A1 (پایه)

sun

sun [noun]

The star that the Earth moves around, which provides light and heat for the Earth, or the light or heat that the Earth receives from this star:

US /sʌn/ 
UK /sʌn/ 

خورشید

مثال: 

The sun rises in the east and sets in the west.

Oxford Essential Dictionary

sun

 noun (no plural)

1 the sun

pronunciation
The word sun sounds just like son.

the big round object in the sky that gives us light in the day, and heat:
The sun is shining.

2 light and heat from the sun:
We sat in the sun all morning.

 

Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English

sun

I. sun1 S2 W1 /sʌn/ BrE AmE noun
[Language: Old English; Origin: sunne]
1. the sun/the Sun the large bright object in the sky that gives us light and heat, and around which the Earth moves ⇨ solar:
The sky was blue and the sun was shining.
2. [uncountable] the heat and light that come from the sun ⇨ sunny:
Too much sun is bad for you.
in the sun
We sat in the sun, eating ice cream.
the warmth of the afternoon sun
3. [countable] any star around which ↑planets move
4. everything/anything etc under the sun used to emphasize that you are talking about a large range of things:
You can buy jeans in every colour under the sun.
5. catch the sun British English, get some sun American English if someone catches or gets the sun, they become slightly red or brown because they have been outside in the sun
make hay while the sun shines at ↑hay(2)
• • •
COLLOCATIONS (for Meanings 1 & 2)
■ verbs
the sun shines When I woke, the sun was shining.
the sun beats down/blazes down (=shines with a lot of light and heat) The sun beats down on us as we work.
the sun comes out (=appears when cloud moves away) The rain stopped and the sun came out.
the sun rises/comes up (=appears at the beginning of the day) As the sun rises, the birds take flight.
the sun sets/goes down (=disappears at the end of the day) It is a good place to sit and watch the sun go down.
the sun sinks (=gradually disappears at the end of the day) The sun sank lower and the breeze grew cool.
■ ADJECTIVES/NOUN + sun
the hot/warm sun The hot sun beat down on the men working.
the blazing/burning sun Tourists trudge around in the blazing sun.
a bright sun It was a warm day with a bright sun overhead.
the morning/afternoon/evening sun We ate breakfast outside in the gentle morning sun.
the midday/noonday sun They all sought shade from the blazing midday sun.
the rising/setting sun (=the sun as it appears/disappears) The fields were ablaze with light from the setting sun.
■ phrases
the sun is high/low in the sky They walked until the sun was low in the sky.
■ nouns
the sun’s rays This moisturiser will also protect skin from the sun’s rays.
• • •
THESAURUS
■ in the sky
star a large ball of burning gas in space, which can be seen at night as a point of light in the sky: The dark night sky was clear and full of stars.
planet one of the large objects that goes around the sun, for example the Earth, Saturn, Mercury, or Mars: The planet Uranus was discovered in 1781.
sun the star that gives us light and heat, around which the planets move. There are also many millions of other suns in the universe: The sun came out from behind a cloud. | a dying sun
moon the round object that moves around the Earth every 28 days, or a similar object that goes around another planet: The moon rose in the night sky. | Titan is one of the moons of Saturn.
asteroid a mass of rock that moves around the sun. Most asteroids are found between Jupiter and Mars: the asteroid belt
pulsar a type of star that is far away in space and produces ↑radiation and RADIO WAVES
quasar an object like a star that is far away in space and shines extremely brightly
supernova a very large exploding star
constellation a group of stars that forms a particular pattern and has a name: The constellation of Orion is one of the most easily recognizable patterns of stars in the night sky.
galaxy one of the large groups of stars that make up the universe: Astronomers have detected a galaxy 11 billion light years away.
the universe all space, including all the stars and planets: How many planets in the universe have life?
II. sun2 BrE AmE verb (past tense and past participle sunned, present participle sunning)
sun yourself to sit or lie outside when the sun is shining ⇨ sunbathe:
The beaches were full of families sunning themselves.

Oxford Advanced Learner's Dictionary

sun

sun [sun suns sunned sunning] noun, verb   [sʌn]    [sʌn]

noun
1. the sun, the Sun singular the star that shines in the sky during the day and gives the earth heat and light
the sun's rays
the rising/setting sun
The sun was shining and birds were singing.
• The sun was just setting.

• A pale wintry sun shone through the clouds.

2. (usually the sun) singular, uncountable the light and heat from the sun
Syn:  sunshine
the warmth of the afternoon sun
This room gets the sun in the mornings.
We sat in the sun.
The sun was blazing hot.
Too much sun ages the skin.
We did our best to keep out of the sun.
They've booked a holiday in the sun (= in a place where it is warm and the sun shines a lot).
Her face had obviously caught the sun (= become red or brown) on holiday.
I was driving westwards and I had the sun in my eyes (= the sun was shining in my eyes).

see also  sunny

3. countable (technical) any star around which planets move
more at make hay while the sun shines at  hay, a place in the sun at  place  n.  
Word Origin:
Old English sunne, of Germanic origin; related to Dutch zon and German Sonne, from an Indo-European root shared by Greek hēlios and Latin sol.  
Collocations:
The weather
Good weather
be bathed in/bask in/be blessed with/enjoy bright/brilliant/glorious sunshine
the sun shines/warms sth/beats down (on sth)
the sunshine breaks/streams through sth
fluffy/wispy clouds drift across the sky
a gentle/light/stiff/cool/warm/sea breeze blows in/comes in off the sea
the snow crunches beneath/under sb's feet/boots
Bad weather
thick/dark/storm clouds form/gather/roll in/cover the sky/block out the sun
the sky darkens/turns black
a fine mist hangs in the air
a dense/heavy/thick fog rolls in
the rain falls/comes down (in buckets/sheets)/pours down
snow falls/comes down/covers sth
the wind blows/whistles/howls/picks up/whips through sth/sweeps across sth
strong/gale-force winds blow/gust (up to 80 mph)
a storm is approaching/is moving inland/hits/strikes/rages
thunder rolls/rumbles/sounds
(forked/sheet) lightning strikes/hits/flashes
a (blinding/snow) blizzard hits/strikes/blows/rages
a tornado touches down/hits/strikes/destroys sth/rips through sth
forecast/expect/predict rain/snow/a category-four hurricane
(NAmE) pour (down)/ (BrE) pour (down) with rain
get caught in/seek shelter from/escape the rain
be covered/shrouded in mist/a blanket of fog
be in for/brave/shelter from a/the storm
hear rolling/distant thunder
be battered/buffeted by strong winds
(BrE) be blowing a gale
battle against/brave the elements
The weather improves
the sun breaks through the clouds
the sky clears/brightens (up)/lightens (up)
the clouds part/clear
the rain stops/lets up/holds off
the wind dies down
the storm passes
the mist/fog lifts/clears  
Example Bank:
Don't sit in the sun too long.
He was enjoying the feel of the sun on his back.
It was getting cooler as the sun sank below the horizon.
Just then, a watery sun broke through the clouds.
On children, use a cream with a high sun protection factor.
The clouds darkened, obliterating the sun.
The distant mountains glowed in the light of the setting sun.
The evening sun slanted through the window.
The helmets were glinting in the sun.
The north side of the garden never gets any sun.
The setting sun cast long shadows over the landscape.
The sun caught her dazzling copper hair.
The sun climbed higher in the sky.
The sun glinted on the blades.
The sun moved slowly westward.
The sun reflected off the water.
The sun rises in the east.
The sun sets in the west.
The sun struck the steep blue slates of the roof.
The sun warmed his face.
The sun was up now, and strong.
The sun went in and it started to rain.
The wintry sun was already low in the sky.
There is nothing new under the sun.
They call Norway the land of the midnight sun.
This plant likes a dryish soil in full sun.
Try to avoid prolonged exposure to the sun.
Venus orbits the Sun in just under one Earth year.
We did our best to keep out of the sun.
We had discussions about everything under the sun.
We went out into the sun.
We were lying by the pool, soaking up the afternoon sun.
We've booked a holiday in the sun.
You've caught the sun.
an afternoon of lazing under the warm sun
with the sun in her eyes
wrinkles caused by sun damage
Her face had obviously caught the sun.
They're having a winter break in the sun.
• We sat in the warmth of the afternoon sun.

Idioms: under the sun  with the sun 

Cambridge Advanced Learner's Dictionary

Cambridge Advanced Learner's Dictionary - 4th Edition
 

sun / sʌn / noun [ S or U ]

A1 the star that the Earth moves around, which provides light and heat for the Earth, or the light or heat that the Earth receives from this star:

The sun rises in the east and sets in the west.

The sun's rays are at their most powerful at midday.

I think I've had a bit too much sun today - I've got a headache.

Shall we go and sit out in the sun?

We thought we'd go out for a walk while the sun was shining .

© Cambridge University Press 2013

Collins COBUILD Advanced Learner’s English Dictionary

sun

[sʌ̱n]
 ♦♦
 suns, sunning, sunned

 1) N-SING: usu the N The sun is the ball of fire in the sky that the Earth goes round, and that gives us heat and light.
  The sun was now high in the southern sky...
  The sun came out, briefly.
  ...the sun's rays...
  The sun was shining.
 2) N-UNCOUNT: usu the N You refer to the light and heat that reach us from the sun as the sun.
  Dena took them into the courtyard to sit in the sun...
  They were trying to soak up some sun.
 3) VERB: usu cont If you are sunning yourself, you are sitting or lying in a place where the sun is shining on you.
  [V pron-refl] She was last seen sunning herself in a riverside park.
  Syn:
  sunbathing
 4) N-COUNT A sun is any star which has planets going around it.
 5) PHRASE: PHR after v Everything under the sun means a very great number of things. Anything under the sun means anything at all.
 a place in the sunsee place
  We sat there for hours talking about everything under the sun...
  The fashion-conscious will go for anything under the sun!

Merriam-Webster's Advanced Learner's Dictionary

Merriam-Webster's Advanced Learner's Dictionary: 

1sun /ˈsʌn/ noun, pl suns
1 a the sun also the Sun : the star that the Earth moves around and that gives the Earth heat and light
• The rain has stopped and the sun is shining.
The sun rises in the east and sets in the west.
the rising/setting sun
• the warmth of the sun's rays
b [count] : any star that has planets which move around it
• They dream of traveling to distant suns.
2 [noncount] : the heat or light produced by the sun : sunshine or sunlight
• The plant needs full sun. [=it should not be in the shade]
• Try to keep out of the sun.
• The cat lay basking in the sun.
• I couldn't see because the sun was in my eyes. [=the bright light of the sun was shining directly in my eyes]
• We went to the beach to get/catch some sun. [=to spend time in the sunlight]
in the sun
✦If someone or something has a day/moment/time, etc., in the sun, that person or thing is popular or gets a lot of attention during a period of time.
• Organic foods are having their moment in the sun.
• The singer is still waiting for his day in the sun.
make hay (while the sun shines)
- see hay
place in the sun : a very good, successful, or desirable position
• After years of struggling as an unknown actor, he has finally found his/a place in the sun.
under the sun : in the world - used to emphasize the large number of things that are being mentioned
• There is nothing under the sun [=nothing at all] that we cannot do.
• We talked about everything under the sun.
• She called me every name under the sun.

best

best [adjective]

Of the highest quality, or being the most suitable, pleasing, or effective type of thing or person

US /best/ 
UK /best/ 

بهترین

مثال: 

That's the best movie I've ever seen! 

آهنگ وترانه: 
You Are The Reason - Chris De Burgh

Oxford Essential Dictionary

adjective (good, better, best)
better than all others:
This is the best ice cream I have ever eaten!
Tom is my best friend.
Jo's the best player on the team.
 opposite worst

Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English

best

I. best1 S1 W1 /best/ BrE AmE adjective [superlative of good]
[Language: Old English; Origin: betst]
1. better than anything else or anyone else in quality, skill, how effective it is etc:
He won the best actor award.
What’s the best way to cook this fish?
The best thing to do is to stop worrying.
it’s best to do something
It’s best to go later in the season.
easily the best/by far the best (=much better than anything else)
John’s idea is by far the best option.
Our pilots are given the best possible training.
We use only the very best ingredients.
2. best friend the friend that you know and like better than anyone else:
She was my best friend in college.
3. best dress/shoes/clothes etc clothing that you keep for special occasions:
I put on my best suit for the wedding.
4. the next best thing something that is not exactly what you want but is as similar to it as possible:
If sterile equipment isn’t available, the next best thing is to clean equipment with disinfectant.
5. best of all used to introduce the fact about a situation that is even better than the other good things:
It’s clean and well-located, but best of all, it’s affordable.
6. best before British English written on food packets with the date that the food should be eaten before:
Best before 13 July.
a best-before date
be on your best behaviour at ↑behaviour(2), ⇨ your best bet at ↑bet2(2), ⇨ the best/better part of at ↑part1(6)
• • •
COLLOCATIONS
■ adverbs
the very best He’s one of the very best players around.
easily the best The series was easily the best TV drama this year.
by far the best One girl stood out as by far the best singer.
■ adjectives
the best possible We sold the house at the best possible time.
the best available The tuition we offer here is the best available.
■ nouns
the best way to do/of doing something The best way to learn a language is to live in a country where it is spoken.
the best thing to do The best thing to do is to apologize immediately.
the best way forward (=the best way to make progress or deal with a problem) We believe that a merger is the best way forward for the business.
make the best use of something Making the best use of space is important in any room.

