
6 a : in support of (someone or something)
• Despite the controversy, most of his supporters remain solidly behind him.
• We're behind you all the way!
• I encourage everyone to get behind these proposals. [=to support these proposals]
b : with the support of (something)
• They won the game 1–0 behind brilliant pitching. [=brilliant pitching made it possible for them to win the game 1–0]


in [preposition] (INSIDE)

Inside or towards the inside of a container, place, or area, or surrounded or closed off by something

US /ɪn/ 
UK /ɪn/ 

درون، داخل


Put the milk back in the fridge when you've finished with it.

Oxford Essential Dictionary


1 a word that shows where somebody or something is:
a country in Africa
He put his hand in the water
She was lying in bed.

2 making all or part of something:
There are 100 centimetres in a metre.

3 a word that shows when something happens:
My birthday is in May.
He started school in 1987.

4 a word that shows how long something takes:
I'll be ready in ten minutes.

5 a word that shows what clothes somebody is wearing:
He was dressed in a suit.

6 a word that shows how somebody or something is:
This room is in a mess.
Jenny was in tears (= she was crying).
Sit in a circle.

7 a word that shows somebody's job:
He's in the army.

8 a word that shows in what way or in what language:
Write your name in capital letters.
They were speaking in French.

Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English


I. in1 S1 W1 /ɪn/ BrE AmE preposition
[Language: Old English]
1. used with the name of a container, place, or area to say where someone or something is:
There’s some sugar in the cupboard.
My mother was in the kitchen.
He took us for a drive in his new car.
I found her sitting up in bed.
Manson spent fifteen years in prison.
a hole in the ground
Mr Fisher is in Boston this week.
My parents live in New Zealand now.
2. into a container, place etc:
I never went in pubs.
He almost drowned when he fell in the river.
You can put your pyjamas in the bottom drawer.
Get in the car.
She looked in her handbag, but her keys were not there.
3. used to say how something is done or happens:
a room furnished in the modern style
Her parents always talk to her in German.
She shouted my name in a harsh voice.
a short note scribbled in pencil
The title was printed in capital letters.
We waited in silence.
4. used with the names of months, years, seasons etc to say when something happens:
Shaw first visited Russia in 1927.
Bright yellow flowers appear in late summer.
He retired in October.
5. during a period of time:
It was amazing how much we managed to do in a day.
the hardest decision I ever made in my life
Do not use in before 'this’, 'last', and 'next' when saying when something happens:
▪ I got a letter from my sister this morning (NOT in this morning).
▪ I hope to go to Europe next summer (NOT in next summer).
You do not normally use in when saying how often something happens during a particular period of time:
▪ The group meets four times a week (NOT four times in a week). But when you are emphasizing how often something happens, you can use in in front of one:
▪ She was late for school four times in one week.
6. at the end of a period of time:
I’ll be with you in a minute.
The results will be announced in two weeks’ time.
7. used with negatives or with ‘first’ to say how much time has passed since the last time something happened:
I haven’t enjoyed myself so much in years.
It was the team’s first win in eighteen months.
8. used to name the book, document, film etc where something or someone appears:
You shouldn’t believe everything you read in the newspapers.
Which actress starred in the film ‘Cleopatra’?
There are a few mistakes in your essay.
In his speech, Professor Leary praised the work of the volunteers.
9. making up the whole of something or included as part of something:
There are twelve programmes in the series.
How many minutes are there in an hour?
Think of a word with eight letters in it meaning ‘cold’.
Owen will be playing in the England team tomorrow.
10. doing or affecting a particular kind of job:
a career in industry
He’s been in politics for fifteen years.
reforms in education
11. wearing something:
He looked very handsome in his uniform.
She was dressed in a blue linen suit.
12. used to talk about the state or situation of something or someone:
I hear that their marriage is in trouble.
The engine appears to be in good condition.
His life was in danger.
The castle now lies in ruins.
13. used to say what activity a group of people do:
About 4,000 students took part in the protest.
his role in the negotiations
14. used to talk about the shape, arrangement, or course of something or someone:
I want you all to stand in a circle.
She slept curled up in a ball.
Can you walk in a straight line?
15. used between a smaller number and a larger number to say how common or how likely something is:
One in ten homes now has cable TV.
Smokers have a one in three chance of dying from their habit.
16. used before a plural number or amount to say how many people or things are involved, or how many there are in each group:
Eggs are still sold in half dozens.
The children work in pairs.
in their hundreds/thousands etc (=in very large numbers)
People flocked in their thousands to greet their new princess.
17. used between a smaller number or amount and a larger one to say what a rate is:
Income tax stands at 23 pence in the pound.
a hill with a gradient of one in six
18. used to say what colour something is or what it is made of:
Do you have the same pattern in blue?
a sculpture in white marble
19. used to say what specific thing your statement is related to:
Milk is very rich in calcium.
Clark had become more extreme in his opinions.
an increase in fuel prices
The street is about a mile in length.
20. used to refer to the weather or the physical conditions somewhere:
I’ve been standing in the rain for over an hour.
Would you prefer to sit in the shade?
21. used to say what feeling you have when you do something:
She looked at me in horror.
It was all done purely in fun.
22. used before the name of someone or something when you are saying how they are regarded:
You have a very good friend in Pat.
In Dwight D. Eisenhower the Republicans had found the ideal candidate.
23. used to say what person or thing has the quality you are mentioning:
There was a hint of spring in the air.
I don’t think Freddy had it in him to be a killer.
She’s everything I’d want in a wife (=she has every quality I would want a wife to have).
24. used to name the substance, food, drink etc that contains something:
Vitamin D is found in butter.
25. used to say how many parts something is divided into:
a radio serial in four parts
in two/halves/pieces etc
I tore the letter in two and threw the pieces in the fire.
26. while doing something or while something is happening, and as a result of this:
In all the confusion, it is quite possible that some people got tickets without paying.
In my excitement, I forgot all about the message.
in doing something
In trying to protect the queen, Howard had put his own life in danger.
27. in that used after a statement to begin to explain in what way it is true:
I’ve been lucky in that I have never had to worry about money.
28. be in your 20s/30s/40s etc to be between the ages of 20 and 29, 30 and 39 etc:
Matthews was already in his mid-40s.
in all at ↑all1(11)
• • •
after preposition after something happens, or after a period of time has passed. After is used especially when taking about the past: We went for a walk after lunch. | After an hour, we got tired of waiting and went home. | They got married just after Christmas.
in preposition after a particular period of time. In is used especially when talking about the future, especially the next few minutes, hours, days etc: The concert’s due to start in a few minutes. | I’ll come back in an hour. | In a few years’ time, this place will look completely different.
within preposition after less than a month, two weeks etc has passed – used especially when the time seems surprisingly short: within a month/two weeks etc: He developed a headache at lunchtime, and within two hours he was dead. | Within two days of arriving she had managed to upset everyone.
24 hours/a year etc from now at a time 24 hours, a year etc after now: A week from now we’ll be in Paris.
afterwards (also afterward especially American English) adverb after an event or time you have mentioned: Jones admitted afterwards that she had been very nervous during the game. | Speaking to reporters afterward, he said the operation had been a success. | He moved to Belgium, and soon afterwards he met Angela.
later adverb some time after now or after the time you are talking about: I’ll tell you about it later when I’m less busy. | two months/three years etc later: James went off, and came back ten minutes later with some food.
subsequently adverb formal after something had happened in the past: The book was published in 1954 and was subsequently translated into fifteen languages.

Oxford Advanced Learner's Dictionary


in preposition, adverb, adjective, noun   [ɪn]    [ɪn] 

preposition  For the special uses of in in phrasal verbs, look at the entries for the verbs. For example deal in sth is in the phrasal verb section at deal.
1. at a point within an area or a space
a country in Africa
The kids were playing in the street.
• It's in that drawer.

• I read about it in the paper.

2. within the shape of sth; surrounded by sth
She was lying in bed.
sitting in an armchair
• Leave the key in the lock.

• Soak it in cold water.

3. into sth
• He dipped his brush in the paint.

• She got in her car and drove off.

4. forming the whole or part of sth/sb; contained within sth/sb
There are 31 days in May.
• all the paintings in the collection

• I recognize his father in him (= his character is similar to his father's).

5. during a period of time
in 2009
in the 18th century
in spring/summer/autumn/winter
in the fall
in March
• in the morning/afternoon/evening

• I'm getting forgetful in my old age.

6. after a particular length of time
to return in a few minutes/hours/days/months.
It will be ready in a week's time (= one week from now).

• She learnt to drive in three weeks (= after three weeks she could drive).

7. (used in negative sentences or after first, last, etc.) for a particular period of time
• I haven't seen him in years.

• It's the first letter I've had in ten days.

8. wearing sth
dressed in their best clothes
the man in the hat
• to be in uniform

• She was all in black.

9. used to describe physical surroundings
• We went out in the rain.

• He was sitting alone in the darkness.

10. used to show a state or condition
I'm in love!
The house is in good repair.
I must put my affairs in order.
• a man in his thirties

• The daffodils were in full bloom.

11. involved in sth; taking part in sth

• to act in a play

12. used to show sb's job or profession
He is in the army.
• She's in computers.

• in business

13. used to show the form, shape, arrangement or quantity of sth
a novel in three parts
Roll it up in a ball.
• They sat in rows.

• People flocked in their thousands to see her.

14. used to show the language, material, etc. used
Say it in English.
She wrote in pencil.
Put it in writing.
• I paid in cash.

• He spoke in a loud voice.

15. concerning sth
She was not lacking in courage.
• a country rich in minerals

• three metres in length

16. while doing sth; while sth is happening
• In attempting to save the child from drowning, she nearly lost her own life.

• In all the commotion I forgot to tell him the news.

17. used to introduce the name of a person who has a particular quality

• We're losing a first-rate editor in Jen.

18. used to show a rate or relative amount
a gradient of one in five
a tax rate of 22 pence in the pound  
Word Origin:
Old English in (preposition), inn, inne (adverb), of Germanic origin; related to Dutch and German in (preposition), German ein (adverb), from an Indo-European root shared by Latin in and Greek en.

Idioms: have an in with somebody  in and out  in at something  in for something  in on something  in that  in to something  in with somebody  ins and outs 

Cambridge Advanced Learner's Dictionary

Cambridge Advanced Learner's Dictionary - 4th Edition

in / ɪn / preposition (INSIDE)

A1 inside or towards the inside of a container, place, or area, or surrounded or closed off by something:

Put the milk back in the fridge when you've finished with it.

Is Mark still in bed?

I got stuck in a traffic jam for half an hour.

They live in a charming old cottage.

How much is that coat on display in the window (= in the space behind the window of the shop) ?

I've got a pain in my back.

What's that in your hand?

I've got something in (= on the surface of) my eye.

They used to live in Paris, but now they're somewhere in Austria.

He's always looking at himself in the mirror (= at the image of his face produced by the mirror) .

I never know what's going on in her head (= what she's thinking about) .

My daughter's in hospital ( US in the hospital) having her tonsils out.

US Is Erika still in school (= does she still go to school) ?

in / ɪn / preposition (INTO)

into something:

Come on, we're late - get in the car.

Put it in the cupboard.

They threw him in the swimming pool.

in / ɪn / preposition (PART)

A2 forming a part of something:

He used to be the lead singer in a rock 'n' roll band.

There are too many spelling mistakes in this essay.

I've been waiting in this queue for ages.

What do you look for in a relationship?

I can see a future champion in Joely (= I think that Joely might become a champion) .

Talent like hers is rare in someone so young.

© Cambridge University Press 2013

Cambridge Advanced Learner's Dictionary - 4th Edition

in / ɪn / preposition (DURING)

A1 during part or all of a period of time:

We're going to Italy in April.

Some trees lose their leaves in (the) autumn.

I started working here in 2009.

Life in the 19th century was very different from what it is now.

Bye, see you in the morning (= tomorrow morning) .

She was a brilliant gymnast in her youth (= when she was young) .

How many civilians died in the Vietnam War?

This is the first cigarette I've had in three years.

I haven't had a decent night's sleep in years/ages (= for a long time) .

in between between the two times mentioned:

I have breakfast at 7.30, lunch at 1.00, and sometimes a snack in between.

in / ɪn / preposition (NO MORE THAN)

A2 needing or using no more time than a particular amount of time:

Can you finish the job in two weeks?

She could get that essay done in a couple of hours if she really tried.

They completed the journey in record time (= faster than ever done before) .

in / ɪn / preposition (BEFORE THE END)

A2 before or at the end of a particular period:

Dinner will be ready in ten minutes.

We'll all be dead in a hundred years so there's no point worrying about it.

I'm just setting off, so I should be with you in half an hour.

in / ɪn / preposition (EXPERIENCING)

B1 experiencing a situation or condition, or feeling an emotion:

We watched in horror as they pulled the bodies from the wreckage.

He's living in luxury in the south of France.

She left in a bit of a hurry.

You're in great danger.

Could I have a word with you in private?

Have you ever been in love?

Your car's in very good condition, considering how old it is.

in / ɪn / preposition (EXPRESSED)

B1 expressed or written in a particular way:

Cheques should be written in ink.

She usually paints in watercolour.

They spoke in Russian the whole time.

He always talks in a whisper.

in / ɪn / preposition (RESULT)

B2 used when referring to something that is done as a result of something else:

I'd like to do something for you in return / exchange for everything you've done for me.

The changes are in response to demand from our customers.

He refused to say anything in reply to the journalists' questions.

in / ɪn / preposition (ARRANGEMENT)

B1 used to show how things or people are arranged or divided:

We all sat down in a circle.

The desks were arranged in rows of ten.

Discounts are available to people travelling in large groups.

Sometimes customers buy books in twos and threes, but rarely in larger quantities than that.

Cut the potatoes in two.

People are dying in their thousands from cold and starvation.

in / ɪn / preposition (AGE/TEMPERATURE)

used when referring approximately to someone's age or the weather temperature:

Nowadays many women are in their late thirties when they have their first child.

Temperatures will be in the mid-twenties (= about 25 degrees) .


in / ɪn / preposition (INVOLVED)

B1 involved or connected with a particular subject or activity:

I never knew you were in publishing.

a degree in philosophy

advances in medical science

in / ɪn / preposition (WEARING)

B1 wearing:

Do you recognize that man in the grey suit?

Pat can't resist men in uniform.

You look nice in green (= green clothes) .

in / ɪn / preposition (COMPARING AMOUNTS)

used to compare one part of an amount of something with the total amount of it:

Apparently one in ten people/one person in ten has problems with reading.

UK The basic rate of income tax is 25 pence in ( US on ) the pound.

in / ɪn / preposition (CHARACTERISTIC)

used to show which characteristic or part of a person or thing is being described:

The new version is worse in every respect - I much preferred the original.

Are the two bags equal in weight?

She's deaf in her left ear.

in / ɪn / preposition (CAUSE)

[ + -ing verb ] used to show when doing one thing is the cause of another thing happening:

In refus ing (= because she refused) to work abroad, she missed an excellent job opportunity.

The government banned tobacco advertising and, in doing so (= because of this) , contributed greatly to the nation's health.

in that formal because:

This research is important in that it confirms the link between aggression and alcohol.

© Cambridge University Press 2013

Collins COBUILD Advanced Learner’s English Dictionary


The preposition is pronounced /ɪn/. The adverb is pronounced /ɪn/.
Frequency: The word is one of the 700 most common words in English.
Note: In addition to the uses shown below, 'in' is used after some verbs, nouns, and adjectives in order to introduce extra information. 'In' is also used with verbs of movement such as ‘walk’ and ‘push’, and in phrasal verbs such as ‘give in’ and ‘dig in’.
Someone or something that is in something else is enclosed by it or surrounded by it. If you put something in a container, you move it so that it is enclosed by the container.
He was in his car.
...clothes hanging in the wardrobe...
If something happens in a place, it happens there.
We spent a few days in a hotel...
He had intended to take a holiday in America...
If you are in, you are present at your home or place of work.
My flatmate was in at the time...
When someone comes in, they enter a room or building.
She looked up anxiously as he came in...
They shook hands and went in.
ADV: ADV after v
If a train, boat, or plane has come in or is in, it has arrived at a station, port, or airport.
We’d be watching every plane coming in from Melbourne...
Look. The train’s in. We’ll have to run for it now.
ADV: ADV after v, be ADV
When the sea or tide comes in, the sea moves towards the shore rather than away from it.
She thought of the tide rushing in, covering the wet sand...
ADV: ADV after v, be ADV
Something that is in a window, especially a shop window, is just behind the window so that you can see it from outside.
There was a camera for sale in the window.
When you see something in a mirror, the mirror shows an image of it.
I couldn’t bear to see my reflection in the mirror...
If you are dressed in a piece of clothing, you are wearing it.
He was a big man, smartly dressed in a suit and tie.
PREP: oft -ed PREP n
Something that is covered or wrapped in something else has that thing over or round its surface.
His legs were covered in mud.
PREP: oft -ed PREP n
If there is something such as a crack or hole in something, there is a crack or hole on its surface.
There was a deep crack in the ceiling above him.


Frequency: The word is one of the 700 most common words in English.
If something is in a book, film, play, or picture, you can read it or see it there.
Don’t stick too precisely to what it says in the book.
If you are in something such as a play or a race, you are one of the people taking part.
Alf offered her a part in the play he was directing...
More than fifteen thousand people took part in the memorial service.
Something that is in a group or collection is a member of it or part of it.
The New England team are the worst in the league.
You use in to specify a general subject or field of activity.
...those working in the defence industry.
...future developments in medicine.


Frequency: The word is one of the 700 most common words in English.
If something happens in a particular year, month, or other period of time, it happens during that time.
...that early spring day in April 1949...
Export orders improved in the last month...
In the evening, the people assemble in the mosques...
If something happens in a particular situation, it happens while that situation is going on.
His father had been badly wounded in the last war.
...issues you struggle with in your daily life.
If you do something in a particular period of time, that is how long it takes you to do it.
He walked two hundred and sixty miles in eight days.
PREP: PREP amount
If something will happen in a particular length of time, it will happen after that length of time.
I’ll have some breakfast ready in a few minutes...
They’ll be back in six months.
PREP: PREP amount
You use in to indicate roughly how old someone is. For example, if someone is in their fifties, they are between 50 and 59 years old.
...young people in their twenties.
PREP: PREP poss pl-num
You use in to indicate roughly how many people or things do something.
...men who came there in droves...
PREP: oft PREP num
You use in to express a ratio, proportion, or probability.
Last year, one in five boys left school without a qualification...
PREP: num PREP num


Frequency: The word is one of the 700 most common words in English.
If something or someone is in a particular state or situation, that is their present state or situation.
The economy was in trouble...
Dave was in a hurry to get back to work...
Their equipment was in poor condition...
PREP: v-link PREP n
You use in to indicate the feeling or desire which someone has when they do something, or which causes them to do it.
Simpson looked at them in surprise...
Chris was weeping in anger and grief...
If a particular quality or ability is in you, you naturally have it.
Violence is not in his nature...
PREP: oft PREP pron to-inf
You use in when saying that someone or something has a particular quality.
He had all the qualities I was looking for in a partner...
‘I don’t agree,’ she said, surprised at the strength in her own voice...
You use in to indicate how someone is expressing something.
Information is given to the patient verbally and in writing.
...lessons in languages other than Spanish.
You use in in expressions such as in a row or in a ball to describe the arrangement or shape of something.
The cards need to be laid out in two rows...
Her ear, shoulder and hip are in a straight line...
If something is in a particular colour, it has that colour.
...white flowers edged in pink...
PREP: oft -ed PREP colour
You use in to specify which feature or aspect of something you are talking about.
The movie is nearly two hours in length...
There is a big difference in the amounts that banks charge.
...a real increase in the standard of living...


Pronounced /ɪn/ for meanings 1 and 3 to 8, and /ɪn/ for meaning 2.

Frequency: The word is one of the 700 most common words in English.
If you say that something is in, or is the in thing, you mean it is fashionable or popular. (INFORMAL)
A few years ago jogging was the in thing...
You use in with a present participle to indicate that when you do something, something else happens as a result.
In working with others, you find out more about yourself.
If you say that someone is in for a shock or a surprise, you mean that they are going to experience it.
You might be in for a shock at the sheer hard work involved...
PHRASE: V inflects, PHR n
If someone has it in for you, they dislike you and try to cause problems for you. (INFORMAL)
The other kids had it in for me.
PHRASE: V inflects, PHR n
If you are in on something, you are involved in it or know about it.
I don’t know. I wasn’t in on that particular argument...
PREP-PHRASE: v-link PREP n, v n PREP n
If you are in with a person or group, they like you and accept you, and are likely to help you. (INFORMAL)
You use in that to introduce an explanation of a statement you have just made.
I’m lucky in that I’ve got four sisters.
The ins and outs of a situation are all the detailed points and facts about it.
...the ins and outs of high finance...
PHRASE: usu the PHR of n/-ing

Merriam-Webster's Advanced Learner's Dictionary

Merriam-Webster's Advanced Learner's Dictionary: 

1in /ˈɪn, ən/ prep
- used to indicate location or position within something
• We went for a swim in the lake.
• They have a house in the country.
• Albuquerque is in New Mexico.
• There wasn't a cloud in the sky.
• I like to read in bed. [=while sitting or lying on my bed]
• He was wounded in the leg.
• We had to stand in line for tickets.
• Why don't you look it up in the dictionary?
• There's something in my eye. [=between my eyelid and my eyeball]
• There was fear in their eyes. [=I could tell they were afraid when I looked at their eyes]
• I held her in my arms.
• He saw his reflection in the mirror.
2 : to the inside of (a room, container, etc.)
• She went in [=into] the house.
• Don't come in here with those muddy feet!
• I threw it in [=into] the garbage.
3 a
- used to indicate that someone or something belongs to or is included as part of something
• She used to play in [=as a member of] a band.
• There are 12 in a dozen. [=a dozen is equal to 12]
- used to indicate the existence of something or someone within a story, movie, etc.
• a character in a story
• a scene in a movie
• He saw it in a dream.
4 a : during (a period of time, a season, etc.)
• It happened in the 1930s.
• She likes to travel in [=during] the summer.
• Call us sometime in [=during] the morning/afternoon/evening.
• They plan to open in September.
• We haven't seen them in [=for] ages!
• Back in those days, we didn't have computers.
• an important moment in history
• Never in my life have I heard such a thing!
• I lost track of them in [=during] all the commotion/confusion.
b : at the end of (a period of time)
• I'll be there in a minute.
• The movie is coming out in a few months.
• He got his degree in only three years.
- used to indicate an approximate age or number
• a woman in her thirties [=a woman who is between 30 and 39 years old]
• Our members number in the thousands. [=more than 2,000]
5 a
- used to indicate the method, materials, or form of something
• a note written in pencil [=using a pencil]
• a note written in French
• a symphony in (the key of) C
• The book is bound in leather.
• They were covered in mud from head to toe.
• She gave us 50 dollars in cash.
• The measurements are listed in both inches and centimeters.
• The shirts come in three sizes.
- used to indicate the color of something
• I decorated the room in blues and grays. [=using different shades of blue and gray]
6 a
- used to indicate the state or condition of someone or something
• We'll be in trouble if we can't get the brakes to work! [=we will experience a situation that is difficult, dangerous, etc.]
• She was in and out of trouble for many years.
• young people in love [=experiencing romantic love]
• Are you in much pain?
• I just stood there gaping in amazement.
• They're not in any danger.
b : to a specified state, condition, or form
• They were always getting in [=into] trouble.
• The vase broke in [=into] pieces.
• They divided the money in [=into] thirds.
- used to indicate how people or things are arranged
• They stood in a circle.
• The chairs were placed in a row.
- used to indicate the conditions that are around someone or something
• I found her sitting in the dark. = I found her sitting in darkness.
• Don't just stand there in the rain!
9 : while or as a result of (doing something)
In trying to please everyone, I ended up pleasing no one.
• Many mistakes were made in planning the project.
- used to indicate the manner or purpose of something
• “No way!” she said in reply.
• The remark was made in jest.
• They sure left in a hurry!
• We held a banquet in his honor. [=to honor him]
• They went in search of lost treasure. [=to search for lost treasure]
• She moved to the city in hopes of finding a better job. [=with the hope that she would find a better job]
• They increased the penalties in an attempt to discourage lawbreakers.
- used to make a statement or description more limited or specific in meaning
• They are slow in their movements. [=their movements are slow]
• The two are alike in some ways/respects. [=they have some similarities]
• It measures two feet in length. [=it is two feet long]
• The idea works in theory, but not in practice.
In a way, it makes sense. [=it makes sense if you consider a particular fact, idea, etc.]
- used to indicate the person who is being described
• We've lost a valuable employee in Mike.
In her, you have a true friend.
- used to indicate the object of a belief, opinion, or feeling
• Have a little faith in them!
• Do you believe in ghosts? [=do you think ghosts are real?]
• I really don't know what she sees in him. [=I don't know why she likes/loves him]
• I have no interest in sports. [=sports do not interest me]
- used to indicate a job or area of activity
• She has a job in marketing.
• I hear he's in advertising. [=he has a job that involves advertising]
• She's struggling in math.
- used to indicate the existence of something as a part of someone's character
• He has no pity in him.
• I tried to be tough with them, but I just didn't have it in me. [=I wasn't able to be tough with them]
16 : wearing (something) as clothes
• He showed up in his best suit.
• the boy in the red jacket
• a lady in black [=a lady wearing black clothes]
- used to describe how common something is by comparing a smaller number to a larger number
• This condition affects one in five [=1 in 5; one out of every five] Americans.


next [adjective]

Being the first one after the present one or after the one just mentioned

US /nekst/ 
UK /nekst/ 



Take the next turning on the right.

Oxford Essential Dictionary


1 coming after this one:
I'm going on holiday next week.
Take the next road on the right.

2 nearest to this one:
I live in the next village.

next to somebody or something at the side of somebody or something same meaning beside:
The bank is next to the post office.

Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English


I. next1 S1 W1 /nekst/ BrE AmE determiner, adjective
1. the next event, day, time etc is the one that happens after the present one, or the previous one:
I just missed my flight to Chicago. When’s the next one?
We’ll look at the proposals at the next meeting.
Over the next couple of months, try to relax more and get more exercise.
next week/year/Monday etc
We’re hoping to open the factory some time next year.
the next day/week etc (=on or during the following day, week etc)
She called me and we arranged to meet the next day.
(the) next time
Next time I go skiing, I’ll wear warmer clothes.
2. the next house, room, place etc is the one that is nearest to where you are now:
Turn left at the next corner.
We could hear them arguing in the next room. ⇨ ↑next to
3. the next person or thing in a list, series etc comes after the one that you are dealing with now:
Read the next two chapters before Friday.
Do they have the next size up (=a slightly bigger size)?
4. next biggest/most common etc almost as big, more common etc than the one you are talking about:
Cancer-related diseases are the next biggest killers.
5. the next best thing the thing or situation that is almost as good as the one you really want:
If I can’t be home for Christmas, phoning you on the day is the next best thing.
6. the next thing I/she etc knew informal used when something surprising happens very suddenly:
The next thing I knew, I was lying face down on the pavement.
7. as the next man/person as any other man or person:
I am as keen to do well as the next man.
• • •
next happening or coming immediately after another one: When does the next train to London leave? | I’ll see you next Saturday.
following happening or coming immediately after something – used about periods of time, or parts of a piece of writing: We met the following day. | The following weeks passed quickly. | the following pages of the book
subsequent formal happening or coming at some time after something else: the subsequent success of the film | This will be explained in more detail in subsequent chapters. | This figure is expected to rise steeply in subsequent years.
succeeding coming after someone or something else – used about a series of groups of people, periods of time, or parts of a book: succeeding generations | Succeeding governments have made the same mistake. | During the succeeding weeks he wrote several more letters.
coming happening soon: The information will be mailed to members during the coming weeks. | The villagers are storing up wood for the coming winter.
II. next2 S1 W1 BrE AmE adverb
1. immediately afterwards:
With John here, you never know what will happen next.
Next, put it in the oven for 20 minutes.
2. the next time:
When I next saw her she completely ignored me.

Oxford Advanced Learner's Dictionary


next adjective, adverb, noun   [nekst]   [nekst] 

adjective only before noun
1. (usually with the) coming straight after sb/sth in time, order or space
The next train to Baltimore is at ten.
The next six months will be the hardest.
the next chapter
Who's next?
the woman in the next room
I fainted and the next thing I knew I was in the hospital.

(informal) Round here, you leave school at sixteen and next thing you know, you're married with three kids.

2. (used without the) ~ Monday, week, summer, year, etc. the Monday, week, etc. immediately following
Next Thursday is 12 April.
Next time I'll bring a book.
more at from one day to the next at  day, better luck next time at  luck  n.  
Word Origin:
Old English nēhsta ‘nearest’, superlative of nēah ‘nigh’; compare with Dutch naast and German nächste.  
next adj. only before noun
The next train to Baltimore will be at 12.20.
the followingcomingfuturelater|especially AmE upcoming|formal subsequentforthcomingprospective
Opp: last, Opp: past
the next/following month/decade/generation
the next event /future/later/upcoming/subsequent/forthcoming events
sb's next/future/later/upcoming/subsequent/forthcoming book/marriage  
Which Word?:
next / nearest
(The) next means ‘after this/that one’ in time or in a series of events, places or people: When is your next appointment? Turn left at the next traffic lights. Who’s next? (The) nearest means ‘closest’ in space: Where’s the nearest supermarket?
Notice the difference between the prepositions nearest to and next to: Janet’s sitting nearest to the window (= of all the people in the room) . Sarah’s sitting next to the window (= right beside it). In informal BrE nearest can be used instead of nearest to: Who’s sitting nearest the door?  
Example Bank:
I'm going away next month.
Next time I'll bring a book.
Round here, you leave school at sixteen and next thing you know, you're married with three kids.
The next chapter deals with the post-war situation.
The woman in the next room was talking in a very loud voice.
• Who's next?

Idiom: next man/woman/person

Cambridge Advanced Learner's Dictionary

Cambridge Advanced Learner's Dictionary - 4th Edition

next / nekst / adjective , pronoun

A1 being the first one after the present one or after the one just mentioned:

Who works in the office next to yours?

Take the next turning on the right.

Who do you think will be the next president?

Nothing really changes around here. One day is pretty much like the next.

(The) next time you want to borrow something, please ask me first.

I'm so busy it's hard to remember what I'm supposed to be doing from one moment to the next.

She's on holiday for the next few days.

You'll have to wait until your next birthday for a new bike.

Can we arrange a meeting for the week after next?

What do you think you'll be doing this time next year?

We had a dreadful argument, but he phoned me the next day (= the day after) to apologize.

Excuse me, it's my turn to be served - I was next.

© Cambridge University Press 2013

Collins COBUILD Advanced Learner’s English Dictionary



Frequency: The word is one of the 700 most common words in English.

The next period of time, event, person, or thing is the one that comes immediately after the present one or after the previous one.
I got up early the next morning.
...the next available flight...
Who will be the next prime minister?...
I want my next child born at home...
Many senior citizens have very few visitors from one week to the next...

You use next in expressions such as next Friday, next day and next year to refer, for example, to the first Friday, day, or year that comes after the present or previous one.
Let’s plan a big night next week...
He retires next January...
Next day the EU summit strengthened their ultimatum.

Next is also an adjective.
I shall be 26 years old on Friday next.

Next is also a pronoun.
He predicted that the region’s economy would grow by about six per cent both this year and next.

The next place or person is the one that is nearest to you or that is the first one that you come to.
Grace sighed so heavily that Trish could hear it in the next room...
The man in the next chair was asleep...
Stop at the next corner. I’m getting out.
ADJ: det ADJ

The thing that happens next is the thing that happens immediately after something else.
Next, close your eyes then screw them up tight...
I don’t know what to do next...
The news is next.
ADV: ADV with cl, ADV after v, be ADV

When you next do something, you do it for the first time since you last did it.
I next saw him at his house in Berkshire...
When we next met, he was much more jovial.
ADV: ADV before v

You use next to say that something has more of a particular quality than all other things except one. For example, the thing that is next best is the one that is the best except for one other thing.
The one thing he didn’t have was a son. I think he’s felt that a grandson is the next best thing...
At least three times more daffodils are grown than in Holland, the next largest grower.
= second
ADV: ADV adj-superl

You use after next in expressions such as the week after next to refer to a period of time after the next one. For example, when it is May, the month after next is July.
...the party’s annual conference, to be held in Bournemouth the week after next.

If you say that you do something or experience something as much as the next person, you mean that you are no different from anyone else in the respect mentioned.
I’m as ambitious as the next man. I’d like to manage at the very highest level.
PHRASE: as group PHR [emphasis]

If one thing is next to another thing, it is at the other side of it.
She sat down next to him on the sofa.
...at the southern end of the Gaza Strip next to the Egyptian border...
The car was parked in the small weedy lot next to the hotel.
= beside

You use next to in order to give the most important aspect of something when comparing it with another aspect.
Her children were the number two priority in her life next to her career...
= after

You use next to before a negative, or a word that suggests something negative, to mean almost, but not completely.
Johnson still knew next to nothing about tobacco...
Most pre-prepared weight loss products are next to useless.
= virtually
PHRASE: PHR after v, v-link PHR, PHR nothing/adj


Merriam-Webster's Advanced Learner's Dictionary

Merriam-Webster's Advanced Learner's Dictionary: 

1next /ˈnɛkst/ adj
1 : coming after this one : coming after the one that just came, happened, etc.
• the next day [=the day that comes after this day]
• Please turn to the next [=following] page.
• I'll see you next Monday.
• Are you coming this Thursday or next Thursday? [=are you coming on Thursday of this week or Thursday of next week?]
Next year's party will be even better.
• For the next two years [=two years after this point], she did nothing but eat, sleep, and study.
• the very next thing that happened
• Can I help the next person in line? Who's next?
• We could hear people talking in the next room.
• At the next set of lights, turn left.
Next stop, Los Angeles.
• I need the next size up.
• The next time we will see each other will be on our wedding day.
Next time, please remember to bring your books to class.
in the next life [=in the afterlife; in the life that we may have after death]
• I slipped, and the next thing I knew [=right after that happened], I was lying face up on the ground.
2 : any other
• He said he's as willing to do it as the next man. [=he's as willing as anyone else would be]
• She knew the answer as well as the next person.
next to : almost but not quite
• It's next to [=nearly, practically] impossible to drive in this snow.
• You ate next to nothing at dinner. Aren't you hungry?
• We were next to last in line. [=there was one person or group behind us]
• He finished next to last in the race.
• the next to last day of our vacation [=the day immediately before the last day of our vacation]


under [preposition] (LOWER POSITION)

In or to a position below or lower than something else, often so that one thing covers the other

US /ˈʌn.dɚ/ 
UK /ˈʌn.dər/ 

زیر، پایین


He hid under the bed.

Oxford Essential Dictionary


 preposition, adverb

1 in or to a place that is lower than or below something:
The cat is under the table.
We sailed under the bridge.
The boat filled with water, then went under.

2 less than something:
If you are under 17 you are not allowed to drive a car.

3 covered by something same meaning underneath:
I'm wearing a vest under my shirt.

4 controlled by somebody or something:
The team are playing well under their new captain.

Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English


under S1 W1 /ˈʌndə $ -ər/ BrE AmE preposition, adverb
[Language: Old English]
1. BELOW below or at a lower level than something, or covered by something OPP over:
Wendy had hidden the box under her bed.
We sailed under the Golden Gate Bridge.
Write your name under your picture.
I could see something glittering under the water.
He was wearing a jacket under his coat.
Under her arm, she carried a large portfolio.
In summer, we often slept under the stars.
I’d scare my mom by diving in and staying under (=staying under the water) for as long as I could.
The bench collapsed under the weight of (=unable to support the weight of) so many people.
2. LESS THAN less than a particular number, amount, age, or price OPP over:
These toys are not suitable for children under five.
Most of the events listed cost under £60.
I spend just under four hours a day seeing customers.
and/or under
Children aged 12 or under must be accompanied by an adult.
be under age (=be too young to legally drink, have sex etc)
3. HAVING SOMETHING DONE TO IT used to say what is being done to something or how it is being dealt with
under discussion/consideration/review etc
The possibility of employing more staff is still under discussion (=being discussed, considered etc).
All categories of expenditure are under review.
Four new power stations are currently under construction.
The port was coming under attack from enemy warships.
4. AFFECTED BY SOMETHING affected by a particular condition, influence, or situation:
She’s been under a lot of pressure at work.
under the influence of alcohol/drink/drugs etc
He was accused of driving while under the influence of alcohol.
The operation was carried out while she was under general anaesthetic.
I’m glad to see that you have everything under control.
Two of our national parks are currently under threat from road schemes.
The doctor injected something into my arm and I immediately felt myself going under (=becoming unconscious).
5. under ... conditions/circumstances if something happens under particular conditions, it happens when those conditions exist:
I wish I’d met him under different circumstances.
The system operates well under normal conditions.
6. LAW/AGREEMENT according to a particular agreement, law etc:
the question of whether the trade is illegal under international law
Under the terms of the agreement, the debt will be repaid over a 20-year period.
7. IN POWER if something happens under a particular leader, government etc, it happens when they are in power:
a program initiated under President Clinton and continued under President Bush
Under her leadership, the magazine’s circulation doubled in less than a year.
Would it have been different under a Labour government?
8. POSITION AT WORK if you work under someone, they have a higher position in the company, organization etc than you, and they help to direct your work:
She had a total staff of ten working under her.
From 1847 to 1851 he served under Captain John Randolph Stokes.
At Cambridge he studied under (=was a student of) F. R. Leavis.
9. WHERE INFORMATION IS used to say in which part of a book, list, or system particular information can be found
be/be filed/be listed etc under
The baby’s records are filed under the mother’s last name.
10. DIFFERENT NAME if you write or do something under a particular name, you do it using that name instead of your real name:
He made a few records under the name of Joe Ritchie.
• • •
under something that is under something else has that thing directly above it or covering it: The pen was under the desk. | She had a T-shirt on under her sweater.
below in a lower position than something else, though not always directly under it: From the cliffs we could barely see the people on the beach below us. | His apartment is below ours on the left.
underneath under – used especially to emphasize that something covers, touches, or hides something: The girls wear shorts underneath their cheerleading skirts. | I found the book underneath the sofa.
beneath formal under or at a lower level: They strolled hand in hand beneath the summer moon. | The water lies just beneath the surface of the earth.

Oxford Advanced Learner's Dictionary


under preposition, adverb, adjective   [ˈʌndə(r)]    [ˈʌndər] 

1. in, to or through a position that is below sth
Have you looked under the bed?
She placed the ladder under (= just lower than) the window.

The dog squeezed under the gate and ran into the road.

2. below the surface of sth; covered by sth

The boat lay under several feet of water.

3. less than; younger than
an annual income of under £10 000
It took us under an hour.

Nobody under 18 is allowed to buy alcohol.

4. used to say who or what controls, governs or manages sb/sth
The country is now under martial law.
The coinage was reformed under Elizabeth I (= when she was queen).
She has a staff of 19 working under her.

Under its new conductor, the orchestra has established an international reputation.

5. according to an agreement, a law or a system
Six suspects are being held under the Prevention of Terrorism Act.
Under the terms of the lease you had no right to sublet the property.

Is the television still under guarantee?

6. experiencing a particular process
The hotel is still under construction.

The matter is under investigation.

7. affected by sth
The wall collapsed under the strain.
I've been feeling under stress lately.
I'm under no illusions about what hard work this will be.