Oxford Advanced Learner's Dictionary

best

best [best bests bested besting] adjective, adverb, noun, verb   [best]    [best] 

adjective (superlative of good)
1. of the most excellent type or quality
That's the best movie I've ever seen!
He wrote his best songs before he was 25.
She was one of the best tennis players of her generation.
Is that your best suit?
They've been best friends (= closest friends) since they were children.
the company's best-ever results

• We want the kids to have the best possible education.

2. most enjoyable; happiest

• Those were the best years of my life.

3. most suitable or appropriate
What's the best way to cook steak?
The best thing to do would be to apologize.
He's the best man for the job.
It's best if you go now.

• I'm not in the best position to advise you.

Rem: Idioms containing best adj. are at the entries for the nouns and verbs in the idioms, for example on your best behaviour is at behaviour.  
Word Origin:
Old English betest (adjective), betost, betst (adverb), of Germanic origin; related to Dutch and German best, also to better.  
Thesaurus:
best adj.
the best way to cook steak
It's best if you go now.
idealoptimumwisesensiblepreferred|formal desirableadvisable|formal, BrE favoured|formal, AmE favored
Opp: worst
be best/wise/sensible/desirable/advisable to do sth
the best/the optimum/a wise/a sensible/an ideal/the preferred choice
the best/a wise/a sensible thing to do  
Example Bank:
Owen judged it best to make no reply.
This is by far the best restaurant in the town.
We aim to give our guests the very best attention.
Who in the class is best at history?
He's the best man for the job.
I'm not in the best position to advise you.
It's best if you go now.
• What's the best way to cook steak?

Idioms: all the best  as best you can  at best  best of a bad bunch  best of three/five  best that money can buy  do/mean something for the best  for the best  get the best of something  make the best of a bad job  make the best of it  make the best of things  the best of your belief  with the best 

Cambridge Advanced Learner's Dictionary

Cambridge Advanced Learner's Dictionary - 4th Edition
 

best / best / adjective

A1 of the highest quality, or being the most suitable, pleasing, or effective type of thing or person:

This is the best meal I've ever had.

He's one of our best students.

Are you sure this is the best way of doing it?

What's the best (= shortest or quickest) way to get to the station?

Your parents only want what is best for you.

She was my best friend (= the friend I liked most) .

It's best (= it is wise) to get to the supermarket early.

© Cambridge University Press 2013

Collins COBUILD Advanced Learner’s English Dictionary

best

/best/

Frequency: The word is one of the 700 most common words in English.

1.
Best is the superlative of good.
If you want further information the best thing to do is have a word with the driver as you get on the bus...
It’s not the best place to live if you wish to develop your knowledge and love of mountains.

2.
Best is the superlative of well.
James Fox is best known as the author of White Mischief.

3.
The best is used to refer to things of the highest quality or standard.
We offer only the best to our clients...
He’ll have the best of care.
worst
N-SING: the N

4.
Someone’s best is the greatest effort or highest achievement or standard that they are capable of.
Miss Blockey was at her best when she played the piano...
One needs to be a first-class driver to get the best out of that sort of machinery.
N-SING: oft poss N

5.
If you say that something is the best that can be done or hoped for, you think it is the most pleasant, successful, or useful thing that can be done or hoped for.
A draw seems the best they can hope for...
The best we can do is try to stay cool and muddle through.
N-SING: the N

6.
If you like something best or like it the best, you prefer it.
The thing I liked best about the show was the music...
Mother liked it best when Daniel got money...
What was the role you loved the best?
= most
ADV: ADV after v, oft the ADV

7.
Best is used to form the superlative of compound adjectives beginning with ‘good’ and ‘well’. For example, the superlative of ‘well-known’ is ‘best-known’.

8.
see also second best, Sunday best

9.
You can say ‘All the best’ when you are saying goodbye to someone, or at the end of a letter.
Wish him all the best, and tell him we miss him.
CONVENTION [formulae]

10.
You use best of all to indicate that what you are about to mention is the thing that you prefer or that has most advantages out of all the things you have mentioned.
It was comfortable and cheap: best of all, most of the rent was being paid by two American friends.
PHRASE: PHR with cl/group

11.
If someone does something as best they can, they do it as well as they can, although it is very difficult.
The older people were left to carry on as best they could.
PHRASE: V inflects, PHR after v

12.
You use at best to indicate that even if you describe something as favourably as possible or if it performs as well as it possibly can, it is still not very good.
This policy, they say, is at best confused and at worst non-existent...
PHRASE: PHR with cl/group

13.
If you do your best or try your best to do something, you try as hard as you can to do it, or do it as well as you can.
I’ll do my best to find out...
It wasn’t her fault, she was trying her best to help...
PHRASE: V inflects, oft PHR to-inf

14.
If you say that something is for the best, you mean it is the most desirable or helpful thing that could have happened or could be done, considering all the circumstances.
Whatever the circumstances, parents are supposed to know what to do for the best.
PHRASE: PHR after v, v-link PHR

15.
If two people are the best of friends, they are close friends, especially when they have had a disagreement or fight in the past.
Magda is now married to George Callerby and we are the best of friends.
PHRASE: usu v-link PHR

16.
If you say that a particular person knows best, you mean that they have a lot of experience and should therefore be trusted to make decisions for other people.
He was convinced that doctors and dentists knew best.
PHRASE: V inflects

17.
If you make the best of something, you accept an unsatisfactory situation cheerfully and try to manage as well as you can. In British English, you can also say that you make the best of a bad job.
She instilled in the children the virtues of good hard work, and making the best of what you have.
PHRASE: V inflects

18.
to the best of your ability: see ability
to hope for the best: see hope
to the best of your knowledge: see knowledge
best of luck: see luck
the best part: see part
at the best of times: see time
the best of both worlds: see world

Merriam-Webster's Advanced Learner's Dictionary

Merriam-Webster's Advanced Learner's Dictionary: 

1best /ˈbɛst/ adj superlative form of 1good or of 2well
1 a : better than all others in quality or value
• You should wear your best clothes tonight.
• He took us to the (very) best restaurants in the city.
• We ate the best food and drank the best wines.
• You're our best customers.
• His modesty and sense of humor are his best qualities.
• Is that your best offer?
• I've had the best time with you! [=I've had a very enjoyable time with you]
• The best [=most valuable] things in life are free.
• Which of these do you think tastes best?
• Mary sends you her very best wishes/regards.
• He's my best friend. [=my closest/dearest friend] = He and I are best friends.
b : most skillful, talented, or successful
• She's the best student in her class.
• He won the award for best actor in a drama.
• the team's best player
2 : most appropriate, useful, or helpful
• She truly believes that this is the best way to solve the problem.
• She's the team's best hope/chance for a medal.
• She thought waiting was best. = She thought that the best thing to do was to wait. = She thought that it was best to wait.
• It's best to leave early if you want to be sure of arriving on time.
• We want to do what's best for you.
• He's the best man for the job.
• You should do whatever you think is the best thing to do. = You should do whatever you think best.
• We're making the best possible use of these materials.
best of all
✦The phrase best of all is often used to refer to the most important or appealing part of something that has many good parts.
• The machine is easy to use, easy to clean, and best of all, it's absolutely free when you order these books.
next best
✦A person or thing that is next best is not as good as the best person or thing but is better than all others.
• The shortstop is the best player on the team, and the catcher is the next best player.
• We can't see each other often, but calling each other on the telephone is the next best thing.
on your best behavior
✦If you are on your best behavior you are behaving very politely and well.
• Remember to be on your best behavior with your grandmother.
• The children promised to be on their best behavior.

language

language [noun]

A system of communication consisting of sounds, words, and grammar, or the system of communication used by people in a particular country or type of work

US /ˈlæŋ.ɡwɪdʒ/ 
UK /ˈlæŋ.ɡwɪdʒ/ 

زبان

مثال: 

She does research into how children acquire language.

Oxford Essential Dictionary

language

 noun

1 (plural languages) words that people from a particular country say and write:
'Do you speak any foreign languages?' 'Yes, I speak French and Italian.'

2 (no plural) words that people use to speak and write:
This word is not often used in spoken language.

Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English

language

language S1 W1 /ˈlæŋɡwɪdʒ/ BrE AmE noun
[Date: 1200-1300; Language: Old French; Origin: langue 'tongue, language', from Latin lingua]
1. ENGLISH/FRENCH/ARABIC ETC [uncountable and countable] a system of communication by written or spoken words, which is used by the people of a particular country or area:
How many languages do you speak?
one of the best-known poems in the English language
2. COMMUNICATION [uncountable] the use of written or spoken words to communicate:
the origins of language
3. STYLE/TYPE OF WORDS [uncountable] a particular style or type of words
legal/medical/technical etc language
The letter was written in complicated legal language.
spoken/written language
The expression is mainly used in written language.
ordinary/everyday language
He is able to explain complicated ideas in simple everyday language.
literary/poetic language
The plays are full of old-fashioned poetic language.
language of
the language of science
4. SWEARING [uncountable] informal words that most people think are offensive
mind/watch your language spoken (=stop swearing)
bad/foul/abusive language
5. strong language
a) angry words used to tell people exactly what you mean
b) words that most people think are offensive SYN swearing
6. COMPUTERS [uncountable and countable] technical a system of instructions for operating a computer:
a programming language for the web
7. SIGNS/ACTIONS/SOUNDS [uncountable and countable] signs, movements, or sounds that express ideas or feelings
language of
the language of bees
the language of dolphins
⇨ ↑body language, ↑sign language, ⇨ speak the same language at ↑speak(11)
• • •
COLLOCATIONS
■ verbs
speak a language Can you speak a foreign language?
use a language The children use their native language at home.
learn a language Immigrants are expected to learn the language of their new country.
master a language (=succeed in learning a language well) She had had a long struggle to master the Russian language.
know a language He had lived in Japan, but did not know the language.
■ ADJECTIVES/NOUN + language
a foreign language He found learning a foreign language extremely difficult.
the English/Japanese/Spanish etc language She had some knowledge of the Spanish language.
sb’s first/native language (=the language someone first learned as a child) His first language was Polish.
a second language (=a language you speak that is not your first language) Most of the students learned English as their second language.
modern languages (=languages that are spoken now) The school has a good modern languages department.
a dead language (=a language that is no longer spoken) She didn’t see the point of learning a dead language.
an official language (=the language used for official business in a country) Canada has two official languages: English and French.
a common language (=a language that more than one person or group speaks, so that they can understand each other) Most of the countries of South America share a common language: Spanish.
■ language + NOUN
the language barrier (=the problem of communicating with someone when you do not speak the same language) Because of the language barrier, it was hard for doctors to give good advice to patients.
a language student/learner Language learners often have problems with tenses.
a language teacher a book for language teachers
language teaching recent developments in language teaching
■ phrases
sb’s command of a language (=someone’s ability to speak a language) Does he have a good command of the language?
• • •
THESAURUS
■ different kinds of language
dialect a form of a language that is spoken in one area of a country, with different words, grammar, or pronunciation from other areas: Cantonese is only one of many Chinese dialects. | the local dialect
accent the way that someone pronounces words, because of where they were born or live, or their social class: Karen has a strong New Jersey accent. | an upper class accent
slang very informal spoken language, used especially by people who belong to a particular group, for example young people or criminals: Teenage slang changes all the time. | ‘Dosh’ is slang for ‘money’.
terminology formal the technical words or expressions that are used in a particular subject: musical terminology | Patients are often unfamiliar with medical terminology.
jargon especially disapproving words and phrases used in a particular profession or subject and which are difficult for other people to understand: The instructions were written in complicated technical jargon. | ‘Outsourcing’ is business jargon for sending work to people outside a company to do. | The letter was full of legal jargon.
■ techniques used in language
metaphor a way of describing something by referring to it as something different and suggesting that it has similar qualities to that thing: The beehive is a metaphor for human society.
simile an expression that describes something by comparing it with something else, using the words as or like, for example ‘as white as snow’: The poet uses the simile ‘soft like clay’.
irony the use of words that are the opposite of what you really mean, often in order to be amusing: ‘I’m so happy to hear that,’ he said, with more than a trace of irony in his voice.
bathos a sudden change from a subject that is beautiful, moral, or serious to something that is ordinary, silly, or not important: The play is too sentimental and full of bathos.
hyperbole a way of describing something by saying that it is much bigger, smaller, worse etc than it actually is – used especially to excite people’s feelings: In his speeches, he used a lot of hyperbole. | journalistic hyperbole
alliteration the use of several words together that all begin with the same sound, in order to make a special effect, especially in poetry: the alliteration of the ‘s’ sound in ‘sweet birds sang softly’
imagery the use of words to describe ideas or actions in a way that makes the reader connect the ideas with pictures in their mind: the use of water imagery in Fitzgerald’s novel ‘The Great Gatsby’ | She uses the imagery of a bird’s song to represent eternal hope.
rhetorical question a question that you ask as a way of making a statement, without expecting an answer: When he said ‘how can these attitudes still exist in a civilized society?’, he was asking a rhetorical question.

Oxford Advanced Learner's Dictionary

language

lan·guage [language languages]   [ˈlæŋɡwɪdʒ]    [ˈlæŋɡwɪdʒ]  noun

 
OF A COUNTRY
1. countable the system of communication in speech and writing that is used by people of a particular country or area
the Japanese language
It takes a long time to learn to speak a language well.
Italian is my first language.
All the children must learn a foreign language.
She has a good command of the Spanish language.
a qualification in language teaching
They fell in love in spite of the language barrier (= the difficulty of communicating when people speak different languages).
Why study Latin? It's a dead language (= no longer spoken by anyone).
Is English an official language in your country?

see also  modern language  

COMMUNICATION

2. uncountable the use by humans of a system of sounds and words to communicate
• theories about the origins of language

• a study of language acquisition in two-year-olds  

STYLE OF SPEAKING/WRITING

3. uncountable a particular style of speaking or writing
bad/foul/strong language (= words that people may consider offensive)
literary/poetic language
the language of the legal profession
• Give your instructions in everyday language.

see also  bad language  

MOVEMENTS/SYMBOLS/SOUND

4. countable, uncountable a way of expressing ideas and feelings using movements, symbols and sound
the language of mime
the language of dolphins/bees

see also  body language, sign language  

COMPUTING

5. countable, uncountable a system of symbols and rules that is used to operate a computer
a programming language
Idioms: mind your language  talk the same language  
Word Origin:
Middle English: from Old French langage, based on Latin lingua ‘tongue’.  
Thesaurus:
language noun
1. C, U
Italian is my first language.
dialect|formal idiom|literary old-fashioned tongue
speak in a/an language/dialect/idiom/tongue
sb's native language/dialect/tongue
speak/understand/use/learn/study a language/dialect
2. U
The document was written in very formal language.
wordingtermsvocabularyterminologyusage
in… language/terms/vocabulary/terminology/usage
formal/informal/everyday language/terms/vocabulary/usage
use … language/wording/terms/vocabulary/terminology 
Synonyms:
language
vocabulary terms wording terminology
These are all terms for the words and expressions people use when they speak or write, or for a particular style of speaking or writing.
languagea particular style of speaking or writing: Give your instructions in everyday language. the language of the legal profession
vocabularyall the words that a person knows or uses, or all the words in a particular language; the words that people use when they are talking about a particular subject: to have a wide/limited vocabulary The word has become part of advertising vocabulary.
termsa way of expressing yourself or of saying sth: I'll try to explain in simple terms.
wording[usually sing.] the words that are used in a piece of writing or speech, especially when they have been carefully chosen: It was the standard form of wording for a consent letter.
terminology(rather formal) the set of technical words or expressions used in a particular subject; words used with particular meanings: medical terminology Scientists are constantly developing new terminologies.
Literary/poetic terminology is used for talking about literature or poetry. Literary/poetic language is used for writing in a literary or poetic style.
formal/informal/everyday language/vocabulary/terms
business/scientific/technical/specialized language/vocabulary/terminology
A word enters the language/the vocabulary. 
Example Bank:
Computers will never be able to understand natural language.
Her command of language is very advanced for a six-year-old.
His letter was couched in very formal language.
His strength is that he addresses his readers in plain language.
How many foreign languages does she speak?
I got by with broken Chinese and sign language.
Latin is a dead language.
Most local cinemas show films in the original language, with German subtitles.
Not all deaf people use sign language.
Portuguese is the national language of Brazil.
She could speak some Chinese, but never studied the written language.
She grew up in Mexico, so her first language is Spanish.
She reserved her harshest language for those she believed had betrayed her.
Some minority languages are dying out.
The referee told the players to mind their language.
The writer's use of language reflects the personality of each character.
You could tell from his body language that he was very embarrassed.
idiomatic expressions that enrich the language
manuscripts written in an unknown language
new methods of language learning
people using foul language
the teaching of English as a second language
Have you got a qualification in language teaching?
He has a good command of the Spanish language.
Italian is my first language.
She's got a degree in modern languages.
The following programme contains strong language.
They fell in love in spite of the language barrier.
• They were shouting and using bad/foul language.

• Why study Latin? It's a dead language.

Cambridge Advanced Learner's Dictionary

Cambridge Advanced Learner's Dictionary - 4th Edition
 

language / ˈlæŋ.ɡwɪdʒ / noun [ C or U ]

A1 a system of communication consisting of sounds, words, and grammar, or the system of communication used by people in a particular country or type of work:

She does research into how children acquire language.

Do you speak any foreign languages?"

I'm hopeless at learning languages.

the English language

legal/technical language

the language of business

Java and Perl are both important computer programming languages (= systems of writing instructions for computers) .

Word partners for language

learn / speak a language • a foreign language • spoken / written language • sb's first / native / second language • the official language • abusive / bad / foul / strong language

© Cambridge University Press 2013

Collins COBUILD Advanced Learner’s English Dictionary

language

/læŋgwɪdʒ/
(languages)

Frequency: The word is one of the 1500 most common words in English.

1.
A language is a system of communication which consists of a set of sounds and written symbols which are used by the people of a particular country or region for talking or writing.
...the English language...
Students are expected to master a second language...
N-COUNT

2.
Language is the use of a system of communication which consists of a set of sounds or written symbols.
Students examined how children acquire language...
N-UNCOUNT

3.
You can refer to the words used in connection with a particular subject as the language of that subject.
...the language of business.
N-UNCOUNT: the N of n, supp N

4.
You can refer to someone’s use of rude words or swearing as bad language when you find it offensive.
Television companies tend to censor bad language in feature films...
There’s a girl gonna be in the club, so you guys watch your language.
N-UNCOUNT: adj N, poss N

5.
The language of a piece of writing or speech is the style in which it is written or spoken.
...a booklet summarising it in plain language...
The tone of his language was diplomatic and polite...
N-UNCOUNT: with supp

6.
You can use language to refer to various means of communication involving recognizable symbols, non-verbal sounds, or actions.
Some sign languages are very sophisticated means of communication.
...the digital language of computers.
N-VAR: supp N, N of n

Merriam-Webster's Advanced Learner's Dictionary

Merriam-Webster's Advanced Learner's Dictionary: 

language

lan·guage /ˈlæŋgwɪʤ/ noun, pl -guag·es
1 a [noncount] : the system of words or signs that people use to express thoughts and feelings to each other
• spoken and written language
• the origin of language
- often used before another noun
language acquisition
language skills
- see also body language
b [count] : any one of the systems of human language that are used and understood by a particular group of people
• the English language
• How many languages do you speak?
• a foreign language
• French is her first/native language.
• The book has been translated into several languages.
• He's learning English as a second language.
• After a few days in France, I realized that I didn't know the language [=I didn't know the French language] as well as I had thought.
• a new word that has recently entered the language
• a language instructor/teacher
• foreign language classes
• A language barrier existed between the two countries. [=people in the two countries did not understand each other because they spoke different languages]
- see also sign language
2 [noncount] : words of a particular kind
• the formal language of the report
• the beauty of Shakespeare's language
• She expressed her ideas using simple and clear language.
• He is always careful in his use of language.
• bad/foul/obscene/strong/vulgar language
• You'd better watch your language [=be careful about the words you use] when you're talking to her.
3 [noncount] : the words and expressions used in a particular activity or by a particular group of people
• the language of diplomacy/lawyers
• legal/military language
4 [count] : a system of signs and symbols that is used to control a computer
• a programming language
5 [count] : a system of sounds or movements by which animals communicate with each other
• the language of bees/dolphins
speak/talk the same language : to understand each other well because of shared ideas and feelings
• She and I will never get along. We just don't speak the same language.

Brazilian

Brazilian [adjective]

belonging to or relating to Brazil or its people

US /brəˈzɪl.jən/ 
UK /brəˈzɪl.jən/ 

برزیلی، وابسته به کشور برزیل و مردم آن

مثال: 

Brazilian football

فوتبال برزیلی

Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English

Brazilian

I. Brazilian1 /brəˈzɪliən/ BrE AmE adjective
relating to Brazil or its people

Oxford Advanced Learner's Dictionary

Brazilian

Bra·zil·ian 7 [Brazilian Brazilians] adjective, noun   [brəˈzɪliən]    [brəˈzɪliən]

adjective

from or connected with Brazil

Collins COBUILD Advanced Learner’s English Dictionary

Brazilian

[brəzɪ̱liən]
 
 Brazilians
 ADJ

 Brazilian means belonging or relating to Brazil, or to its people or culture.
 N-COUNT
 A Brazilian is a person who comes from Brazil.

run

run [verb] (GO QUICKLY)

(of people and some animals) to move along, faster than walking, by taking quick steps in which each foot is lifted before the next foot touches the ground

US /rʌn/ 
UK /rʌn/ 

دویدن

مثال: 

I can run a mile in five minutes.

Oxford Essential Dictionary

 verb (runs, running, ran /, has run)

1 to move very quickly on your legs:
I was late, so I ran to the bus stop.

2 to control something and make it work:
Who runs the business?

3 to work:
The car had stopped but the engine was still running.

4 to go; to make a journey:
The buses don't run on Sundays.

5 to move something somewhere:
He ran his fingers through his hair.

6 to pass or go somewhere:
The road runs across the fields.

7 to flow:
The river runs into the North Sea.

run after somebody or something to try to catch a person or an animal same meaning chase:
The dog ran after a rabbit.

run away to go quickly away from a place same meaning escape:
She ran away from home when she was 14.

run into somebody to meet somebody by chance:
Guess who I ran into today?

run into somebody or something to crash into somebody or something:
The bus went out of control and ran into a line of people.

run out of something to have no more of something:
We've run out of coffee. Will you go and buy some?

run over somebody or something to hit a person or an animal with your car or other vehicle:
The dog was run over by a bus.

Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English

run

I. run1 S1 W1 /rʌn/ BrE AmE verb (past tense ran /ræn/, past participle run, present participle running)
[Word Family: noun: ↑run, ↑rerun, ↑runner, ↑running, ↑overrun; verb: ↑run, ↑outrun, ↑overrun, ↑rerun; adjective: ↑running, ↑runny; adverb: ↑running]
[Language: Old English; Origin: rinnan]
1. MOVE QUICKLY USING YOUR LEGS
a) [intransitive] to move very quickly, by moving your legs more quickly than when you walk
run down/up/to/towards etc
I ran down the stairs as fast as I could.
He was running towards the door.
She turned and ran away.
The boys ran off into the crowd.
run to do something
Several people ran to help her when she fell.
The children came running out of the house.
Women ran screaming, with children in their arms.
Jane struggled free and ran for her life (=ran in order to avoid being killed).
Hurry! Run for it (=run as quickly as possible in order to escape)!
He picked up the child and ran like hell (=ran very quickly, especially in order to escape). not polite
b) [transitive] to run a particular distance:
Firefighters are to run 500km to raise money for a children’s charity.
He ran the length of the corridor.
2. RACE
a) [intransitive and transitive] to run in a race:
I’d never run a marathon before.
run in
Murray has said she will consider running in the 3000 metres.
b) [transitive usually passive] if a race is run at a particular time or in a particular place, it happens at that time or in that place:
The Derby will be run at 3 o'clock.
3. ORGANIZE/BE IN CHARGE OF [transitive] to organize or be in charge of an activity, business, organization, or country:
For a while, she ran a restaurant in Boston.
Many people don’t care who runs the country.
Courses are currently being run in London and Edinburgh.
Many people belong to a pension scheme run by their employers.
well/badly run
The hotel is well-run and extremely popular.
a state-run (=controlled by the government) television station
4. DO SOMETHING/GO SOMEWHERE QUICKLY [intransitive] to do something or go somewhere quickly:
Run and ask your mother where she’s put the keys.
run to
I need to run to the store for some more milk.
5. BUSES/TRAINS ETC
a) [intransitive] if a bus, train etc service runs, it takes people from one place to another at fixed times:
The buses don’t run on Sundays.
run to
The number 61 bus runs to the city centre.
b) [transitive] if a company or other organization runs a bus, train etc service, they make it operate:
They’re running special trains to and from the exhibition.
6. COMPUTERS
a) [intransitive] if a computer program runs, it operates
run on
The software will run on any PC.
b) [transitive] if you run a program, you make it operate:
The RS8 system runs both Unix and MPX-32.
7. MACHINE/ENGINE
a) [intransitive] if a machine or engine runs, it operates:
She got out of the car and left the engine running.
run on electricity/gas/petrol etc (=get its power from electricity etc)
Most cars run on unleaded fuel.
run off something (=use something for power)
It runs off batteries.
b) [transitive] if you run a machine or engine, you make it operate:
You shouldn’t keep the engine running when the car is standing still.
I often run the washing machine more than once a day.
8. TAPE
a) [intransitive usually progressive] if a tape is running, it is recording:
She didn’t realize the tape was running as she spoke.
b) [transitive] if you run a tape, you make it move backwards or forwards:
Run the tape back to the beginning.
9. NEWSPAPER/TELEVISION
a) [transitive] to print something in a newspaper or magazine, or broadcast something on television:
The company is running a series of advertisements in national newspapers.
A local TV station ran her story.
b) [intransitive] if a program runs on television, it is shown. If a story runs in a newspaper or magazine, it is printed:
The series ran for 20 episodes and was extremely popular.
Conan Doyle’s stories ran in ‘The Strand’ magazine.
10. FAST/OUT OF CONTROL [intransitive always + adverb/preposition] to move too fast or in an uncontrolled way:
Her car ran off the road and into a tree.
The truck ran out of control and hit a house.
11. USE A VEHICLE [transitive] especially British English to own and use a vehicle:
I can’t afford to run a car.
A bicycle is relatively cheap to buy and run.
12. TAKE SOMEBODY IN YOUR CAR [transitive always + adverb/preposition] informal to take someone somewhere in your car SYN drive:
Shall I run you home?
run somebody to something
Let me run you to the station.
13. IN AN ELECTION [intransitive] especially American English to try to be elected in an election SYN stand British English
run for
Salinas is running for a second term as President.
an attempt to encourage more women to run for office
run against
Feinstein will win if she runs against Lungren.
14. SOMETHING LONG [intransitive, transitive always + adverb/preposition] if something long such as a road or wire runs in a particular direction, that is its position, or that is where you put it:
The road runs along a valley.
Developers want to run a road right through his farm.
Run the cables under the carpet.
The Sierra mountain range runs the length of the north west coast of Majorca.
15. MOVE SOMETHING ON A SURFACE [transitive always + adverb/preposition] to move something lightly along a surface:
Charles ran his fingers through her hair.
Run the scanner over the bar codes.
16. FLOW [intransitive always + adverb/preposition] to flow in a particular direction or place:
Tears started to run down her cheeks.
Water was running off the roof.
17. TAP [intransitive and transitive] if a ↑tap is running, water is coming out of it, or if you run a tap, you make water come out of it:
Did you leave the tap running?
He ran the tap until the water was really hot.
18. run a bath to fill a bath with water:
I could hear her running a bath upstairs.
run somebody a bath
Could you run me a nice hot bath while I finish my meal?
19. SB’S NOSE [intransitive] if someone’s nose is running, liquid is flowing out of it
20. OFFICIAL PAPERS [intransitive] if something runs for a particular length of time, it can officially be used for that time:
The contract runs for a year.
My car insurance only has another month to run.
21. PLAY/FILM [intransitive] to continue being performed regularly in one place:
The play ran for two years.
22. HAPPEN [intransitive] to happen in a particular way or at a particular time:
Andy kept things running smoothly (=happening in the way they should) while I was away.
He was given a further three month prison sentence to run concurrently.
The course runs over a three year period.
23. AMOUNT/PRICE [intransitive] to be at a particular level, amount, or price
run at
Inflation was running at 5%.
run to
The cost of repairing the damage could run to $5000.
24. STORY/ACCOUNT ETC [intransitive and transitive] if a story, discussion etc runs in a particular way, it has those particular words or events:
The story runs that someone offered Lynch a further $500.
‘President’s marriage really over’ ran the headline in a national newspaper.
25. run its course if something runs its course, it continues in the way you expect until it has finished:
Recession in the country has run its course and left an aftermath of uncertainty.
26. something will run and run British English if a subject, discussion, event etc will run and run, people will continue to be interested in it for a long time:
This is a story that will run and run.
27. THOUGHTS/FEELINGS [intransitive always + adverb/preposition] if a feeling runs through you, or a thought runs through your mind, you feel it or think it quickly
run through/down
A feeling of excitement ran through her body as they touched.
The same thought kept running through his mind.
A cold shiver ran down my back.
I felt a sharp pain run down my leg.
28. run high if feelings run high, people are very angry, upset, excited etc:
Tension ran high and fights broke out among the crowd.
Feelings have been running high in the town, following the murder of a young girl.
29. run sb’s life informal to keep telling someone what they should do all the time, in a way that annoys them:
Don’t try to run my life!
30. run for cover
a) to run towards a place where you will be safe, especially to avoid bullets:
He was shot in the leg as he ran for cover.
b) to try to protect yourself from a bad situation or from being criticized:
His success at backing winning horses has had the bookmakers running for cover.
31. COLOUR IN CLOTHES [intransitive] if colour runs, it spreads from one piece of clothing or one area of cloth to another when the clothes are wet:
The T-shirt ran and made all my other clothes pink.
32. PAINT/INK [intransitive] if paint runs, it moves onto an area where you did not intend it to go
33. run a check/test/experiment etc to arrange for someone or something to be checked or tested
run a check/test/experiment etc on
Ask your doctor to run a test on your blood sugar levels.
34. HOLE IN CLOTHES [intransitive] if a hole in ↑tights or ↑stockings runs, it gets bigger in a straight line
35. run drugs/guns to bring drugs or guns into a country illegally in order to sell them ⇨ ↑drug runner, ↑gun-running
36. run in the family if something such as a quality, disease, or skill runs in the family, many people in that family have it:
Diabetes appears to run in families.
37. run a temperature/fever to have a body temperature that is higher than normal, because you are ill
38. run a mile informal to try very hard to avoid a particular situation or person because you do not want to deal with them:
If someone asked me to marry them, I’d probably run a mile.
39. run late/early/on time to arrive, go somewhere, or do something late, early, or at the right time:
I’m running late, so I’ll talk to you later.
If the train runs on time, we’ll be there by ten.
40. be running scared to feel worried because someone who you are competing against is becoming very successful or powerful:
The party are running scared.
41. come running
a) informal to react in a very eager way when someone asks or tells you to do something:
He thinks he’s only got to look at me and I’ll come running.
b) especially spoken to ask someone for help, advice, or sympathy when you have a problem
come running to
Well I warned you, so don’t come running to me when it all goes wrong!
42. run your eyes over/along etc something to look quickly at something:
He ran his eyes along the books on the shelf.
43. run before you can walk to try to do something difficult before you have learned the basic skills you need:
A lot of language students want to run before they can walk.
44. run a (red) light informal to drive quickly through a red TRAFFIC LIGHT instead of stopping
⇨ ↑running1, ⇨ cut and run at ↑cut1(38), ⇨ be/run/go counter to something at ↑counter3, ⇨ run deep at ↑deep2(4), ⇨ run dry at ↑dry1(4), ⇨ run low at ↑low1(4), ⇨ run somebody ragged at ↑ragged(5), ⇨ run rings around somebody at ↑ring1(8), ⇨ run riot at ↑riot1(2), ⇨ be running short at ↑short2(2), ⇨ run somebody/something to earth at ↑earth1(14), ⇨ run to fat at ↑fat2(6), ⇨ run somebody/something to ground at ↑ground1(19), ⇨ run to seed at ↑seed1(4), ⇨ run wild at ↑wild2(1), ⇨ be up and running at ↑up1(22)
• • •
THESAURUS
run to move very quickly, by moving your legs more quickly than when you walk: My five-year-old son runs everywhere. | I go running twice a week.
jog to run quite slowly for exercise over a long distance: A few people were jogging in the park.
race/dash to run somewhere as quickly as you can, especially because you have to do something urgently: He dashed across the road to the police station. | We raced to the bus stop and got there just in time.
sprint to run as fast as you can for a short distance: I saw the runners sprinting past. | He sprinted up the stairs.
tear to run very quickly and without really looking where you are going, because you are in a hurry: He tore down the street and around the corner.
charge to run quickly and with a lot of energy, so that you might knock down anyone or anything that gets in your way: They all charged out of the school gates at 4 o'clock. | Dennis charged through the door into my office.
take to your heels to start running away very quickly, especially to escape or because you are afraid: The men took to their heels as soon as they saw the police.
leg it British English informal to run away very quickly, in order to escape from someone or something: I legged it before the cops came.
lope especially literary to run easily with long steps – used especially about tall people with long legs: John loped across the street to meet me.
■ animals running
trot to run fairly slowly, taking short steps – used especially about horses and dogs: A little dog was trotting behind her.
gallop if a horse gallops, it runs very quickly: The horse galloped off across the field.
bolt to suddenly run somewhere very fast, especially in order to escape: Suddenly a fox bolted out from beneath a hedge.
run across somebody/something phrasal verb
to meet someone or find something by chance:
I ran across him at a conference in Milan.
I ran across some old love letters while I was clearing out a cupboard.
run after somebody/something phrasal verb
1. to chase someone or something:
He ran after her, calling her name.
2. informal to try to start a sexual relationship with someone:
He’s always running after younger women.
3. spoken to do a lot of things for someone else as though you were their servant:
I can’t keep running after you all day!
run along phrasal verb spoken
used to tell a child to leave, or to tell someone that you must leave:
Run along now! I’ve got work to finish.
Oh, it’s late. I’d better be running along.
run around (also run round British English) phrasal verb
1. to run in an area while you are playing:
The children were running around in the garden.
2. informal to be very busy doing many small jobs:
Maria was running around trying to get the house tidy.
We were all running around like headless chickens (=trying to do a lot of things, in an anxious or disorganized way). ⇨ ↑runaround
run around after somebody phrasal verb informal
to do a lot of things for someone else as though you were their servant:
I’ve spent all day running around after the kids.
run around with somebody phrasal verb informal
to spend a lot of time with someone, especially someone that other people disapprove of:
He started running around with a gang of teenagers.
run away phrasal verb
1. to leave a place, especially secretly, in order to escape from someone or something
run away from
Toby ran away from home at the age of 14. ⇨ ↑runaway2
2. to try to avoid dealing with a problem or difficult situation
run away from
You can’t just run away from your responsibilities.
3. to secretly go away with someone in order to marry them or live with them:
They ran away together to get married.
run away with somebody/something phrasal verb
1. to secretly go away with someone in order to marry them or live with them – usually used to show disapproval:
His wife has run away with another man.
2. run away with you if your feelings, ideas etc run away with you, they start to control how you behave:
Don’t let your imagination run away with you!
3. your tongue runs away with you if your tongue runs away with you, you say something that you did not intend to say
4. run away with the idea/impression (that) spoken to think that something is true when it is not:
Don’t run away with the impression that he doesn’t care.
5. informal to win a competition or sports game very easily:
The Reds ran away with the championship.
run something by/past somebody phrasal verb
1. to tell someone something so that they can give you their opinion:
Let me run some figures by you.
I just wanted to run it past you and see what you thought.
2. run that by me again spoken used to ask someone to repeat what they have just said because you did not completely understand it
run down phrasal verb
1. run somebody/something ↔ down to drive into a person or animal and kill or injure them:
Their daughter was run down by a car.
2. run somebody/something ↔ down informal to criticize someone or something in a way that is unfair:
There’s a lot of good things about homeopathic treatment. I’m certainly not running it down.
3. if a clock, machine, ↑battery etc runs down, it has no more power and stops working
4. to make a company, organization etc gradually reduce in size, especially in order to close it in the future, or to gradually reduce in size
run something ↔ down
Many smaller local hospitals are being run down.
The business had been running down for a long time.
5. if a supply of something runs down, or if you run it down, there gradually becomes less of it:
Crude oil reserves are running down.
run something ↔ down
Electricity generating companies are running down stocks and cutting purchases.
6. run down something to read a list of people or things:
Let me just run down the list of people who’ve been invited.
7. run somebody/something down to find someone or something after searching for a long time:
I finally ran him down at his new office in Glendale. ⇨ ↑rundown, ↑run-down
run somebody/something ↔ in phrasal verb British English
1. to drive a new car slowly and carefully for a period of time so you do not damage its engine
2. old-fashioned if the police run a criminal in, they catch him or her
run into somebody/something phrasal verb
1. to start to experience a difficult or unpleasant situation:
He ran into criticism after remarks he made in a television interview.
run into trouble/problems/difficulties
The business ran into financial difficulties almost immediately.
2. run into hundreds/thousands etc to reach an amount of several hundred, several thousand etc:
The cost of repairing the damage could run into millions.
The list ran into hundreds of pages.
3. to hit someone or something with a vehicle SYN crash into:
He ran into the back of another car.
4. informal to meet someone by chance:
Guess who I ran into in town today! ⇨ run yourself into the ground at ↑ground1(13)
run off phrasal verb
1. to leave a place or person in a way that people disapprove of:
Amy’s husband had run off and left her with two children to bring up.
2. run something ↔ off to quickly print several copies of something:
I’ll run off a few more copies before the meeting.
3. run somebody off something to force someone to leave a place:
Someone tried to run me off the road.
Smith had run them off his property with a rifle.
4. run something ↔ off to write a speech, poem, piece of music etc quickly and easily:
He could run off a five-page essay in an hour.
5. run off at the mouth American English informal to talk too much
6. run something ↔ off to get rid of weight by running:
I’m trying to run off some of my excess fat!
run off with somebody/something phrasal verb informal
1. to secretly go away with someone in order to marry them or live with them – used to show disapproval:
Liz shocked us all by running off with a married man.
2. to steal something and go away:
a con-man who makes a habit of running off with people’s savings
run on phrasal verb
to continue happening for longer than expected or planned:
These things always run on longer than people imagine.
run out phrasal verb
1.
a) to use all of something and not have any more left:
I’ve got money you can borrow if you run out.
run out of
They ran out of money and had to abandon the project.
He’d run out of ideas.
b) if something is running out, there will soon be none left:
We must act now because time is running out.
My patience was running out.
His luck had run out (=there was none left).
2. if an agreement, official document etc runs out, the period for which it is legal or has an effect ends SYN expire:
My contract runs out in September.
3. run out of steam informal (also run out of gas American English) to have no more energy or no longer be interested in what you are doing:
The team seemed to have run out of gas.
4. run somebody out of town old-fashioned to force someone to leave a place, because they have done something wrong
5. run somebody ↔ out to end a player’s ↑innings in the game of ↑cricket by hitting the ↑stumps with the ball while they are running
run out on somebody phrasal verb
to leave someone when they are in a difficult situation – used to show disapproval:
He ran out on her when she became pregnant.
run over phrasal verb
1. run somebody/something ↔ over to hit someone or something with a vehicle, and drive over them:
He was run over and killed by a bus.
She got run over outside the school.
2. run over something to think about something:
Mark’s mind raced, running over all the possibilities.
3. run over something to explain or practise something quickly:
I’ll just run over the main points again.
4. run over (something) to continue happening for longer than planned:
The meeting ran over.
The talks have run over the 15 November deadline.
5. if a container runs over, there is so much liquid inside that some flows out SYN overflow
run something past somebody phrasal verb
to ↑run something ↑by someone
run round phrasal verb British English
to ↑run around
run through phrasal verb
1. run through something to repeat something in order to practise it or make sure it is correct:
Let’s run through the first scene again.
2. run through something to read, look at, or explain something quickly:
Briefly, she ran through details of the morning’s events.
3. run through something if a quality, feature etc runs through something, it is present in all of that thing:
This theme runs through the whole book.
4. run somebody through literary to push a sword completely through someone ⇨ ↑run-through
run to somebody/something phrasal verb
1. to reach a particular amount:
The cost of repairing the damage could run to $1 million.
The treaty ran to 248 pages.
2. [usually in negatives] British English to be or have enough money to pay for something:
Our budget won’t run to replacing all the computers.
3. to ask someone to help or protect you:
You can’t keep running to your parents every time you have a problem.
4. sb’s taste runs to something if someone’s taste runs to something, that is what they like:
His taste ran to action movies and thrillers.
run up something phrasal verb
1. run up a debt/bill etc to use so much of something, or borrow so much money, that you owe a lot of money:
She ran up an enormous phone bill.
2. to achieve a particular score or position in a game or competition:
He quickly ran up a big lead in the polls.
3. run something ↔ up to make something, especially clothes, very quickly:
She can run up a dress in an evening.
4. run something ↔ up to raise a flag on a pole
run up against something/somebody phrasal verb
to have to deal with unexpected problems or a difficult opponent:
The museum has run up against opposition to its proposals.
run with something phrasal verb
to be covered with a liquid that is flowing down:
His face was running with blood.