You'll be under anaesthetic, so you won't feel a thing.

8. using a particular name

She also writes under the pseudonym of Barbara Vine.

9. found in a particular part of a book, list, etc
If it's not under ‘sports’, try looking under ‘games’.  
Word Origin:

Old English, of Germanic origin; related to Dutch onder and German unter.

Cambridge Advanced Learner's Dictionary

Cambridge Advanced Learner's Dictionary - 4th Edition

under / ˈʌn.də r /   / -dɚ / preposition (LOWER POSITION)

A1 in or to a position below or lower than something else, often so that one thing covers the other:

He hid under the bed.

In AD 79 the city of Pompei was buried under a layer of ash seven metres deep.

She put the thermometer under my tongue.

She was holding a file under her arm (= between her upper arm and the side of her chest) .

They stood under a tree (= below its branches) to avoid getting wet.

specialized If a piece of land is under a particular type of plant, that plant is growing on the whole of that area:

The main fields are under wheat.

If a book, article, or piece of information is under a particular title, you can find it below or following that title in a list, book, library, etc.:

Books on Cecil Beaton will probably be under Art or Photography rather than Drama.

Trifle? That comes under Puddings and Desserts.

under / ˈʌn.də r /   / -dɚ / preposition (LESS THAN)

A2 less than:

All items cost/are under a pound.

The discount applies only to children under (the age of) ten (= younger than ten) .

If you get under 50 percent, you've failed the exam.

→  Opposite over


under / ˈʌn.də r /   / -dɚ / preposition (EXPERIENCING)

B2 happening during, as a result of, or according to a particular situation, event, rule, etc.:

The work was completed under very difficult conditions.

Now that the deadline is approaching we all feel under pressure.

The chair broke under his weight (= because he was too heavy for it) .

Under the present rules, you can buy ten litres of wine.

under attack, consideration, discussion, etc. B2 in the process of being attacked, considered, discussed, etc.:

The town is under fire (= is being attacked) from the air.

The proposals are now under consideration by the Board of Governors.

The situation is still not under control .

under sedation, anaesthetic, etc. UK treated in the way mentioned:

The patient is being kept under heavy sedation.

She'll have to go under anaesthetic for the operation.

old-fashioned She's been under the doctor for a viral infection.

be under an impression/belief B2 to believe something, often wrongly:

He was under the mistaken belief that I was in charge.


under / ˈʌn.də r /   / -dɚ / preposition (CONTROL)

controlled or governed by a particular person, organization, or force:

He's a Colonel, with hundreds of soldiers under him (= obeying his orders) .

I wonder what Britain was like under the Romans (= during the time when the Romans controlled Britain) .

People born under (= during the period of) the star sign Pisces are supposed to be dreamy and artistic.

be under orders to have been ordered to do something:

They're under strict orders not to discuss the situation.

He's under doctor's orders (= has been told by a doctor) to cut down on fatty food and to drink no alcohol for at least six months.

under / ˈʌn.də r /   / -dɚ / preposition (NAME)

using a particular name, especially one that is not your real name:

He writes under the name (of) John le Carré.

For his own safety, he has to operate under a false name/an alias.

© Cambridge University Press 2013

Collins COBUILD Advanced Learner’s English Dictionary



Frequency: The word is one of the 700 most common words in English.

Note: In addition to the uses shown below, 'under' is also used in phrasal verbs such as ‘go under’ and ‘knuckle under’.

If a person or thing is under something, they are at a lower level than that thing, and may be covered or hidden by it.
...swimming in the pool or lying under an umbrella...
Under a wide shelf that holds coffee jars stands a pile of magazines...
She buried her head under the covers, pretending to be asleep...
A path runs under the trees.

In a place such as a sea, river, or swimming pool, if someone or something is under the water, they are fully in the water and covered by it.
They said he’d been held under the water and drowned...
Goldfish were swimming lazily in a group just under the surface.

Under is also an adverb.
When the water was up to his neck, a hand came from behind and pushed his head under.
ADV: ADV after v

If you go under something, you move from one side to the other of something that is at a higher level than you.
He went under a brick arch...
A river boat passed under the bridge.

Something that is under a layer of something, especially clothing, is covered by that layer.
I was wearing two sweaters under the green army jacket...
It was hard to see the colours under the layer of dust.

You can use under before a noun to indicate that a person or thing is being affected by something or is going through a particular process.
...fishermen whose livelihoods are under threat...
I’m rarely under pressure and my co-workers are always nice to me...
Firemen said they had the blaze under control...
He was rushed to court yesterday under armed guard.

If something happens under particular circumstances or conditions, it happens when those circumstances or conditions exist.
His best friend was killed by police under extremely questionable circumstances...
Under normal conditions, only about 20 to 40 per cent of vitamin E is absorbed...

If something happens under a law, agreement, or system, it happens because that law, agreement, or system says that it should happen.
Under law, your employer has the right to hire a temporary worker to replace you...
Under the Constitution, you cannot be tried twice for the same crime.

If something happens under a particular person or government, it happens when that person or government is in power.
There would be no new taxes under his leadership.
...the realities of life under a brutal dictatorship...

If you study or work under a particular person, that person teaches you or tells you what to do.
Kiefer was just one of the artists who had studied under Beuys in the early Sixties...
I am the new manager and you will be working under me.

If you do something under a particular name, you use that name instead of your real name.
Were any of your books published under the name Amanda Fairchild?...
The patient was registered under a false name.

You use under to say which section of a list, book, or system something is in.
This study is described under ‘General Diseases of the Eye’...
‘Where would it be?’—‘Filed under C, second drawer down.’

If something or someone is under a particular age or amount, they are less than that age or amount.
...jobs for those under 65...
Expenditure this year should be just under 15 billion pounds.
PREP: PREP amount

Under is also an adverb.
...free childminding service for 5’s and under.
ADV: amount and ADV

Merriam-Webster's Advanced Learner's Dictionary

Merriam-Webster's Advanced Learner's Dictionary: 


1un·der /ˈʌndɚ/ prep
1 : in or to a lower place than (something) : below or beneath (something) : underneath
• They couldn't climb over the wall, so they dug a hole under it.
• Draw a line under each word you don't know.
• We sat under a tree and rested a while.
• I'm wearing a sweater under my jacket.
• The ball rolled under the car.
• He had a mechanic check under the hood (of the car).
• How long can you hold your breath under water?
• There were 12 of us living under one roof. [=in one place]
2 : guided or managed by (a person or group)
• The cafe is under new management.
• The army captured three forts while under the general's command.
• She has 12 employees (working) under her.
3 : controlled or affected by (something)
• He has been under a lot of pressure/stress at work lately.
• The roof collapsed under the weight of the snow. [=the weight of the snow on the roof caused it to collapse]
• The work was done under the direction/guidance/supervision of an architect. [=an architect directed/guided/supervised the work]
• She was not under a doctor's care [=she did not have a doctor] at the time of the accident.
• Driving while under the influence of alcohol [=driving while drunk] is dangerous and illegal.
• You will be under anesthesia during the operation.
• I can't work under these conditions!
• I would never, under any circumstances, agree to do such a thing.
• The company was under no obligation [=was not obligated/required] to release the information.
• I was under the impression [=I thought] that admission was free.
4 : in a particular state or condition : affected by a particular process
• The police put her under arrest. [=the police arrested her]
• The house is under construction. [=is now being built]
• The incident is currently under investigation. [=is being investigated]
• His suggestion is still under discussion/consideration/review [=is still being discussed/considered/reviewed] by the committee.
5 : according to (something)
Under the terms of the lease, rent will be due on the first of each month.
• They have fulfilled all their obligations under the treaty.
6 : within the group that has (a particular title or label)
• The purchase is listed under “debits.”
• Many of these foods would come under the heading (of) “delicacies” in certain parts of the world.
- used to say that a particular name is used to indicate something
• The table is reserved under my last name.
8 : less or lower than (a certain age, amount of money, etc.)
• All the children in the class are under the age of 14.
• We arrived in under an hour.
• You get all three items for under $10.
9 : hidden below (an outward appearance)
Under that rough exterior, he is a kind and gentle man.



between [preposition, adverb]

In or into the space that separates two places, people, or objects

US /bɪˈtwiːn/ 
UK /bɪˈtwiːn/ 

میان، بین


The town lies halfway between Rome and Florence.

Oxford Essential Dictionary


 preposition, adverb

1 in the space in the middle of two things or people:
The letter B comes between A and C.
I sat between Sylvie and Bruno.
I see her most weekends but not very often in between.
Look at the note at among.

2 to and from two places:
The boat sails between Dover and Calais.

3 more than one thing but less than another thing:
The meal will cost between £20 and £25.

4 after one time and before the next time:
I'll meet you between 4 and 4.30.

5 for or by two or more people or things:
We shared the cake between us (= each of us had some cake).

6 a word that you use when you compare two people or things:
What is the difference between 'some' and 'any'?

Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English


between S1 W1 /bɪˈtwiːn/ BrE AmE adverb, preposition
[Language: Old English; Origin: betweonum]
1. (also in between) in or through the space that separates two things, people, or places:
I sat down between Sue and Jane.
a house and stables, with a yard in between
The ball rolled between his feet.
2. (also in between) in the time that separates two times or events:
Are there any public holidays between Christmas and Easter?
You shouldn’t eat between meals.
The team have a lot of work to do between now and Sunday.
A lot of students spend a year abroad in between school and university.
I’ve had a few jobs, with long periods of unemployment in between.
3. within a range of amounts, numbers, distances etc:
The project will cost between eight and ten million dollars.
Most of the victims were young men between the ages of 16 and 21.
4. used to say which two places are joined or connected by something:
They’re building a new road between Manchester and Sheffield.
5. used to say which people or things are involved in something together or are connected:
the long-standing friendship between Bob and Bryan
co-operation between the two countries
She had overheard a private conversation between two MPs.
the link between serious sunburn and deadly skin cancer
6. used to say which people or things get, have, or are involved in something that is shared:
Tom divided his money between his children.
Between the four of them they managed to lift her into the ambulance.
We collected £17 between us.
7. used to say which two things or people you are comparing:
the contrast between town and country life
In her book she makes a comparison between Russian and British ballet.
the difference between good music and really great music
8. between you and me (also between ourselves) spoken used before telling someone something that you do not want them to tell anyone else:
Between you and me, I think Schmidt’s about to resign.
9. come between somebody if something comes between two people, it causes an argument or problems between them:
I let my stupid pride come between us.
10. used when it is difficult to give an exact description of something and you therefore have to compare it to two things that are similar to it:
He uttered a sound that was something between a sigh and a groan.

Oxford Advanced Learner's Dictionary


be·tween preposition, adverb   [bɪˈtwiːn]    [bɪˈtwiːn]

1. in or into the space separating two or more points, objects, people, etc
Q comes between P and R in the English alphabet.
I sat down between Jo and Diana.
Switzerland lies between France, Germany, Austria and Italy.
• The paper had fallen down between the desk and the wall.

(figurative) My job is somewhere between a secretary and a personal assistant.

2. in the period of time that separates two days, years, events, etc
It's cheaper between 6 p.m. and 8 a.m.
Don't eat between meals.
• Children must attend school between the ages of 5 and 16.

• Many changes took place between the two world wars.

3. at some point along a scale from one amount, weight, distance, etc. to another
• It weighed between nine and ten kilos.

• The temperature remained between 25 ° C and 30 ° C all week.

4. (of a line) separating one place from another

• the border between Sweden and Norway

5. from one place to another

• We fly between Rome and Paris twice daily.

6. used to show a connection or relationship
a difference/distinction/contrast between two things
a link between unemployment and crime
• There's a lot of bad feeling between them.

• I had to choose between the two jobs.

7. shared by two or more people or things
• We ate a pizza between us.

• This is just between you and me / between ourselves (= it is a secret).

8. by putting together the efforts or actions of two or more people or groups
• We ought to be able to manage it between us.

• China and India between them account for a third of the world's population.

9. ~ doing sth used to show that several activities are involved
Between working full-time and taking care of the kids, he didn't have much time for hobbies.  
Word Origin:

Old English betwēonum, from be ‘by’ + a Germanic word related to two.

Cambridge Advanced Learner's Dictionary

Cambridge Advanced Learner's Dictionary - 4th Edition

between / bɪˈtwiːn / preposition , adverb (SPACE)

A1 in or into the space that separates two places, people, or objects:

The town lies halfway between Rome and Florence.

Standing between the two adults was a small child.

She squeezed between the parked cars and ran out into the road.

There were two houses with a narrow path in between.

between / bɪˈtwiːn / preposition , adverb (AMOUNT)

A2 If something is between two amounts, it is greater than the first amount but smaller than the second:

She weighs between 55 and 60 kilograms.

The competition is open to children between six and twelve years of age.

The room was either extremely cold or hot, never anything in between (= in the middle) .


between / bɪˈtwiːn / preposition , adverb ( also in between ) (TIME)

A1 in the period of time that separates two different times or events:

You shouldn't eat between meals.

There is a break of ten minutes between classes.

The shop is closed for lunch between 12.30 and 1.30.

In between sobs, he managed to tell them what had happened.

He visits his parents every month and sometimes in between.


between / bɪˈtwiːn / preposition (SHARED)

B1 among two or more people or things:

The money was divided equally between several worthy causes.

We drank two bottles of wine between four of us.