Oxford Advanced Learner's Dictionary

run

run [run runs ran running] verb, noun   [rʌn]    [rʌn]

verb (running, ran   [ræn]  ;   [ræn]  run

MOVE FAST ON FOOT
1. intransitive to move using your legs, going faster than when you walk
Can you run as fast as Mike?
They turned and ran when they saw us coming.
She came running to meet us.
I had to run to catch the bus.
The dogs ran off as soon as we appeared.
He ran home in tears to his mother.  In spoken English run can be used with and plus another verb, instead of with to and the infinitive, especially to tell somebody to hurry and do something
• Run and get your swimsuits, kids.

• I ran and knocked on the nearest door.

2. transitive ~ sth to travel a particular distance by running
• Who was the first person to run a mile in under four minutes?

see also  mile

3. intransitive (sometimes go running) to run as a sport
• She used to run when she was at college.

• I often go running before work.  

RACE

4. intransitive, transitive to take part in a race
~ (in sth) He will be running in the 100 metres tonight.
There are only five horses running in the first race.
~ sth to run the marathon
• Holmes ran a fine race to take the gold medal.

see also  runner  (1)

5. transitive, often passive ~ sth to make a race take place

• The Derby will be run in spite of the bad weather.  

HURRY

6. intransitive + adv./prep. to hurry from one place to another
• I've spent the whole day running around after the kids.

see also  rat run  

MANAGE

7. transitive ~ sth to be in charge of a business, etc
to run a hotel/store/language school
He has no idea how to run a business.
Stop trying to run my life (= organize it) for me.
The shareholders want more say in how the company is run.
a badly run company
• state-run industries

see also  running  n. (2

PROVIDE

8. transitive ~ sth to make a service, course of study, etc. available to people
Syn:  organize

• The college runs summer courses for foreign students.  

VEHICLE/MACHINE

9. transitive ~ sth (BrE) to own and use a vehicle or machine

• I can't afford to run a car on my salary.

10. intransitive, transitive to operate or function; to make sth do this
Stan had the chainsaw running.
(figurative) Her life had always run smoothly before.
~ on sth Our van runs on (= uses) diesel.

~ sth Could you run the engine for a moment?  

BUSES/TRAINS

11. intransitive (+ adv./prep.) to travel on a particular route
Buses to Oxford run every half-hour.
• Trains between London and Brighton run throughout the day.

• All the trains are running late (= are leaving later than planned).

12. transitive ~ sth (+ adv./prep.) to make buses, trains, etc. travel on a particular route

• They run extra trains during the rush hour.  

DRIVE SB

13. transitive ~ sb + adv./prep. (informal) to drive sb to a place in a car

• Shall I run you home?  

MOVE SOMEWHERE

14. intransitive + adv./prep. to move, especially quickly, in a particular direction
The car ran off the road into a ditch.
A shiver ran down my spine.
• The sledge ran smoothly over the frozen snow.

• The old tramlines are still there but now no trams run on them.

15. transitive ~ sth + adv./prep. to move sth in a particular direction
• She ran her fingers nervously through her hair.

• I ran my eyes over the page.  

LEAD/STRETCH

16. intransitive, transitive to lead or stretch from one place to another; to make sth do this
+ adv./prep. He had a scar running down his left cheek.
• The road runs parallel to the river.

~ sth + adv./prep. We ran a cable from the lights to the stage.  

CONTINUE FOR TIME

17. intransitive ~ (for sth) to continue for a particular period of time without stopping
• Her last musical ran for six months on Broadway.

• This debate will run and run!

18. intransitive ~ (for sth) to operate or be valid for a particular period of time
• The permit runs for three months.

• The lease on my house only has a year left to run.  

HAPPEN

19. intransitive (usually used in the progressive tenses) to happen at the time mentioned
+ adv./prep. Programmes are running a few minutes behind schedule this evening.

• The murderer was given three life sentences, to run concurrently.  

GUNS, DRUGS, ETC.

20. transitive ~ sth (+ adv./prep.) to bring or take sth into a country illegally and secretly
Syn:  smuggle
• He used to run guns across the border.

see also  runner  

OF STORY/ARGUMENT

21. intransitive, transitive to have particular words, contents, etc
• Their argument ran something like this…

+ speech ‘Ten shot dead by gunmen,’ ran the newspaper headline.  

LIQUID

22. intransitive + adv./prep. to flow
• The tears ran down her cheeks.

• Water was running all over the bathroom floor.

23. transitive to make liquid flow
~ sth (into sth) She ran hot water into the bucket.
to run the hot tap (= to turn it so that water flows from it)
~ sth for sb I'll run a bath for you.

~ sb sth I'll run you a bath.

24. intransitive to send out a liquid
Who left the tap running?
Your nose is running (= mucus  is flowing from it).

• The smoke makes my eyes run.

25. intransitive (usually used in the progressive tenses) ~ with sth to be covered with a liquid
• His face was running with sweat.

• The bathroom floor was running with water.  

OF COLOUR

26. intransitive if the colour runs in a piece of clothing when it gets wet, it dissolves and may come out of the clothing into other things

• The colour ran and made all my underwear pink.  

MELT

27. intransitive (of a solid substance) to melt
• The wax began to run.

see also  runny  

BE/BECOME

28. intransitive + adj. to become different in a particular way, especially a bad way
The river ran dry (= stopped flowing) during the drought.
Supplies are running low.
We've run short of milk.

• You've got your rivals running scared.

29. intransitive ~ at sth to be at or near a particular level

• Inflation was running at 26%.  

OF NEWSPAPER/MAGAZINE

30. transitive ~ sth to print and publish an item or a story

• On advice from their lawyers they decided not to run the story.  

A TEST/CHECK

31. transitive ~ a test/check (on sth) to do a test/check on sth

• The doctors decided to run some more tests on the blood samples.  

IN ELECTION

32. intransitive to be a candidate in an election for a political position, especially in the US
Bush ran a second time in 2004.
~ for sb/sth to run for president
~ in sth to run in the election

compare  stand  v. (16

OF TIGHTS/STOCKINGS

33. intransitive (NAmE) if tights or stockings run, a long thin hole appears in them

Syn:  ladder

Rem: Most idioms containing run are at the entries for the nouns and adjectives in the idioms, for example run riot is at riot.
more at a close run thing at  close2 adv., hit the ground running at  hit  v.
 
Word Origin:
Old English rinnan, irnan (verb), of Germanic origin, probably reinforced in Middle English by Old Norse rinna, renna. The current form with -u- in the present tense is first recorded in the 16th cent.  
Thesaurus:
run verb
1. I, T
He ran to catch the bus.
sprinttearchargejogboundpoundtrotgallopstampede|written race
run/sprint/charge/jog/bound/pound/trot/gallop/race towards sb/sth
run/sprint/charge/bound/pound/trot/gallop/race after sb/sth
run/sprint/tear/bound/pound/trot/gallop/race along (sth)
run/sprint/bound/race away
2. T
She ran a small business for many years.
managecontrolbe in chargebe responsible for sb/sthadministerdirect
run/manage/control a/an company/business/organization
run/manage/control/be in charge of/be responsible for/administer/direct a project
run/manage/be responsible for/administer a service
Run or manage? Managing a business, department, etc. means making decisions about how it should operate and organizing other employees. Run emphasizes organizing the necessary tasks.
3. T, I
Could you run the engine for a moment?
Stan had the chainsaw running.
operatecontrol|especially spoken workgo|formal functionmanipulate
run/operate/control/work a machine
run/operate/control a/an engine/motor
run/operate machinery
run/operate/work/function efficiently/reliably/smoothly/normally
Run, operate or control? A person operates or runs a machine; machines are often controlled by the controls, such as a computer, knob or lever.
4. I
The buses run every ten minutes.
gocometravel
run/go/come/travel from/to sth
5. I
Tears ran down her cheeks.
flowpourstreamgushcirculatetrickle|written cascade
run/flow/pour/stream/gush/trickle out of sth
run/flow/pour/stream/gush/cascade/trickle down (sth)
water runs/flows/pours/streams/gushes/circulates/trickles/cascades
blood runs/flows/pours/streams/gushes/circulates/trickles 
Example Bank:
He hopes to run for president in 2016.
He just wanted to run away and hide.
He ran headlong into an enemy patrol.
He ran out of the house.
He ran unsuccessfully for the Senate in New York.
He was given two twelve-month sentences to run concurrently.
In many respects his poetical development had run parallel to Wordsworth's.
John can run very fast.
Local buses run regularly to and from the school.
Our car only runs on unleaded petrol.
She ran quickly downstairs.
She turned and ran blindly down the street.
Stop trying to run my life for me.
The engine was running very smoothly.
The group is run independently of college authorities.
The programme will be jointly run with NASA in the US.
The railway line runs right past the house.
The road and the canal run parallel to each other.
The road runs alongside the canal.
The school is jointly run with the local parish.
The train was running late, as usual.
The two experiments are run in parallel.
Things ran very smoothly for a while.
We soon had the sound system up and running.
(in stories) Sharon ran as fast as her legs could carry her.
Alan was running for a bus when he slipped on some ice.
Billy turned the corner and ran headlong into Mrs Bradley.
Don't run away! I only want to talk to you!
He claimed that 95 per cent of trains run on time.
He tried to run the restaurant himself, but soon got into financial difficulties.
I like to go running in the mornings before work.
I ran four miles today.
I've spent the whole day running around after the kids.
It is a small, privately run hotel.
Our van runs on diesel.
Quick— run for it!
Run after her and tell her she's forgotten her bag.
She ran quickly up the stairs.
Terrified, he ran all the way home.
The ball hit the hole and ran past.
The boy went running off to get the ball.
The buses run every thirty minutes.
The college runs several English classes for adults.
The course teaches some of the skills you need to set up and run a business.
The office had never been so well run.
The old tramlines are still there but no trams run on them now.
The sledge ran smoothly over the snow.
They ran a series of lectures on the subject.
They've seen us! Run for your life!
Try to run round the block a few times every morning.
Volunteer counsellors run a 24-hour helpline.
What applications were you running when the problem occurred?
When does the London Underground stop running at night?
Which operating system have you got running?
Who is running the event?
Your nose is running.
Idioms: come running  common, general, ordinary, usual run  give get the run of something  give somebody a run for their money  on the run  run for it  up and running

Derived: run across somebody  run after somebody  run along  run around with somebody  run at somebody  run away  run away from something  run away with something  run away with you  run back over something  run down  run into somebody  run into something  run off  run off with somebody  run off with something  run on  run on something  run out  run out on somebody  run over  run over something  run somebody down  run somebody in  run somebody out  run somebody over  run somebody through  run something by somebody  run something down  run something in  run something into somebody  run something off  run something past somebody  run something up  run through something  run to something  run up against something  run with somebody  run with something 

Cambridge Advanced Learner's Dictionary

Cambridge Advanced Learner's Dictionary - 4th Edition
 

run / rʌn / verb ( present participle running , past tense ran , past participle run ) (GO QUICKLY)

run

A1 [ I or T ] (of people and some animals) to move along, faster than walking, by taking quick steps in which each foot is lifted before the next foot touches the ground:

[ + to infinitive ] The children had to run to keep up with their father.

I can run a mile in five minutes.

The sheep ran away/off in fright.

A little girl ran up to (= came quickly beside) me, crying for her daddy.

Are you running against each other or against the clock?

The first two races will be run (off) (= will happen) in 20 minutes.

[ T ] If you run an animal in a race, you cause it to take part:

Thompson Stables are running three horses in the next race.

[ I + adv/prep ] to go quickly or in a hurry:

Would you run round to the post office and get me some stamps?

You don't put on weight when you spend all day running round after small children.

run for sth to run fast in order to get or avoid something:

I ran for the bus but it drove off.

run on the spot to move your legs as if running, while you stay in one place:

I run on the spot to warm up before I play football.
 

run / rʌn / verb [ I or T , usually + adv/prep ] ( present participle running , past tense ran , past participle run ) (TRAVEL)

B2 to (cause something to) travel, move, or continue in a particular way:

Trains are still running, despite the snow.

A bus runs (= goes on a particular route at particular times) three times a day into town.

Skis are waxed on the bottom so that they run smoothly over the snow.

The route/railway/road runs (= goes) across the border/ into Italy/ through the mountains.

A climbing rose bush runs (= grows) around the front door.

There's a beautiful cornice running around/round all the ceilings.

The film runs (= lasts) for two hours.

The show/course/film runs (= continues) for another week.

A magazine subscription usually only runs (= can be used) for one year.

Buses are running an hour late , because of an earlier accident.

The truck's brakes failed and it ran (= went) off the road.

Trains run on rails (= move along on top of them) .

Electricity is running through (= moving along within) this cable.

An angry muttering ran through (= went through) the crowd.

A shiver of fear ran through his (body).

She ran her finger along/down the page/list, looking for her name.

Could you run the tape/film/video back/forwards , please?

Could you possibly run me (= take me in your car) home/to the station?

He ran (= pushed) his fingers through his hair and looked up at me.

 

run / rʌn / verb ( present participle running , past tense ran , past participle run ) (OPERATE)

B2 [ I or T ] to (cause something to) operate:

Keep clear of the machines while they're running.

The government took desperate measures to keep the economy running.

Do you know how to run this sort of machinery?

The mechanic asked me to run the engine (= switch it on and allow it to work) for a minute.

They had the new computer system up and running (= working) within an hour.

We've run the computer program, but nothing happens.

We're running (= doing) an experiment.

B1 [ T ] to be in control of something:

He's been running a restaurant/his own company since he left school.

The local college runs (= provides) a course in self-defence.

a well-run/badly-run organization/business/course

run a tight ship to control a business or other organization firmly and effectively:

Ruth runs a tight ship and has no time for shirkers.

[ T ] If you run a car, you own one, drive it, and pay for the costs:

I can't afford to run a car.

[ T ] to organize the way you live or work:

Some people run their lives according to the movements of the stars.
 

run / rʌn / verb [ I or T ] ( present participle running , past tense ran , past participle run ) (FLOW)

B2 to (cause something to) flow, produce liquid, or (especially of colours in clothes) to come out or spread:

I can feel trickles of sweat running down my neck.

Don't cry, or your make-up will run (= become liquid and move down your face) .

The walls were running with damp.

The river runs (down) to/into the sea.

The hot tap is running cold (= producing cold water) !

I turned the tap on and ran some cold water on the burn.

[ + two objects ] I'll run you a hot bath (= fill a bath with water for you) .

My nose and eyes have been running all week because of hay fever.

I must have washed my dress at too high a temperature, because the colour has run.

If the first layer isn't dry before you add the next one, the colours will run into each other (= mix) .

figurative After twelve hours at her word processor, the words began to run into one another (= seem mixed together) .
 

run / rʌn / verb [ L only + adj ] ( present participle running , past tense ran , past participle run ) (BECOME)

to be or become:

Differences between the two sides run deep (= are serious) .

The river/reservoir/well ran dry (= its supply of water finished) .

Supplies are running low (= there's not much left) .

We're beginning to run short of money/Money is beginning to run short (= there's not much left) .

 

run / rʌn / verb [ I ] ( present participle running , past tense ran , past participle run ) (HOLE)

If tights (= thin clothing that covers the legs) run, a long, thin hole appears in them:

Oh no, my tights have run!
 

run / rʌn / verb ( present participle running , past tense ran , past participle run ) (SHOW)

C1 [ T ] to show something in a newspaper or magazine, on television, etc.:

All the newspapers ran (= printed) stories about the new peace talks.

Channel 4 is running a series on the unfairness of the legal system.

[ I ] Indian English If a film is running at a particular place, you can see it there:

What's running at the the Metro this week?

 

run / rʌn / verb [ I ] ( present participle running , past tense ran , past participle run ) (POLITICS)

to compete as a candidate in an election:

Mrs Thatcher wanted to run a fourth time.

He's going to run against Smith/ for president/ for re-election.
 

run / rʌn / verb [ T ] ( present participle running , past tense ran , past participle run ) (TAKE)

to take guns or drugs illegally from one place to another:

He was arrested for running drugs across the border into America.

© Cambridge University Press 2013

Collins COBUILD Advanced Learner’s English Dictionary

run

/rʌn/
(runs, running, ran)

Frequency: The word is one of the 700 most common words in English.

Note: The form 'run' is used in the present tense and is also the past participle of the verb.

1.
When you run, you move more quickly than when you walk, for example because you are in a hurry to get somewhere, or for exercise.
I excused myself and ran back to the telephone...
He ran the last block to the White House with two cases of gear...
Antonia ran to meet them.
VERB: V adv/prep, V n/amount, V

Run is also a noun.
After a six-mile run, Jackie returns home for a substantial breakfast.
N-COUNT: usu sing

2.
When someone runs in a race, they run in competition with other people.
...when I was running in the New York Marathon...
Phyllis Smith ran a controlled race to qualify in 51.32 sec.
VERB: V, V n

3.
When a horse runs in a race or when its owner runs it, it competes in a race.
The owner insisted on Cool Ground running in the Gold Cup...
If we have a wet spell, Cecil could also run Armiger in the Derby.
VERB: V, V n

4.
If you say that something long, such as a road, runs in a particular direction, you are describing its course or position. You can also say that something runs the length or width of something else.
...the sun-dappled trail which ran through the beech woods.
VERB: V prep/adv

5.
If you run a wire or tube somewhere, you fix it or pull it from, to, or across a particular place.
Our host ran a long extension cord out from the house and set up a screen and a projector.
VERB: V n prep/adv

6.
If you run your hand or an object through something, you move your hand or the object through it.
He laughed and ran his fingers through his hair...
VERB: V n prep

7.
If you run something through a machine, process, or series of tests, you make it go through the machine, process, or tests.
They have gathered the best statistics they can find and run them through their own computers.
VERB: V n through n

8.
If someone runs for office in an election, they take part as a candidate.
It was only last February that he announced he would run for president...
It is no easy job to run against John Glenn, Ohio’s Democratic senator...
Women are running in nearly all the contested seats in Los Angeles.
= stand
VERB: V for n, V against n, V

9.
A run for office is an attempt to be elected to office. (mainly AM; in BRIT, usually use bid)
He was already preparing his run for the presidency.
N-SING: N for n

10.
If you run something such as a business or an activity, you are in charge of it or you organize it.
His stepfather ran a prosperous paint business...
Is this any way to run a country?...
...a well-run, profitable organisation.
VERB: V n, V n, V-ed

11.
If you talk about how a system, an organization, or someone’s life is running, you are saying how well it is operating or progressing.
Officials in charge of the camps say the system is now running extremely smoothly.
...the staff who have kept the bank running.
VERB: usu cont, V adv, V

12.
If you run an experiment, computer program, or other process, or start it running, you start it and let it continue.
He ran a lot of tests and it turned out I had an infection called mycoplasma...
You can check your program one command at a time while it’s running.
VERB: V n, V

13.
When you run a cassette or video tape or when it runs, it moves through the machine as the machine operates.
He pushed the play button again and ran the tape...
The tape had run to the end but recorded nothing.
= play
VERB: V n, V

14.
When a machine is running or when you are running it, it is switched on and is working.
We told him to wait out front with the engine running.
...with everybody running their appliances all at the same time.
VERB: usu cont, V, V n

15.
A machine or equipment that runs on or off a particular source of energy functions using that source of energy.
Black cabs run on diesel...
VERB: V on/off n

16.
If you run a car or a piece of equipment, you have it and use it. (mainly BRIT)
I ran a 1960 Rover 100 from 1977 until 1983.
VERB: V n

17.
When you say that vehicles such as trains and buses run from one place to another, you mean they regularly travel along that route.
A shuttle bus runs frequently between the Inn and the Country Club.
...a government which can’t make the trains run on time.
VERB: V prep, V

18.
If you run someone somewhere in a car, you drive them there. (INFORMAL)
Could you run me up to Baltimore?
= drive
VERB: V n prep/adv

19.
If you run over or down to a place that is quite near, you drive there. (INFORMAL)
I’ll run over to Short Mountain and check on Mrs Adams.
= drive
VERB: V adv

20.
A run is a journey somewhere.
...doing the morning school run.
N-COUNT

21.
If a liquid runs in a particular direction, it flows in that direction.
Tears were running down her cheeks...
Wash the rice in cold water until the water runs clear.
= flow
VERB: V prep/adv, V adj

22.
If you run water, or if you run a tap or a bath, you cause water to flow from a tap.
She went to the sink and ran water into her empty glass...
VERB: V n

23.
If a tap or a bath is running, water is coming out of a tap.
You must have left a tap running in the bathroom...
VERB: only cont, V

24.
If your nose is running, liquid is flowing out of it, usually because you have a cold.
Timothy was crying, mostly from exhaustion, and his nose was running.
VERB: usu cont, V

25.
If a surface is running with a liquid, that liquid is flowing down it.
After an hour he realised he was completely running with sweat...
VERB: usu cont, V with n

26.
If the dye in some cloth or the ink on some paper runs, it comes off or spreads when the cloth or paper gets wet.
The ink had run on the wet paper.
VERB: V

27.
If a feeling runs through your body or a thought runs through your mind, you experience it or think it quickly.
She felt a surge of excitement run through her...
= go
VERB: V through n

28.
If a feeling or noise runs through a group of people, it spreads among them.
A buzz of excitement ran through the crowd.
= go
VERB: V through n

29.
If a theme or feature runs through something such as someone’s actions or writing, it is present in all of it.
Another thread running through this series is the role of doctors in the treatment of the mentally ill...
There was something of this mood running throughout the Congress’s deliberations.
VERB: V through n, V throughout n

30.
When newspapers or magazines run a particular item or story or if it runs, it is published or printed.
The newspaper ran a series of four editorials entitled ‘The Choice of Our Lives.’
...an editorial that ran this weekend entitled ‘Mr. Cuomo Backs Out.’
VERB: V n, V

31.
If an amount is running at a particular level, it is at that level.
Today’s RPI figure shows inflation running at 10.9 per cent...
= stand
VERB: V at n

32.
If a play, event, or legal contract runs for a particular period of time, it lasts for that period of time.
It pleased critics but ran for only three years in the West End...
The contract was to run from 1992 to 2020...
I predict it will run and run.
VERB: V for amount, V prep, V

33.
If someone or something is running late, they have taken more time than had been planned. If they are running to time or ahead of time, they have taken the time planned or less than the time planned.
Tell her I’ll call her back later, I’m running late again...
VERB: usu cont, V adv/prep

34.
If you are running a temperature or a fever, you have a high temperature because you are ill.
The little girl is running a fever and she needs help.
VERB: V n