Trade between the two countries (= their trade with each other) has increased sharply in the past year.

There is a great deal of similarity between Caroline and her mother (= they are very similar) .


between / bɪˈtwiːn / preposition (OPPOSING)

A1 A discussion, argument, or game between two or more people or groups of people involves both people or groups:

The negotiations between the union and management have broken down.

There has always been a fierce rivalry between the two clubs.

Tonight's game is between the New Orleans Saints and the Los Angeles Rams.

between / bɪˈtwiːn / preposition (CHOICE)

If you choose between two things, you choose one thing or the other:

You'll have to choose between a holiday or a new washing machine.

She was torn between loyalty to her father and love for her husband (= she could not decide which one to support) .

between / bɪˈtwiːn / preposition (CONNECTING)

A2 connecting two or more places, things, or people:

There is a regular train service between Glasgow and Edinburgh.

The survey shows a link between asthma and air pollution.

from one place to another:

He commutes daily between Leeds and Manchester.

between / bɪˈtwiːn / preposition (SEPARATING)

A2 separating two places or things:

The wall between East and West Berlin came down in 1989.

The report states that the gap between the rich and the poor has increased dramatically over the past decade.

© Cambridge University Press 2013

Collins COBUILD Advanced Learner’s English Dictionary



Frequency: The word is one of the 700 most common words in English.

Note: In addition to the uses shown below, 'between' is used in a few phrasal verbs, such as ‘come between’.

If something is between two things or is in between them, it has one of the things on one side of it and the other thing on the other side.
She left the table to stand between the two men...
Charlie crossed between the traffic to the far side of the street.
PREP: usu PREP pl-n

If people or things travel between two places, they travel regularly from one place to the other and back again.
I spent a lot of time in the early Eighties travelling between London and Bradford.

A relationship, discussion, or difference between two people, groups, or things is one that involves them both or relates to them both.
I think the relationship between patients and doctors has got a lot less personal...
There has always been a difference between community radio and commercial radio.

If something stands between you and what you want, it prevents you from having it.
His sense of duty often stood between him and the enjoyment of life.
PREP: PREP n and n

If something is between two amounts or ages, it is greater or older than the first one and smaller or younger than the second one.
Amsterdam is fun–a third of its population is aged between 18 and 30.
PREP: PREP num and num

If something happens between or in between two times or events, it happens after the first time or event and before the second one.
The canal was built between 1793 and 1797...
PREP: PREP pl-n, PREP num and num

Between is also an adverb.
...a journey by jetfoil, coach and two aircraft, with a four-hour wait in Bangkok in between.
ADV: ADV with cl/group

If you must choose between two or more things, you must choose just one of them.
Students will be able to choose between English, French and Russian as their first foreign language.

If people or places have a particular amount of something between them, this is the total amount that they have.
The three sites employ 12,500 people between them...

When something is divided or shared between people, they each have a share of it.
There is only one bathroom shared between eight bedrooms.
= amongst

When you introduce a statement by saying ‘between you and me’ or ‘between ourselves’, you are indicating that you do not want anyone else to know what you are saying.
Between you and me, though, it’s been awful for business...
Between ourselves, I know he wants to marry her.
PHRASE: PHR with cl

Merriam-Webster's Advanced Learner's Dictionary

Merriam-Webster's Advanced Learner's Dictionary: 

1be·tween /bɪˈtwiːn/ prep
1 : in the space that separates (two things or people)
• The ball rolled between the desk and the wall.
• He stood between his mother and his father.
• The office has two desks with a table between them.
• They put up a fence between their house and their neighbor's house.
• There are fences between all the houses.
- often used figuratively
• a book that blurs the line/boundary between fact and fiction
- often used in the phrase in between
• There are fences in between all the houses.
2 : in the time that separates (two actions, events, etc.)
• If you want to lose weight, you shouldn't eat between meals.
Between bites of food, they talked to their teacher.
• The two days between Monday and Thursday are Tuesday and Wednesday.
• We should arrive between 9 and 10 o'clock.
- often used in the phrase in between
• You shouldn't eat in between meals.
- used to indicate the beginning and ending points of a group of numbers, a range of measurement, etc.
• a number between 1 and 20
• The package weighs somewhere between a pound and a pound and a half.
- sometimes used in the phrase in between
• a number in between 1 and 20
4 : in shares to each of (two or more people)
• The property was divided equally between the son and the daughter. [=the son and the daughter received an equal share of the property]
• His estate was divided between [=among] his four grandchildren.
- used to indicate two or more people or things that together produce a result or have an effect
• She ate two hot dogs, and he ate three hot dogs, so between them they ate five hot dogs.
Between work and family life, she has no time for hobbies. [=because of all the time she spends on her work and family life, she has no time for hobbies]
- used to indicate two people or teams that are involved in a game, activity, etc.
• There's a game tonight between the Red Sox and the Yankees. [=the Red Sox are playing a game against the Yankees tonight]
- used to indicate two or more people or things that are joined, related, or connected in some way
• There are many relations/connections between linguistics, philosophy, and psychology.
• There is a passageway between the two rooms.
• the bond between friends
• We used to love each other, but there's nothing between us now. [=we don't love each other now]
- used to indicate two or more people or things that are being considered, compared, etc.
• They compared the cars but found few differences between them.
• We were allowed to choose between two/several options.
• There's not much to choose between the two cars. [=the two cars are very similar]
• There is very little difference between the two cars.
- used to indicate movement from one place to another place
• He flies between Miami and Chicago twice a week.
• The airline provides service between New York and Paris.
10 : known only by (two people)
• They shared a secret between them.
• (Just) Between you and me, I think he's wrong. [=I'm telling you that I think he's wrong, but you should not tell anyone else what I've told you]
• What I'm going to tell you should remain a secret (just) between us/ourselves.


email [noun]

The system for using computers to send messages over the internet

US /ˈiː.meɪl/ 
UK /ˈiː.meɪl/ 


ایمیل، نامه الکترونیکی


I'll ​forward his email to you if you're ​interested.

اگر مایل باشی ایمیل اورا برای تو خواهم فرستاد.

Oxford Essential Dictionary


 (also e-mail) noun

1 (no plural) a system for sending messages from one computer to another:
to send a message by email
What's your email address?

2 (plural emails) a message that is written on one computer and sent to another:
I'll send you an email.

>> email (also e-mail) verb (emails, emailing, emailed ) :
Email me when you arrive.
I'll email the documents to her.

Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English


I. email1 S2 W2 BrE AmE, e-mail /ˈiː meɪl/ noun
1. [uncountable] a system that allows you to send and receive messages by computer SYN electronic mail:
It’s usually best to contact him by email.
2. [uncountable and countable] a message that is sent from one person to another using the email system:
Send me an e-mail when you have any news.
• • •
COLLOCATIONS (for Meanings 1 & 2)
■ verbs
send (somebody) an email Can you send me an email with all the details?
get/receive an email Within seconds, I got an email confirming the booking.
read an email It took most of the morning to read my emails.
write an email Jack spent the evening writing emails and surfing the Internet.
answer/reply to an email She did not bother replying to his email.
check your email(s) The first thing I do every morning is check my email.
delete an email I accidentally deleted your email.
forward an email (=send an email you have received to someone else) Can you please forward this email on to Chris?
fire off an email informal (=send it quickly, especially because you are angry about something) I fired off an email to the hotel, saying how disgusted I was with their level of service.
■ adjectives
a group email (=one sent to several people at the same time) Those group emails telling you who is leaving and joining the company are so boring.
■ email + NOUN
an email address What’s your email address?
an email message I can send email messages on my phone.
an email attachment (=a computer file sent in an email) Don’t open an email attachment unless you know who sent it.
• • •
email a message sent using the email system: Did you get my email? | There were about 20 emails in my inbox that morning.
message an email – used when it is obvious that you are talking about a message sent by email, rather than a message sent by some other method: I deleted your message by mistake.
attachment a document or file that is sent with an email: You can email the photo to me as an attachment.
spam unwanted email messages from advertisers: I was getting so much spam that I changed my email address.
phishing the activity of sending emails in order to trick someone into giving away information such as their bank account number or their computer password. This information is then used to get money or goods: Yahoo announced new measures to protect users from phishing.

Oxford Advanced Learner's Dictionary


email (also e-mail) noun, verb   [ˈiːmeɪl]    [ˈiːmeɪl] 

1. (also formal ˌelectronic ˈmail) uncountable a way of sending messages and data to other people by means of computers connected together in a network

• to send a message by email

2. countable, uncountable a message sent by email
Thanks for your email.  
Word Origin:
late 20th cent.: abbreviation of electronic mail.  
email (also e-mail) noun C, U
I check my email daily.
mailmessage|formal communicationcorrespondence
an email/mail/a message/a communication/correspondence from/to sb
send/receive an email/mail/a message/a communication/correspondence
open an email/a message 
Email and the Internet
receive/get/open an email
write/send/answer/forward/delete an email
check/read/access your email
block/filter (out) junk/spam/unsolicited email
exchange email addresses
open/check your inbox
junk mail fills/floods/clogs your inbox
have/set up an email account
open/send/contain an attachment
sign up for/receive email alerts
Connecting to the Internet
use/access/log onto the Internet/the Web
go online/on the Internet
have a high-speed/dial-up/broadband/wireless (Internet) connection
access/connect to/locate the server
use/open/close/launch a/your web browser
browse/surf/search/scour the Internet/the Web
send/contain/spread/detect a (computer/email) virus
update your anti-virus software
install/use/configure a firewall
accept/enable/block/delete cookies
Using the Internet
visit/check a website/an Internet site/sb's blog
create/design/launch a website/social networking site
start/write/post/read a blog
update your blog/a website
be in/meet sb in/go into/enter an Internet chat room
download/upload music/software/a song/a podcast/a file/a copy of sth
share information/data/files
post a comment/message on a website/an online message board/a web forum/an internet chat room
stream video/audio/music/content over the Internet
join/participate in/visit/provide a (web-based/web/online/Internet/discussion) forum
generate/increase/monitor Internet traffic 
Example Bank:
An email arrives in your inbox.
Each of the rooms has Internet and email access.
I sent an email asking about their products.
If a member does not have email, a letter is sent.
Most people check their email several times a day.
She is in constant email contact with a number of college staff.
Some companies monitor all employee email.
Some members used email to renew their membership.
The email contains a link to the retailer's website.
The next day I got 400 email responses.
Users receive email notification of special offers.
Web-based email providers
When I saw what he'd written I fired off an angry email.
You can sign up to receive email alerts.
a free email service
an email announcing his promotion
filtering devices that block unwanted email
the rise in corporate email traffic
• I got an email from Andrew last week.

• I have to check my email.

Cambridge Advanced Learner's Dictionary

Cambridge Advanced Learner's Dictionary - 4th Edition

email ( also ˈ e-mail ) / ˈiː.meɪl / noun

A1 [ U ] the system for using computers to send messages over the internet:

You can contact us by email or fax.

What's your email address ?

A1 [ C ] a message or document sent using this system:

I got an email from Danielle last week.

© Cambridge University Press 2013

Collins COBUILD Advanced Learner’s English Dictionary


also E-mail, email
(e-mails, e-mailing, e-mailed)

E-mail is a system of sending written messages electronically from one computer to another. E-mail is an abbreviation of ‘electronic mail’.
You can contact us by e-mail...
Do you want to send an E-mail?...
First you need to get an e-mail address.

If you e-mail someone, you send them an e-mail.
Jamie e-mailed me to say he couldn’t come...
Email your views to sport@times.co.uk
VERB: V n, V n to n

Merriam-Webster's Advanced Learner's Dictionary

Merriam-Webster's Advanced Learner's Dictionary: 

1e–mail /ˈiːˌmeɪl/ noun, pl -mails
1 [noncount] : a system for sending messages from one computer to another computer
• They communicate with each other by e-mail.
• an e-mail message
2 a [noncount] : messages that are sent electronically from one computer to another
• I seem to spend most of my time these days reading e-mail.
b [count] : an e-mail message
• She sent me an e-mail.


sit [verb] (BE SEATED)

To (cause someone to) be in a position in which the lower part of the body is resting on a seat or other type of support, with the upper part of the body vertical

US /sɪt/ 
UK /sɪt/ 



She sat on a chair

او روی صندلی نشست.

Oxford Essential Dictionary


 verb (sits, sitting, sat /, has sat)

1 to rest your weight on your bottom, for example in a chair:
We sat in the garden all afternoon.
Come and sit next to me.
She was sitting on the sofa.

2 (British) to do an examination:
The students will sit their exams in June.

sit down to move your body downwards so you are sitting:
She came into the room and sat down.

sit up to sit when you have been lying:
He sat up in bed and looked at the clock.

Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English


sit S1 W1 /sɪt/ BrE AmE verb (past tense and past participle sat /sæt/, present participle sitting)
[Language: Old English; Origin: sittan]
a) (also be sitting down) [intransitive] to be on a chair or seat, or on the ground, with the top half of your body upright and your weight resting on your ↑buttocks
sit on/in/by etc
I sat on the shore and looked at the sea.
She was sitting in a chair by the fire.
She’s the girl who sits next to me at school.
In the driving seat sat a man of average height.
sit at a desk/table etc (=sit facing it)
Jean sat at the table writing a letter.
sit doing something
They sat sipping their drinks.
We used to sit and listen to her for hours.
b) (also sit down) [intransitive always + adverb/preposition] to get into a sitting position somewhere after you have been standing up:
He came over and sat beside her.
Sam sat opposite her and accepted a cigarette.
c) (also sit somebody down) [transitive always + adverb/preposition] to make someone sit, or help them to sit
sit somebody on/in etc something
I gently led her to the chair and sat her on it.
2. OBJECTS/BUILDINGS ETC [intransitive always + adverb/preposition] to be in a particular position or condition
sit on/in etc
a little church sitting on a hillside
The parliament building sits in a large square.
He’s got a computer sitting on his desk, but he doesn’t use it.
My climbing boots were sitting unused in a cupboard.
The house has sat empty for two years.
3. DO NOTHING [intransitive always + adverb/preposition] to stay in one place for a long time, especially sitting down, doing nothing useful or helpful:
I spent half the morning sitting in a traffic jam.
Well, I can’t sit here chatting all day.
Are you just going to sit there complaining?
4. COMMITTEE/PARLIAMENT ETC [intransitive] to be a member of a committee, parliament, or other official group
sit in/on
They both sat on the management committee.
He was the first journalist to sit in parliament.
5. MEETING [intransitive] to have a meeting in order to carry out official business:
The council only sits once a month.
The court will sit until all the evidence has been heard.
6. ANIMAL/BIRD [intransitive always + adverb/preposition]
a) to be in, or get into, a resting position, with the tail end of the body resting on a surface:
The cat likes to sit on the wall outside the kitchen.
b) Sit! used to tell a dog to sit with the tail end of its body resting on the ground or floor
c) if a bird sits on its eggs, it covers them with its body to make the eggs ↑hatch
7. LOOK AFTER [intransitive + for] to look after a baby or child while its parents are out SYN babysit
8. sit tight spoken
a) to stay where you are and not move:
Just sit tight – I’ll be there in five minutes.
b) to stay in the same situation, and not change your mind and do anything new:
We’re advising all our investors to sit tight till the market improves.
9. be sitting pretty to be in a very good or favourable position:
We’ve paid off the mortgage, so we’re sitting pretty now.
10. sit in judgment (on/over somebody) to give your opinion about whether someone has done something wrong, especially when you have no right to do this:
How can you sit in judgment on somebody you hardly know?
11. not sit well/easily/comfortably (with somebody) if a situation, plan etc does not sit well with someone, they do not like it:
He had never before been accused of stealing, and it did not sit well with him.
12. sit on the fence to avoid saying which side of an argument you support or what your opinion is about a particular subject:
The weakness of the book is that it sits on the fence on important issues.
13. sit on your hands to delay taking action when you should do something:
Workers are losing their jobs while the government sits on its hands and does nothing.
14. EXAMS [intransitive and transitive] British English to take an examination:
Tracy’s sitting her GCSEs this year.
sit for
They were preparing children to sit for the entry examination.
15. PICTURE/PHOTO [intransitive] to sit somewhere so that you can be painted or photographed
sit for
She sat for (=was painted by) Holman Hunt and Millais.
• • •
■ adverbs
sit still (=without moving) Young children find it almost impossible to sit still.
sit quietly (=without talking) Mac sat quietly in the back of the car.
be sitting comfortably She was sitting comfortably on the sofa.
sit up straight/sit upright (=with your back straight) Sit up straight at the table, Maddie.
sit bolt upright (=suddenly sit up very straight, for example because you hear something) Suddenly she sat bolt upright and said, ‘What was that?’
sit cross-legged (=with your legs bent and crossed over in front of you) She sat cross-legged on the grass.
• • •
sit to be resting your weight on your bottom somewhere, or to move into this position: He was sitting in front of the fire. | She sat on the bed and kicked off her shoes. | Who is the man sitting next to Karen?
sit down to sit on a chair, bed, floor etc after you have been standing: I sat down on the sofa. | Come in and sit down.
be seated formal to be sitting in a particular chair or place: John was seated on my left. | There was a man seated behind the desk.
take a seat to sit – used especially when asking someone to sit down: Please take a seat – she will be with you in a minute. | Would the audience please take their seats – the show will begin in five minutes.
sink into something to sit in a comfortable chair and let yourself fall back into it: We switched on the TV and sank into our armchairs.
lounge to sit in a very comfortable relaxed way: They lounged around all day by the pool.
perch to sit on the edge of something: He perched on the arm of the sofa. | My sister was perched (=was sitting) on a high stool.
be slumped to be sitting while leaning against something, especially because you are injured, drunk, or asleep: They found him slumped against the steering wheel.
squat to sit with your knees bent under you, your bottom just off the ground, balancing on your feet: A little boy was squatting at the edge of the pool.
sit around (also sit about British English) phrasal verb
to spend a lot of time sitting and doing nothing very useful:
We sat around for a bit, chatting.
sit back phrasal verb
1. to get into a comfortable position, for example in a chair, and relax:
Sit back and relax – I’ll open a bottle of wine.
2. to relax and make no effort to get involved in something or influence what happens:
Don’t just sit back and wait for new business to come to you.
sit by phrasal verb
to allow something wrong or illegal to happen without doing anything about it:
I’m not going to sit by and watch a man go to prison for something I’ve done.
sit down phrasal verb
1. to be in a sitting position or get into a sitting position:
It was good to be sitting down eating dinner with my family.
Sit down, Amy – you look tired.
sit yourself down
Sit yourself down and have a drink.
2. sit somebody down to make someone sit down or help them to sit down
sit somebody down in/on
I helped her into the room and sat her down in an armchair.
3. sit down and do something to try to solve a problem or deal with something that needs to be done, by giving it all your attention:
The three of us need to sit down and have a talk.
Sit down and work out just what you spend.
sit in phrasal verb
to be present at a meeting but not take an active part in it
sit in on
Would you like to sit in on some of my interviews?
sit in for somebody phrasal verb
to do a job, go to a meeting etc instead of the person who usually does it:
This is Alan James sitting in for Suzy Williams on the mid-morning show.
sit on something phrasal verb informal
to delay dealing with something:
I sent my application about six weeks ago and they’ve just been sitting on it.
sit something ↔ out phrasal verb
1. to stay where you are and do nothing until something finishes, especially something boring or unpleasant:
She had two weeks to sit it out while she waited to hear if she had got the job.
She was prepared to sit out the years of Jack’s jail sentence.
2. to not take part in something, especially a game or dance, when you usually take part:
Johnson sat out the game with a shoulder injury.
sit through something phrasal verb
to attend a meeting, performance etc, and stay until the end, even if it is very long and boring:
I wasn’t the least bit interested in all the speeches I had to sit through.
sit up phrasal verb
1. to be in a sitting position or get into a sitting position after you have been lying down:
He was sitting up in bed, reading his book.
She sat up and reached for her glass.
2. sit somebody up to help someone to sit after they have been lying down
sit somebody up in/on etc
I’ll sit you up on the pillows and you’ll be nice and comfortable.
3. to sit in a chair with your back straight:
Just sit up straight and stop slouching.
4. to stay up very late:
Sometimes we just sit up and watch videos all night.
5. sit up (and take notice) to suddenly start paying attention to someone, because they have done something surprising or impressive:
If Maria succeeded, then everyone would sit up and take notice.


sit down

sit down phrasal verb (see also ↑sit)
1. to be in a sitting position or get into a sitting position:
It was good to be sitting down eating dinner with my family.
Sit down, Amy – you look tired.
sit yourself down
Sit yourself down and have a drink.
2. sit somebody down to make someone sit down or help them to sit down
sit somebody down in/on
I helped her into the room and sat her down in an armchair.
3. sit down and do something to try to solve a problem or deal with something that needs to be done, by giving it all your attention:
The three of us need to sit down and have a talk.
Sit down and work out just what you spend.

Oxford Advanced Learner's Dictionary


sit [sit sits sat sitting]   [sɪt]    [sɪt]  verb (sit·ting, sat, sat   [sæt]  ;   [sæt]  )

1. intransitive to rest your weight on your bottom with your back vertical, for example on/in a chair
She sat and stared at the letter in front of her.
+ adv./prep. May I sit here?
Just sit still!
He went and sat beside her.
She was sitting at her desk.
She always sits in that chair.
It's too cold to sit outside.
~ doing sth We sat talking for hours.

see also  sit down

2. transitive ~ sb + adv./prep. to put sb in a sitting position
• He lifted the child and sat her on the wall.

• She sat him down in front of the fire with a hot drink.  


3. intransitive to be in a particular place
+ adv./prep. A large bus was sitting outside.
The pot was sitting in a pool of water.
The jacket sat beautifully on her shoulders (= fitted well).

+ adj. The box sat unopened on the shelf.  


4. intransitive to have an official position as sth or as a member of sth
~ as sth He was sitting as a temporary judge.
They both sat as MPs in the House of Commons.
~ in/on sth She sat on a number of committees.

~ for sth For years he sat for Henley (= was the MP for that constituency ).  


5. intransitive (of a parliament, committee, court of law, etc.) to meet in order to do official business

• Parliament sits for less than six months of the year.  


6. transitive, intransitive (rather formal) to do an exam: (BrE) ~ sth Candidates will sit the examinations in June.
• Most of the students sit at least 5 GCSEs.

(especially NAmE) ~ for sth He was about to sit for his entrance exam.  


7. intransitive (+ adv./prep.) to rest on a branch, etc. or to stay on a nest to keep the eggs warm  

8. intransitive to sit on its bottom with its front legs straight

• Rover! Sit!  


9. intransitive ~ (for sb) =  babysit
Who's sitting for you?
see also  house-sit 
more at sit/stand bolt upright at  bolt  adv., rest/sit on your laurels at  laurel, sit/stand silently by at  silently 
Idioms: sit at somebody's feet  sit comfortably/easily/well  sit in judgement  sit on the fence  sit tight  sitting pretty
Derived: sit about  sit back  sit by  sit down  sit down and do something  sit for somebody  sit in for somebody  sit in on something  sit on something  sit somebody up  sit something out  sit through something  sit up  sit yourself down
Word Origin:
Old English sittan, of Germanic origin; related to Dutch zitten, German sitzen, from an Indo-European root shared by Latin sedere and Greek hezesthai.  
sit verb I
May I sit here?
sit downtake a seatperchsprawl|formal be seatedrecline
Opp: stand (up)
sit/sit down/take a seat/perch/sprawl/be seated/recline on sth
sit/sit down/take a seat/sprawl/be seated in sth 
Grammar Point:
You can use on, in and at with sit. You sit on a chair, a step, the edge of the table, etc. You sit in an armchair. If you are sitting at a table, desk, etc. you are sitting in a chair close to it, usually so that you can eat a meal, do some work, etc. 
sit down be seated take a seat perch
These words all mean to rest your weight on your bottom with your back upright, for example on a chair.
sitto rest your weight on your bottom with your back upright, for example on a chair: May I sit here? Sit still, will you!
Sit is usually used with an adverb or prepositional phrase to show where or how sb sits, but sometimes another phrase or clause is used to show what sb does while they are sitting: We sat talking for hours.
sit down/sit yourself downto move from a standing position to a sitting position: Please sit down. Come in and sit yourselves down.
be seated(formal) to be sitting: She was seated at the head of the table.
Be seated is often used as a formal way of inviting sb to sit down: Please be seated.
take a seatto sit down Take a seat is used especially as a polite way of inviting sb to sit down: Please take a seat.
perch(rather informal) to sit on sth, especially on the edge of sth: She perched herself on the edge of the bed.
Perch is always used with an adverb or prepositional phrase to show where sb is perching.
to sit/sit down/be seated/take a seat/perch on sth
to sit/sit down/be seated/take a seat in sth 
Example Bank:
Can I sit on this chair?
Elmer was happily sitting in his high chair.
He motioned the young officer to sit down.
He sat bolt upright, hands folded in front of him.
He simply sat there not speaking.
He was sitting against the wall.
He was sitting at his desk.
He would sit quietly and watch what was happening.
How can you sit back and watch him suffer?
I hate to be sitting around doing nothing.
I recently had a chance to sit down with Britain's Foreign Secretary.
Joan sat back in her chair.
Just sit back and enjoy the show.
Please sit down and let me talk to you.
She just sat there staring into space.
She sat demurely on the edge of her chair.
She sat under an apple tree.
She slowly sat up and looked around.
She was sitting astride a horse.
She was sitting in her chair with her legs crossed.
She went and sat beside him.
Surely someone would stand up and let her sit down?
The children sat cross-legged on the floor.
The kids sat around a campfire.
The manager sat behind his desk.
Their actions have forced us to sit up and take notice.
They sat opposite each other.
We can't sit idly by and let this happen.
We sat at a table in the corner.
We sat in silence for a few moments.
He sat and stared at the letter in front of him.
I was sitting at my desk, gazing out of the window.
She sat back and stretched out her legs.
• Sit still, will you!

• Sit up straight— don't slouch.

sit down

ˌsit ˈdown | ˌsit yourself ˈdown derived

to move from a standing position to a sitting position

• Please sit down.

• He sat down on the bed.

• They sat down to consider the problem.

• Come in and sit yourselves down.