35.
A run of a play or television programme is the period of time during which performances are given or programmes are shown.
The show will transfer to the West End on October 9, after a month’s run in Birmingham...
N-COUNT: with supp

36.
A run of successes or failures is a series of successes or failures.
The England skipper is haunted by a run of low scores...
N-SING: usu N of n

37.
A run of a product is the amount that a company or factory decides to produce at one time.
Wayne plans to increase the print run to 1,000...
N-COUNT: usu supp N

38.
In cricket or baseball, a run is a score of one, which is made by players running between marked places on the field after hitting the ball.
At 20 he became the youngest player to score 2,000 runs in a season.
N-COUNT

39.
If someone gives you the run of a place, they give you permission to go where you like in it and use it as you wish.
He had the run of the house and the pool.
N-SING: the N of n

40.
If there is a run on something, a lot of people want to buy it or get it at the same time.
A run on sterling has killed off hopes of a rate cut...
N-SING: N on n

41.
A ski run or bobsleigh run is a course or route that has been designed for skiing or for riding in a bobsleigh.
N-COUNT: usu n N

42.
see also running, dummy run, test run, trial run

43.
If something happens against the run of play or against the run of events, it is different from what is generally happening in a game or situation. (BRIT)
The decisive goal arrived against the run of play...
PHRASE

44.
If you run someone close, run them a close second, or run a close second, you almost beat them in a race or competition.
The Under-21 team has defeated Wales and Scotland this season, and ran England very close...
PHRASE: V inflects

45.
If a river or well runs dry, it no longer has any water in it. If an oil well runs dry, it no longer produces any oil.
Streams had run dry for the first time in memory.
= dry up
PHRASE: V inflects

46.
If a source of information or money runs dry, no more information or money can be obtained from it.
Three days into production, the kitty had run dry.
= dry up
PHRASE: V inflects

47.
If a characteristic runs in someone’s family, it often occurs in members of that family, in different generations.
The insanity which ran in his family haunted him.
PHRASE: V inflects

48.
If you make a run for it or if you run for it, you run away in order to escape from someone or something.
A helicopter hovered overhead as one of the gang made a run for it...
PHRASE: V inflects

49.
If people’s feelings are running high, they are very angry, concerned, or excited.
Feelings there have been running high in the wake of last week’s killing.
PHRASE: V inflects

50.
If you talk about what will happen in the long run, you are saying what you think will happen over a long period of time in the future. If you talk about what will happen in the short run, you are saying what you think will happen in the near future.
Sometimes expensive drugs or other treatments can be economical in the long run...
In fact, things could get worse in the short run.
PHRASE: PHR with cl, PHR with v

51.
If you say that someone would run a mile if faced with something, you mean that they are very frightened of it and would try to avoid it.
Yasmin admits she would run a mile if Mark asked her out.
PHRASE: V inflects

52.
If you say that someone could give someone else a run for their money, you mean you think they are almost as good as the other person.
...a youngster who even now could give Meryl Streep a run for her money.
PHRASE: V inflects

53.
If someone is on the run, they are trying to escape or hide from someone such as the police or an enemy.
Fifteen-year-old Danny is on the run from a local authority home.
PHRASE: v-link PHR, PHR after v

54.
If someone is on the run, they are being severely defeated in a contest or competition.
His opponents believe he is definitely on the run...
PHRASE: usu v-link PHR

55.
If you say that a person or group is running scared, you mean that they are frightened of what someone might do to them or what might happen.
The administration is running scared.
PHRASE: V inflects

56.
If you are running short of something or running low on something, you do not have much of it left. If a supply of something is running short or running low, there is not much of it left.
Government forces are running short of ammunition and fuel...
We are running low on drinking water...
PHRASE: V inflects

Merriam-Webster's Advanced Learner's Dictionary

Merriam-Webster's Advanced Learner's Dictionary: 

1run /ˈrʌn/ verb runs; ran /ˈræn/; run; run·ning
1 [no obj]
a : to move with your legs at a speed that is faster than walking
• How fast can you run?
• He runs faster than anyone else on the team.
• She ran up the stairs to get her jacket.
• We ran for the train—but missed it.
• I heard her scream and ran to help.
• She ran to me for help.
• The dog ran away from me.
• The dog ran toward me.
• When I called the dog, he came running.
• Don't expect me to come running every time you want something. I'm not your servant.
• The chickens were running loose in the yard.
• The horses ran wild.
• He ran at me with a knife. [=he ran toward me with a knife in his hand]
- often used figuratively
• He ran back to his ex-girlfriend after I dumped him.
• You can't keep running away from your problems.
• Don't come running to me when you get in trouble.
• Don't let your imagination run wild. I'm sure nothing bad has happened.
b : to leave a place quickly by running
• When the alarm sounded, the robbers ran.
• He dropped the gun and ran.
• Quick! Run and get a doctor!
• The ambushed soldiers ran for cover.
• They had the enemy running scared.
- often + away
• When she saw all the people in the audience, she had a sudden urge to run away.
• They ran away screaming.
- often + off
• When they saw the police, they quickly ran off.
2 a : to run as part of a sport, for exercise, or in a race

[no obj]

• He ran on the track team in college.
• She's running in the marathon this year.
• The horse will not be running in this race.

[+ obj]

• I run six miles every day.
• She ran a great race. [=she ran very well in the race]
• He ran track in college.
• She's running the marathon this year.
• The marathon will be run tomorrow. [=people will be running the marathon tomorrow]
b American football : to carry and run with (the ball)

[+ obj]

• He ran the football for a 20-yard gain.
• He ran the kick back to the 40-yard line.

[no obj]

• He ran for 15 yards.
c baseball : to run from base to base

[no obj]

• He runs well and might attempt a steal.

[+ obj]

• He runs the bases well.
3 [+ obj] : to cause (an animal) to run
• He ran the horse through the fields.
4 [no obj] chiefly US : to be a candidate in an election for a particular office - often + for
• She is running [=(Brit) standing] for mayor.
- often + against
• He is running against her in the upcoming election.
5 [+ obj]
a : to direct the business or activities of (something)
• She runs [=manages] the restaurant/hotel/store.
• He runs the after-school program.
• The President is doing a good job running the country.
• The company is badly/privately run.
• state/family-run companies
• I'm old enough to run my own life! [=make my own decisions]
b : to do (a test or check) on someone or something
• The doctors need to run some more tests.
- often + on
• The doctors ran some tests on the blood samples.
• The police ran a security check on him.
6 a [+ obj] : to use and control (something)
• I'm not licensed to run [=operate] a forklift.
b [+ obj] : to put (something) into operation
• You should run the engine for a few minutes before you start driving.
• He ran the program (on the computer).
c [no obj] : to function or operate
• Never leave your car unattended while the engine is running.
• He didn't know the camera was still running.
• He had his new computer up and running in no time.
- often + on
• This software runs on most computers.
• The car runs on [=uses] diesel.
7 a usually followed by an adverb or preposition [no obj] : to go on a particular route or at particular times
• The bus/ferry runs every hour.
• The train runs between New York and Washington.
• Trains no longer run on this track.
• The buses are running late. [=the buses are late]
b [+ obj] : to have (a bus, train, ferry, etc.) traveling on a route
• They run extra trains on Saturdays.
8 a [no obj] : to make a quick trip to a place for something
• She ran (up/down) to the store for bread and milk.
• He ran over to the neighbors for some sugar.
b [+ obj] : to drive (someone) a short distance to a place or event
• I have to run the kids to soccer practice.
c always followed by an adverb or preposition [+ obj] : to bring (something) quickly to someone who is at a particular place
• Wait here. I'm just going to run this in/inside to her.
• He ran an umbrella out to her before she drove off.
d [+ obj] : to do (something that involves making a quick trip) : to do (an errand)
• I have a few errands to run after I leave work today.
9 always followed by an adverb or preposition
a [+ obj] : to cause (a driver or vehicle) to move in a particular direction
• That car tried to run me off the road!
• She ran her car off the road.
• He ran the car into a tree.
b [no obj] of a driver or vehicle : to move in a particular direction
• His car ran off the road. = He ran off the road.
- see also run into (below), run over (below)
10 always followed by an adverb or preposition
a [+ obj] : to cause (something) to pass through, over, along, or into something else
• She ran her fingers through my hair.
• He ran a brush over the dog's fur.
• I quickly ran my eyes over/down the list of names.
b [no obj] : to travel or spread in a fast or uncontrolled way
• Whispers ran through the crowd.
• A chill ran up/down my spine.
11 always followed by an adverb or preposition [no obj]
a : to go or extend in a particular direction
• The boundary line runs east.
• The road runs through the mountain.
• The highway runs from Boston to New York.
- sometimes used figuratively
• My tastes in novels run to/toward science fiction and thrillers. [=I tend to like science fiction and thrillers]
• Such behavior runs counter to [=such behavior does not agree with] the values of our society.
• He does nothing that would run against [=go against] his moral principles.
b
- used to describe the position of a road, path, etc.
• The highway runs close to the shore.
• The route runs the length of the eastern coast.
• A path runs along the ridge.
• The pipes run beneath the floor.
• There was a scratch running down the side of the car.
12 [+ obj] : to cause (something, such as a wire or cable) to go or extend from one point to another
• He ran the wires up from the basement.
13 [+ obj] : to bring (something) from one country into another country illegally and secretly
• He was arrested for running [=smuggling] drugs into the country.
14 a [no obj] : to flow
• He left the water running. : to flow in a particular direction
• The river runs down to the valley.
• The river runs into the gulf.
• The tide was running out.
• Sand ran out of the bag.
• Steam runs through the pipes.
• Blood was running down his leg.
b [+ obj] : to cause (something) to flow or to produce a flow of water
• She ran the tap/faucet.
Run the water until it gets hot.
c [+ obj] : to prepare (a bath) by running a faucet
• She ran a hot bath for her husband. = She ran her husband a hot bath.
15 [no obj]
a : to produce a flow of liquid
• Chopping the onions made my eyes run. [=water]
• I knew I was getting sick when my nose started to run.
• a running sore
b : to spread or flow into another area
• Your eyeliner is running.
• Mascara ran from her eyes.
• The paint ran in some spots.
• The writing was blurred where the ink ran.
c : to have a color that spreads onto other pieces of clothing when clothes are washed together
• Her red shirt ran and made my blue jeans look purple.
• colors that run
16 always followed by an adverb or preposition [no obj] : to continue or remain effective for a particular period of time
• His contract runs until next season.
• She received six months on each charge, and the sentences are to run concurrently.
• The course runs over a six-week period of time.
• The televised game ran 30 minutes over the scheduled time.
• The play has run for six months.
• Things ran smoothly at the office while the boss was away.
17 [no obj] : to be or to begin to be something specified
• The well has run dry.
• Her creativity has run dry.
• We are running low on fuel. [=our supply of fuel is getting low]
• Supplies were running low/short.
• We ran short of money. [=we did not have enough money]
• I have to hurry. I'm running late. [=I'm late; I'm behind schedule]
• The project is running behind schedule.
18 [no obj] : to include everything between specified limits : range
• The prices for tickets run from $10 to $50.
19 [+ obj] : to allow charges on (a bill) to add up before paying
• He ran a tab at the bar.
20 a [+ obj] : to have (an amount of money) as a price
• The rooms run [=cost] $100 a night.
b [no obj] : to have or reach a particular length, size, or amount
• The book runs (to) nearly 500 pages.
• Their annual budget runs to about 5 million dollars.
• Their yearly income runs into/to six figures. [=their yearly income is more than $100,000]
• Gas is running at over $4 per gallon. [=gas prices are over $4 per gallon]
21 a [+ obj] : to print or broadcast (something)
• Every newspaper in the city ran the story.
• The ad was run in yesterday's newspaper.
• The news station ran a feature on how to eat healthier.
b [no obj] : to appear in print or on television
• Many of his stories ran in national magazines.
• The show has run for five seasons.
22 [+ obj] : to produce (a copy of a document, newspaper, etc.) using a printer or copying machine
• 10,000 copies were run for the first edition.
- see also run off (below)
23 a [+ obj] : to have (particular words) in writing or print
• “We Will Not Lose” ran the headline. [=the headline was/said “We Will Not Lose”]
b [no obj] : to be expressed in words
• The definition runs as follows …
24 [+ obj] : to drive past or through (a stop sign or red traffic light) illegally without stopping
• He ran a red light. = He ran the light.
• She ran the stop sign.
25 [no obj] US of stockings : to start to have a long hole that continues to get longer
• The nylons are guaranteed not to run. [=(Brit) ladder]
26 [+ obj] chiefly Brit : to own and maintain (a vehicle)
• I can't afford to run a car on my salary.