Cambridge Advanced Learner's Dictionary

Cambridge Advanced Learner's Dictionary - 4th Edition

sit / sɪt / verb ( present tense sitting , past tense and past participle sat ) (BE SEATED)

A1 [ I or T , usually + adv/prep ] to (cause someone to) be in a position in which the lower part of the body is resting on a seat or other type of support, with the upper part of the body vertical:

to sit at a table/desk

to sit in an armchair

to sit on a chair/a horse/the ground

He came and sat (down) next to me.

informal Sit your self down and have a cup of tea.

The child's father sat her (down) on a chair.

[ I usually + adv/prep ] to be a model for a painter, photographer, etc.:

Monet's wife sat for him many times.

[ I ] (of an animal such as a dog) to move into a position with its back legs bent and its tail end on the ground:

We're trying to train our dog to sit.

[ I usually + adv/prep ] If a bird sits on its eggs, it covers them with its body to keep them warm before they hatch.

© Cambridge University Press 2013

Collins COBUILD Advanced Learner’s English Dictionary


(sits, sitting, sat)

Frequency: The word is one of the 700 most common words in English.

If you are sitting somewhere, for example in a chair, your bottom is resting on the chair and the upper part of your body is upright.
Mother was sitting in her chair in the kitchen...
They sat there in shock and disbelief...
They had been sitting watching television...
He was unable to sit still for longer than a few minutes.
VERB: V prep/adv, V prep/adv, V, V adj, also V

When you sit somewhere, you lower your body until you are sitting on something.
He set the cases against a wall and sat on them...
When you stand, they stand; when you sit, they sit.
VERB: V prep/adv, V

Sit down means the same as sit.
I sat down, stunned...
Hughes beckoned him to sit down on the sofa.
PHRASAL VERB: V P, V P prep/adv

If you sit someone somewhere, you tell them to sit there or put them in a sitting position.
He used to sit me on his lap...
VERB: V n prep/adv

To sit someone down somewhere means to sit them there.
She helped him out of the water and sat him down on the rock...
They sat me down and had a serious discussion about sex.
PHRASAL VERB: V n P prep/adv, V n P

If you sit an examination, you do it. (BRIT; in AM, use take)
June and July are the traditional months for sitting exams.
= take

If you sit on a committee or other official group, you are a member of it.
He was asked to sit on numerous committees...
VERB: no cont, V on/in n

When a parliament, legislature, court, or other official body sits, it officially carries out its work. (FORMAL)
Parliament sits for only 28 weeks out of 52...

If a building or object sits in a particular place, it is in that place. (WRITTEN)
Our new house sat next to a stream...
On the table sat a box decorated with little pearl triangles.
= stand
VERB: V prep/adv, V prep/adv

see also sitting

If you sit tight, you remain in the same place or situation and do not take any action, usually because you are waiting for something to happen.
Sit tight. I’ll be right back...
to sit on the fence: see fence
PHRASE: V inflects

sit down
see sit 2, 3

If you sit down and do something, you spend time and effort doing it in order to try to achieve something.
Have you both sat down and worked out a budget together?...

Merriam-Webster's Advanced Learner's Dictionary

Merriam-Webster's Advanced Learner's Dictionary: 

sit /ˈsit/ verb sits; sat /ˈsæt/; sit·ting
1 a [no obj] : to be in a position in which your bottom is resting on a chair, the ground, etc., especially with your back upright
• He was sitting in a chair next to the window.
• She sat across from me during dinner.
• The children sat cross-legged on the floor playing a game.
• Are you going to sit there and watch TV all day?
• Don't just sit there—do/say something!
• You can't expect young children to sit still [=sit without moving around] for that long.
b [no obj] : to begin to sit : to put yourself in a sitting position
• He went over and sat [=sat down] in a chair next to the window.
• She walked around the table and sat across from me.
c always followed by an adverb or preposition [+ obj] : to cause (someone) to be seated : to put (someone) in a sitting position
• She sat the toddler in the chair.
2 [no obj]
a of an animal : to rest with the tail end of the body on the floor and the front legs straight
• The cat likes to sit by the window.
• He taught the dog to sit (on command).
Sit! Good dog!
b of a bird : to rest on the top or the edge of something
• The bird sat on the ledge.
3 always followed by an adverb or preposition [no obj] : to be or stay in a particular place, position, or condition
• The limousine is sitting outside.
• A vase sat on the table.
• The sled sits unused in the garage during the summer.
4 [no obj] : to be a member of an official group that has meetings
• She sits on the board of directors.
5 [no obj] : to meet in order to carry on official business : to hold a session
• The court is now sitting.
• Parliament will sit for four months.
6 [no obj]
a : to take care of a child while the child's parents are away : babysit
• She sits for the neighbors' kids. = She sits for the neighbors.
b : to take care of something while the owner is away - usually used in combination
• Can you dog-sit [=take care of my dog] for me this weekend?
- see also house-sit
7 [+ obj] US : to have enough seats for (a certain number of people)
• The car sits [=seats] five (people).
8 [no obj] : to pose for a portrait, photograph, etc.
• She agreed to sit for the painting/painter.
9 Brit : to take (an examination)

[+ obj]

• Students will sit the exam next week.

[no obj]

• The course prepares students to sit for the exam.
sit around also chiefly Brit sit about [phrasal verb] : to spend time doing nothing useful
• He sits around and does nothing while I do all the work.
• She just sits around watching television all day.
sit back [phrasal verb]
1 : to get into a comfortable and relaxed position in a chair, seat, etc.
Sit back and enjoy the ride.
2 : to make no effort to do something
• He sat back and watched us do all the work.
• How can you just sit back and let him insult you like that?
sit by [phrasal verb] : to make no effort to stop something bad or unpleasant from happening
• We cannot just sit by and watch him ruin his life.
• I won't sit idly by while he ruins his life!
sit down [phrasal verb]
1 : to begin to sit : to put yourself into a sitting position
• She called just as we were sitting down to eat.
• Come on in and sit down. [=have a seat]
• Please sit down and be quiet.
- sometimes used figuratively
• We need to sit down and figure this problem out. [=we need to give our attention to figuring this problem out]
2 be sitting down : to be in a sitting position
• She made sure everyone was sitting down before she began.
• I have some shocking news. Are you sitting down?
3 sit (someone) down : to cause (someone) to be seated : to put or get (someone) in a sitting position
• He sat the child down.
• You need to sit him down and have a talk with him.
• She sat herself down on the couch.
sit in [phrasal verb]
1 : to take the place of someone who is not present
• The President could not attend the meeting, so the Vice President is sitting in. = The Vice President is sitting in for the President.
2 sit in on (something) : to attend (something, such as a class or meeting) without officially participating
• She's been asked to sit in on the meetings.
• I would like to sit in on one of your classes.
sit on [phrasal verb] sit on (something) informal : to delay dealing with or talking about (something)
• Let's sit on the problem for a while and see if anything changes.
• They have been sitting on my insurance claim for months!
• Let's just sit on this news for the time being.
sit on your hands : to make no effort to deal with or respond to something
• She accused the administration of sitting on its hands while industries violated the law.
sit on your laurels
- see laurel
sit out [phrasal verb] sit out (something) or sit (something) out
1 : to stay in a place and wait for (something) to end
• Though the movie was very boring, he sat it out to see how it ended.
2 : to not take part in (something)
• She sat out several dances/practices.
• You can start the game without me. I'm going to sit this one out.
sit pretty informal : to be in a very good or favorable situation
• Our team sits pretty at the top of the rankings.
- usually used as be sitting pretty
• He bought stock in the company early on, and now he is sitting pretty.
sit through [phrasal verb] sit through (something) : to go to (something) and stay until the end
• We had to sit through another boring meeting.
• I can't believe the kids sat through the whole movie.
sit tight
1 : to not move or change your position : to stay where you are
Sit tight, I'll go get help.
2 : to not change your situation : to stay in the same situation
• This isn't a good time to sell a house. Let's just sit tight and see if the market improves.
sit up [phrasal verb]
1 : to stay awake until late at night
• They sat up talking until almost dawn.
2 : to sit with your back very straight
• Quit slouching and sit up (straight).
3 sit up or sit (someone) up : to move or help (someone) to move into a sitting position
• He sat up in bed.
• She sat the child up.
sit up and take notice : to suddenly pay attention to (someone or something)
• The news made them sit up and take notice.
sit well/comfortably (etc.)
✦If something does not sit well/comfortably (etc.) with you, you do not like it.
• The decision didn't sit well with him.
• That attitude doesn't sit comfortably with me.


park [noun]

A large area of land with grass and trees surrounded by fences or walls, specially arranged so that people can walk in it for pleasure or children can play in it

US /pɑːrk/ 
UK /pɑːk/ 



We went for a walk in the park. 

رفتیم در پارک قدم بزنیم.

Oxford Essential Dictionary

a place with grass and trees, where anybody can go to walk, play games or relax:
We had a picnic in the park.
Hyde Park

Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English


I. park1 S1 W2 /pɑːk $ pɑːrk/ BrE AmE noun [countable]
[Date: 1200-1300; Language: Old French; Origin: parc, from Medieval Latin parricus]
1. a large open area with grass and trees, especially in a town, where people can walk, play games etc:
Let’s go for a walk in the park.
a park bench
a flat overlooking Hyde Park
2. a large area of land in the country which has been kept in its natural state to protect the plants and animals there
national/state/county park
the Lake District National Park
3. British English a large enclosed area of land, with grass and trees, around a big house in the countryside
4. the park British English informal the field where a game of football or ↑rugby is played SYN the pitch:
He was easily the best player on the park.
5. American English informal the field where a game of baseball is played
⇨ ↑amusement park, ↑ball park(1), ↑car park, ↑national park, ↑safari park, ↑science park, ↑theme park, ↑trailer park
• • •
■ places where people do sport
field (also pitch British English) a large area of ground, usually covered with grass, where team sports are played: A few kids were playing on the football field. | a hockey field
stadium a large sports field with seats all around it for people to watch team sports or track and field competitions: The atmosphere in the Olympic Stadium was amazing. | a football stadium
ground British English a sports field and the seats and buildings around it, belonging to a particular football, rugby, or cricket team: I met my friends inside the ground.
ballpark/park American English a stadium where baseball is played: Busch Stadium is one of the newest ballparks in Major League.
court an area with lines painted on the ground, for tennis, badminton, basketball, or volleyball: The hotel has four tennis courts and a volleyball court.
diamond the area in a baseball field that is within the shape formed by the four bases. The diamond can also be the whole field: The pitcher stands in the middle of the diamond. | There’s a playground, a picnic area, and a baseball diamond.
track a circular path with lines on it, for running on: In the relay, each runner runs once around the track.
gym a room with machines which you can use to do exercises: He spends an hour in the gym every day.
pool/swimming pool a place where you can swim: He jumped into the deep end of the pool. | I’ll meet you outside the swimming pool.
sports centre British English, sports center American English a building where you can play many types of indoor sports: Why not do exercise classes at your local sports centre?
health club a small sports centre, where you pay to be a member: How much does it cost to join a health club?

Oxford Advanced Learner's Dictionary


park [park parks parked parking] noun, verb   [pɑːk]    [pɑːrk] 

1. countable an area of public land in a town or a city where people go to walk, play and relax
Hyde Park
• We went for a walk in the park.

• a park bench

2. countable (in compounds) an area of land used for a particular purpose
a business/science park
• a wildlife park

see also  amusement park, car park, national park, retail park, safari park, theme park


3. countable (in Britain) an area of land, usually with fields and trees, attached to a large country house

4. countable (NAmE) a piece of land for playing sports, especially baseball

see also  ballpark

5. the park singular (BrE) a football ( soccer ) or rugby field
the fastest man on the park
see a walk in the park at  walk  n.  
Word Origin:
Middle English: from Old French parc, from medieval Latin parricus, of Germanic origin; related to German Pferch ‘pen, fold’, also to paddock. The word was originally a legal term designating land held by royal permission for keeping game animals: this was enclosed and therefore distinct from a forest or chase, and (also unlike a forest) had no special laws or officers. A military sense ‘space occupied by artillery, wagons, stores, etc., in an encampment’ (late 17th cent.) is the origin of the verb sense (mid 19th cent.) and of sense 2 (early 20th cent.).  
British towns and cities have at least one municipal park, where people go to relax, lie in the sun, have picnics, walk their dogs and play games. Most US city and town governments also provide parks. They are open to anybody free of charge. The most famous parks in Britain include Hyde Park and Regent's Park in London. In the US, New York’s Central Park is the best known. Open-air events, such as plays and concerts, are sometimes held in these parks.
Most British parks were created in the 19th century, when more people moved into the towns. Some still have a rather old-fashioned, formal atmosphere, with paths to walk on, seats or benches, tidy lawns, flower beds and trees. There are sometimes signs that say: ‘Keep off the grass’. A few parks have a bandstand, a raised platform on which brass bands play occasionally during the summer. Most parks are protected by iron railings and gates which are locked by the park keeper each evening.
Many parks have a children’s playground with swings and roundabouts. Larger parks have a sports field, tennis courts and sometimes a boating lake. In the US softball diamonds are marked on the grass and in Britain there are goalposts for football. Large parks may have picnic benches and, in the US, barbecues. In the US it is usually illegal to drink alcohol in a park.
In Britain there are country parks, large areas of grass and woodland, where people can go for long walks. Some charge an admission fee. Many have nature trails where people can see interesting plants, birds or animals. National parks, such as Snowdonia in Wales, are areas of great beauty protected by the government. In the US there are both state parks and national parks. Many provide a safe place for wild animals to live. 
park noun C
They went for a walk in the park.
gardensplayground|especially AmE garden
at/in the park/gardens/playground/garden
visit the park/gardens/garden 
Example Bank:
I work as a ranger in the city's park system.
She works for the parks department.
The lion was shot dead by a park ranger.
The mountain has been designated as a national park.
They go to the park most Sunday afternoons.
They went for a walk in the park.
We met at Hyde Park.
We met in Central Park.
a beautifully landscaped park
a cafe overlooking the park
a park managed by the Department of Parks and Recreation
an indoor park for skateboarders
the national parks system
The Great Exhibition of 1851 was held in Hyde Park.
The cottage is set within the park of a country house.
The houses and parks in Georgian Sussex represented leisured society at its peak.
• With a mighty swing he hit the ball right out of the park.

Derived: park something up  park up

Cambridge Advanced Learner's Dictionary

Cambridge Advanced Learner's Dictionary - 4th Edition

park / pɑːk /   / pɑːrk / noun [ C ]

A1 a large area of land with grass and trees surrounded by fences or walls, specially arranged so that people can walk in it for pleasure or children can play in it:

Central Park

Hyde Park

We watched the joggers in the park.

UK an area of land around a large house in the countryside US an area of land for playing sports

© Cambridge University Press 2013

Collins COBUILD Advanced Learner’s English Dictionary


(parks, parking, parked)

Frequency: The word is one of the 1500 most common words in English.

A park is a public area of land with grass and trees, usually in a town, where people go in order to relax and enjoy themselves.
...Regent’s Park...
They stopped and sat on a park bench.

When you park a vehicle or park somewhere, you drive the vehicle into a position where it can stay for a period of time, and leave it there.
Greenfield turned into the next side street and parked...
He found a place to park the car...
Ben parked across the street.
...rows of parked cars.
VERB: V, V n, V prep/adv, V-ed
see also double-park

You can refer to a place where a particular activity is carried out as a park.
...a science and technology park.
...a business park.
N-COUNT: supp N

A private area of grass and trees around a large country house is referred to as a park. (BRIT)
...a 19th century manor house in six acres of park and woodland.

Merriam-Webster's Advanced Learner's Dictionary

Merriam-Webster's Advanced Learner's Dictionary: 

1park /ˈpɑɚk/ noun, pl parks
1 [count]
a : a piece of public land in or near a city that is kept free of houses and other buildings and can be used for pleasure and exercise
• We went for a walk in the park.
• New York City's Central Park
• He was sitting on a park bench. [=a bench in a park]
• the city's park/parks department
b : a large area of public land kept in its natural state to protect plants and animals
• The nation's parks are a popular destination for tourists.
• Yellowstone (National) Park
• Many parks have campsites.
- see also national park, state park
2 [count] sports
a : a field or stadium where a sport (especially baseball) is played
• a baseball park
• He hit the ball out of the park.
• Fenway Park in Boston
- see also ballpark
b Brit : a soccer or rugby field
• a rugby game in Eden Park
• She's the best player on the park. [=in the game]
3 [count] : an area that is designed for a specified use
• a new office park [=an area with several buildings that are full of offices; an area for office buildings]
• the town's only mobile home park [=an area for people to live in mobile homes]
- see also amusement park, car park, industrial park, theme park, trailer park, water park
4 [noncount] US : a condition in which the gears of a vehicle are in a position that prevents the vehicle from moving
• The car must be in park before you can turn the engine off.
• She pulled over and put the car in park.

the internet

the internet [noun]

The large system of connected computers around the world that allows people to share information and communicate with each other

US /ˈɪn.t̬ɚ.net/ 
UK /ˈɪn.tə.net/ 



I ​learned about it on the Internet.

من در مورد آن در اینترنت یاد گرفتم.

Oxford Essential Dictionary


 noun the Internet (also informal) the Net) (no plural)
(computing) the international system of computers that makes it possible for you to see information from all around the world on your computer and to send information to other computers:
You can find out almost anything on the Internet.
Do you have Internet access?

Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English


Internet S2 W2 BrE AmE, internet /ˈɪntənet $ -tər-/ noun
the Internet a computer system that allows millions of computer users around the world to exchange information:
Do you have access to the Internet?
on the Internet
You can find all kinds of information on the internet.
• • •
■ verbs
use the Internet More and more companies are using the Internet to conduct their business.
go on the Internet I went on the Internet to find some information for my assignment.
access the Internet/connect to the Internet You can access the Internet from your mobile phone.
surf the Internet (=look at different websites) She spends hours surfing the Internet every evening.
download something from the Internet I downloaded the file from the Internet.
buy something on the Internet He bought the chairs on the Internet.
■ Internet + NOUN
an Internet connection a high-speed Internet connection
Internet access Not everyone has Internet access at home.
an Internet address (=the address of a website) The company charges $100 to register a new internet address.
an Internet service provider (=a company that allows you to connect to the Internet) Your Internet service provider should be able to solve the problem.
Internet shopping/banking The new regulations will increase customer confidence in Internet shopping. | Internet banking saves customers a lot of time.
an Internet user The number of Internet users is doubling every six months.
Internet use The software allows parents to control children’s Internet use.
Internet traffic (=the number of people using the Internet) An estimated 40% of the nation’s Internet traffic begins or ends in California.
Internet dating (=using the Internet to meet people for a romantic relationship) Internet dating websites are becoming increasingly popular.
an Internet café (=a café with computers, where people can pay to use the Internet) The message had been sent from an Internet café in Leeds.
• • •
■ things you do when using the Internet
surf the net verb to look quickly through information on the Internet, looking for anything that interests you: He spends his evenings surfing the net.
search to look for a specific piece of information on the Internet, for example by entering text into a box: Try searching for his name on Google.
shop/book online to buy things or reserve tickets using the Internet: More and more people are preferring to shop online. | It’s easier to book online.
visit a website to look at a particular Internet site: You can check to see how many people visit your website.
download to get files, programs, music, films etc from the Internet and put them on your own computer: I downloaded the software for free from the Internet.
chat to communicate with several people in a ↑chat room on the Internet: Using the Internet, you can chat to people from around the world.

Oxford Advanced Learner's Dictionary


Inter·net (also inter·net)  [ˈɪntənet]    [ˈɪntərnet]  noun (usually the Internet) (also informal the Net) singular
an international computer network connecting other networks and computers from companies, universities, etc
I looked it up on the Internet.
You can buy our goods over the Internet.
All the rooms have access to the Internet/Internet access.
an Internet service provider (= a company that provides you with an Internet connection and services such as email, etc.)
see also  intranet, WWW
See also: internet  
Word Origin:
[Internet] 1970s (denoting a computer network connecting two or more smaller networks): from inter-  ‘reciprocal, mutual’ + network.  
Email and the Internet
receive/get/open an email
write/send/answer/forward/delete an email
check/read/access your email
block/filter (out) junk/spam/unsolicited email
exchange email addresses
open/check your inbox
junk mail fills/floods/clogs your inbox
have/set up an email account
open/send/contain an attachment
sign up for/receive email alerts
Connecting to the Internet
use/access/log onto the Internet/the Web
go online/on the Internet
have a high-speed/dial-up/broadband/wireless (Internet) connection
access/connect to/locate the server
use/open/close/launch a/your web browser
browse/surf/search/scour the Internet/the Web
send/contain/spread/detect a (computer/email) virus
update your anti-virus software
install/use/configure a firewall
accept/enable/block/delete cookies
Using the Internet
visit/check a website/an Internet site/sb's blog
create/design/launch a website/social networking site
start/write/post/read a blog
update your blog/a website
be in/meet sb in/go into/enter an Internet chat room
download/upload music/software/a song/a podcast/a file/a copy of sth
share information/data/files
post a comment/message on a website/an online message board/a web forum/an internet chat room
stream video/audio/music/content over the Internet
join/participate in/visit/provide a (web-based/web/online/Internet/discussion) forum
generate/increase/monitor Internet traffic 
Example Bank:
Attempts to regulate the Internet are usually doomed to failure.
He likes watching movies, reading, and surfing the Internet.
It is possible to earn a degree over the Internet.
Many of the sites launched at the peak of the Internet boom have now disappeared.
More and more people are shopping on the Internet.
Registering an Internet domain name is now an essential part of setting up a company.
She likes to go on the Internet in the evenings.
She often talks to fans via live Internet chats.
She went on the Internet to check air fares.
The auction was held in Paris with an Internet link to New York.
They began scouring the Internet for information about his condition.
Thousands logged on to view the live Internet broadcast of the concert.
Travellers can check their email at the Internet cafe in the square.
a broadband/high-speed Internet connection
issues facing the music industry in the Internet age
software for downloading Internet files
the bank's Internet arm
the challenges of providing Internet connectivity to rural communities
• the laying of fast networks to carry Internet traffic

• unlimited/unmetered Internet access

Cambridge Advanced Learner's Dictionary

Cambridge Advanced Learner's Dictionary - 4th Edition

the internet / ˈɪn.tə.net /   / -t̬ɚ- / noun [ S ] ( informal the Net )

A1 the large system of connected computers around the world that allows people to share information and communicate with each other:

I found out about the bombings from/on the internet.

Word partners for the internet

browse / surf the internet • post sth on the internet • download sth from the internet • on the internet • internet access • an internet chatroom / site • an internet provider / service provider • an internet account / address

© Cambridge University Press 2013

Merriam-Webster's Advanced Learner's Dictionary

Merriam-Webster's Advanced Learner's Dictionary: 


In·ter·net /ˈɪntɚˌnɛt/ noun
the Internet : a system that connects computers throughout the world
• She spent hours surfing the Internet.
- compare intranet, world wide web
- Internet adj always used before a noun
• an Internet connection
• an Internet site


why [noun]

the whys and (the) wherefores

the reasons for something

US /waɪ/ 
UK /waɪ/ 

سبب‌، علت‌، دليل‌ (اينكه‌)


This is why I am going.

علت‌ رفتن‌ من‌ اين‌ است‌.

Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English

III. why3 BrE AmE noun
the whys and (the) wherefores the reasons or explanations for something:
The whys and the wherefores of these procedures need to be explained.

Oxford Advanced Learner's Dictionary

3. used to give or talk about a reason
That's why I left so early.
I know you did it— I just want to know why.
The reason why the injection needs repeating every year is that the virus changes.  
Word Origin:
Old English hwī, hwȳ ‘by what cause’, instrumental case of hwæt ‘what’, of Germanic origin.

Idioms: why ever  why not?  whys and wherefores 


exclamation (old-fashioned or NAmE) used to express surprise, lack of patience, etc.
Why Jane, it's you!
Why, it's easy— a child could do it!  
Word Origin:
Old English hwī, hwȳ ‘by what cause’, instrumental case of hwæt ‘what’, of Germanic origin.


Word Origin:
Old English hwī, hwȳ ‘by what cause’, instrumental case of hwæt ‘what’, of Germanic origin.


Cambridge Advanced Learner's Dictionary

Cambridge Advanced Learner's Dictionary - 4th Edition

why / waɪ / noun

the whys and (the) wherefores the reasons for something:

I know very little about the whys and the wherefores of the situation.

© Cambridge University Press 2013

Collins COBUILD Advanced Learner’s English Dictionary


 (The conjunction and the pronoun are usually pronounced [(h)waɪ].)
 1) QUEST You use why in questions when you ask about the reasons for something.
  Why hasn't he brought the whisky?...
  Why didn't he stop me?...
  Why can't I remember the exact year we married?...
  `I just want to see him.' - `Why?'...
  Why should I leave?
 2) CONJ-SUBORD You use why at the beginning of a clause in which you talk about the reasons for something.
  He still could not throw any further light on why the elevator could have become jammed...
  Experts wonder why the US government is not taking similarly strong actions against AIDS in this country...
  I can't understand why they don't want us.
 ADV: ADV after v, be ADV
 Why is also an adverb. I don't know why... It's obvious why... Here's why.
 3) PRON-REL You use why to introduce a relative clause after the word `reason'.
  There's a reason why women don't read this stuff; it's not funny...
  Unless you're ill, there's no reason why you can't get those 15 minutes of walking in daily.
 Why is also an adverb. He confirmed that the city had been closed to foreigners, but gave no reason why.
 4) QUEST You use why with `not' in questions in order to introduce a suggestion.
  Why not give Claire a call?...
  Why don't you come home with me until you sort things out?...
  Why don't we talk it through?
 5) QUEST (feelings) You use why with `not' in questions in order to express your annoyance or anger.
  Why don't you look where you're going?...
  Why don't they just leave it alone?
 6) CONVENTION (formulae) You say why not in order to agree with what someone has suggested.
  `Want to spend the afternoon with me?' - `Why not?'...
  `Shall I tell them about poor Mrs Blair?' - `Why not?'
 7) EXCLAM (feelings) People say `Why!' at the beginning of a sentence when they are surprised, shocked, or angry. [mainly AM]
  Why hello, Tom...
  Why, this is nothing but common vegetable soup...
  Why, I wouldn't give the end off one of my fingers for all the money you've got!
 8) the whys and whereforessee wherefores


Merriam-Webster's Advanced Learner's Dictionary

Merriam-Webster's Advanced Learner's Dictionary: 


3why noun
the whys and (the) wherefores : the reasons for something
• She explained the whys and the wherefores of the sudden price increase.


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