In addition to the phrases shown below, run occurs in many idioms that are shown at appropriate entries throughout the dictionary. For example, cut and run can be found at 1cut and run a tight ship can be found at 1ship.

run across [phrasal verb] run across (someone or something) : to meet (someone) or find (something) by chance
• I ran across [=ran into] an old roommate of mine today.
• I ran across some old photos from when I was a kid.
run a fever/temperature
✦If you are running a fever/temperature, you have a body temperature that is higher than normal.
run after [phrasal verb]
1 run after (someone or something) : to run toward (someone or something) in an attempt to catch that person or thing
• The dog ran after [=chased] the squirrel.
2 run after (someone) informal + disapproving : to try to start a romantic relationship with (someone)
• He's always running after younger women.
run along [phrasal verb] informal + somewhat old-fashioned : to go away : leave
• He told the boy to run along home.
Run along now, kid. This doesn't concern you.
run around or chiefly Brit run about or run round [phrasal verb]
1 : to run in an area while playing
• The children were running around outside.
2 informal : to go from place to place in a busy or hurried way
• I spent the whole day running around doing errands.
3 run around/about/round with (someone) informal + disapproving : to spend a lot of time with (someone)
• He runs around with younger women.
run away [phrasal verb]
1 : to leave your home suddenly without permission and go somewhere else to live
• He ran away (from home) at a young age.
• They ran away [=ran off] together because their families objected to their marriage.
- see also runaway
2 : to avoid a person or situation that makes you feel uncomfortable
• You shouldn't keep running away. You should face your mom and tell her how you feel.
3 a run away with (someone) disapproving : to leave a person or place in order to live with and have a sexual relationship with (someone)
• He left his wife and ran away with [=ran off with] his secretary.
• She ran away with a man old enough to be her father.
b run away with (something) : to leave a place with (something that does not belong to you)
• The butler ran away with [=stole, ran off with] the family silver.
4 run away with (something) informal
a : to be the best or most popular performer in (a performance)
• She ran away with [=stole] the show.
b : to win (something) very easily
• She ran away with the election.
• He ran away with first place.
5 run away with (someone) : to make (someone) do something that is not sensible or reasonable
• Don't let your imagination run away with you. [=don't let yourself imagine all kinds of things that aren't true]
- see also 1run 1b (above)
run by/past [phrasal verb] run (something) by/past (someone) : to tell (something) to (someone) so that it can be considered, approved, etc.
• You'd better run this past the boss. [=you'd better tell the boss about this and find out if he/she thinks it is a good idea]
• He ran some ideas by her.
• (informal) Can you run that by me again? [=can you repeat what you just said?]
run down [phrasal verb]
1 run (someone or something) down or run down (someone or something) : to hit and knock down (a person or animal) with a vehicle
• He says she deliberately tried to run him down.
2 a run (someone or something) down or run down (someone or something) : to chase after and catch (a person or animal)
• The cops ran the robber down in an alley.
b : to find (someone or something) after searching
• He wasn't in his office, but I finally ran him down in the faculty lounge.
3 run down or run down (something) or run (something) down
a : to use up or cause (something) to use up all of its power
• The clock ran down. [=the clock slowed down and stopped working because it did not have any more power]
• The watch's battery ran down.
• Turn off the radio so you don't run down the batteries.
b Brit : to become or cause (something, such as a business or activity) to become gradually smaller
• The company has been running down for decades.
• The company has been running down its factories/inventory.
4 run (someone or something) down or run down (someone or something) informal : to criticize (someone or something) in usually an unfair way
• Don't keep running yourself down like that: you have a lot to offer!
5 run down (something) : to say or repeat (a list of people or things) from the beginning to the end
• Let me just run down all the things we need to do.
• He ran down the list of names.
- see also rundown
run for it informal : to run to avoid being caught
• It's the cops! Run for it!
run high : to be or become very strong or intense
• Passions often run high in these debates. [=people often get very angry in these debates]
• Emotions are running high between the two teams.
run in [phrasal verb]
1 run (someone) in or run in (someone) informal + somewhat old-fashioned : to arrest (someone)
• The police ran him in for being drunk and disorderly.
2 run (something) in or run in (something) Brit : to drive (a new vehicle) carefully for a period of time until it is ready for regular use
• You shouldn't drive a new car too fast while you're running it in. [=breaking it in]
run into [phrasal verb]
1 run into (someone or something) : to move into (someone or something) in a sudden or forceful way
• He went off the road and ran into a tree. = His car went off the road and ran into a tree.
• Some guy on a bike almost ran into me!
• She wasn't paying attention and ran right into the table.
2 run into (someone) : to meet (someone) by chance
• I ran into [=ran across] an old classmate the other day.
3 run into (something) : to experience (something that is unpleasant or difficult) : encounter
• We ran into some bad weather on our way home.
• We ran into some problems setting up the computer.
run its course
✦When something runs its course, it begins, continues for a time, and then ends.
• The disease usually runs its course in a few days.
run off [phrasal verb]
1 a : to leave or abandon a person or place
• Her husband ran off and left her with two small children to care for.
- see also 1run 1b (above)
b run off with (someone or something) informal : to leave a place with (someone or something) : to run away with (someone or something)
• Her husband ran off with his secretary.
• She ran off with all the money.
2 run off (something) or run (something) off : to repeat or produce (something) quickly
• Would you please run off five copies of this letter?
- see also 1run 22 (above)
3 run (someone or something) off or run off (someone or something) US : to force (a person or animal) off your land
• He ran us off his property.
run on [phrasal verb]
1 : to talk about something for a long time
• He ran on (and on) about politics until everybody was bored.
2 : to keep going without being stopped or interrupted for a long period of time
• The meeting ran on for hours.
run out [phrasal verb]
1 a : to come to an end
• Time ran out [=expired] before we could tie the game.
• My contract will run out soon.
b : to become used up
• The gasoline ran out before we got to Denver.
• Our money finally ran out. [=our money was all used; we had no more money]
2 run (someone) out or run (someone) out of (something) old-fashioned : to force (someone) to leave a place
• An angry mob ran him out of town.
3 run out (something) or run (something) out baseball of a batter : to run hard to first base after hitting (a batted ball)
• His manager got angry because he failed to run out a grounder.
4 run out or run out of (something) : to use up the available supply of (something)
• We're low on gas. We'd better stop before we run out.
• He ran out of space and had to put his address on the other side of the paper.
• You have to work faster. We're running out of time.
5 run out on (someone) informal : to leave (someone you should stay with) : to abandon or desert (someone)
• She ran out on her husband and children to be with a man old enough to be her father.
run over [phrasal verb]
1 : to go beyond a limit
• The meeting ran over. [=the meeting was longer than it was expected or planned to be]
2 a : to flow over the top or edge of something : overflow
• The water was running over onto the floor.
b of a container : to have a liquid flow over its edge : overflow
• His cup ran over.

behind

behind [preposition]

At the back (of)

US /bɪˈhaɪnd/ 
UK /bɪˈhaɪnd/ 

پشت سر

مثال: 

Look behind you!

Oxford Essential Dictionary

behind

 preposition, adverb

1 at or to the back of somebody or something:
I hid behind the wall.
I drove off and Jim followed behind.

2 slower or less good than somebody or something; slower or less good than you should be:
She is behind with her work because she is often ill.

3 in the place where somebody or something was before:
I got off the train and left my bag behind (= on the train).

Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English

behind

I. behind1 S1 W1 /bɪˈhaɪnd/ BrE AmE preposition, adverb
[Language: Old English; Origin: behindan, from hindan 'from behind']
1. at or towards the back of a thing or person:
I turned to speak to the person standing behind me.
Someone could easily creep up behind us.
The car behind was hooting impatiently.
Jane shut the door behind her.
The manager was sitting behind a large desk.
close behind/not far behind
He set off down the road with the rest of us following close behind.
► Do not say ‘behind of’: He hid behind a chair (NOT behind of a chair).
2. not as successful or not having made as much progress as someone or something else:
Mark’s always behind the rest of his class in mathematics.
This victory lifts Ferguson’s team into fifth place, nine points behind leaders Norwich.
Europe was falling behind in the important field of computer technology.
3. used to say that someone is late in doing what they have to do:
This work should have been finished yesterday. I’m getting terribly behind.
Victor had fallen behind with his mortgage payments after losing his job.
an important research project that is already two years behind schedule (=not ready at the time planned)
4. used for talking about the hidden reason for something:
I wonder what’s behind this change of plan.
Perhaps a bitter experience lay behind her anger.
5. supporting a person, idea etc:
The workers are very much behind these proposals.
I suppose I’m lucky because my parents were behind me all the way.
6. responsible for a plan, idea etc or for organizing something:
It was alleged that foreign agents were behind the recent violence.
The Rotary Club is behind the fund-raising for the new hospital.
7. if an unpleasant experience or situation is behind you, it no longer upsets you or affects your life:
Now you can put all these worries behind you.
a chance to start a new life and leave all your troubles behind
8. if you have experience behind you, you have gained valuable skills or important qualities that can be used:
Marjorie is one of the top designers in the business, with years of experience behind her.
9. used when the real facts about a situation or someone’s character are hidden by the way things seem or by the way a person behaves:
We were determined to find the truth behind this mystery.
You could see the burning hatred behind Graham’s calm manner.
10. if a student stays behind after school or after a lesson, they stay after it has finished
behind sb’s back at ↑back2(9), ⇨ behind bars at ↑bar1(7), ⇨ behind the times at ↑time1(38)
• • •
THESAURUS
behind at or towards the back of something, and often hidden by it: The sun went behind a cloud. | I got stuck behind a truck on the way to the airport.
at the back British English, in (the) back American English behind something, especially a building: There’s a small garden at the back of the cottage. | Their house has a pool in the back.
at/to the rear written behind something, especially a building. At/to the rear sounds rather formal and is used especially in written descriptions: They parked in a small carpark at the rear of the hotel. | There is a small seating area to the rear.
in the background if someone or something is in the background, it is behind the place where the main activity is happening: If you look carefully at the painting, you will see several men sitting at a table in the background.

Oxford Advanced Learner's Dictionary

behind

be·hind preposition, adverb, noun   [bɪˈhaɪnd]    [bɪˈhaɪnd] 

preposition
1. at or towards the back of sb/sth, and often hidden by it or them
Who's the girl standing behind Jan?
Stay close behind me.
a small street behind the station
She glanced behind her.
Don't forget to lock the door behind you (= when you leave).
The sun disappeared behind the clouds.

compare  in front of

2. making less progress than sb/sth
He's behind the rest of the class in reading.

We're behind schedule (= late).

3. giving support to or approval of sb/sth

She knew that, whatever she decided, her family was right behind her.

4. responsible for starting or developing sth
What's behind that happy smile (= what is causing it)?

He was the man behind the plan to build a new hospital.

5. used to say that sth is in sb's past
The accident is behind you now, so try to forget it.
She has ten years' useful experience behind her.  
Word Origin:
Old English behindan, bihindan, from bi ‘by’ + hindan ‘from behind’.  
Which Word?:
at the back / at the rear / behind

At the back and at the rear have a similar meaning, but at the rear is used more in formal or official language: What’s that at the back of the fridge? Smoking is only allowed at the rear of the aircraft. It is more usual to talk about the back door of a house but the rear exit of an aircraft or public building. If something is behind something else it is near to the back of it but not part of it. Compare: Our room was at the back of the hotel and There’s a lovely wood just behind our hotel.

Cambridge Advanced Learner's Dictionary

Cambridge Advanced Learner's Dictionary - 4th Edition
 

behind / bɪˈhaɪnd / preposition , adverb

A1 at the back (of):

Look behind you!

I hung my coat behind the door.

Alex led, and I followed along behind.

mainly UK As hard as she tried, she always fell behind the other swimmers in the races.

figurative I knew that behind (= hidden by) her smile was sadness.

 

behind / bɪˈhaɪnd / preposition

C1 responsible for or the cause of:

He wondered what was behind his neighbour's sudden friendliness.

Marie Curie was the woman behind enormous changes in the science of chemistry.

© Cambridge University Press 2013

Collins COBUILD Advanced Learner’s English Dictionary

behind
I. PREPOSITION AND ADVERB USES

/bɪhaɪnd/
Frequency: The word is one of the 700 most common words in English.
Note: In addition to the uses shown below, 'behind' is also used in a few phrasal verbs, such as ‘fall behind’ and ‘lie behind’.
Please look at category 14 to see if the expression you are looking for is shown under another headword.
1.
If something is behind a thing or person, it is on the other side of them from you, or nearer their back rather than their front.
I put one of the cushions behind his head...
They were parked behind the truck...
PREP

Behind is also an adverb.
Rising into the hills behind are 800 acres of parkland...
She was attacked from behind.
ADV: usu n ADV, from ADV
2.
If you are walking or travelling behind someone or something, you are following them.
Keith wandered along behind him...
Myra and Sam and the children were driving behind them.
PREP

Behind is also an adverb.
The troopers followed behind, every muscle tensed for the sudden gunfire.
ADV: ADV after v
3.
If someone is behind a desk, counter, or bar, they are on the other side of it from where you are.
The colonel was sitting behind a cheap wooden desk...
He could just about see the little man behind the counter.
PREP
4.
When you shut a door or gate behind you, you shut it after you have gone through it.
I walked out and closed the door behind me...
He slammed the gate shut behind him.
PREP: PREP pron
5.
The people, reason, or events behind a situation are the causes of it or are responsible for it.
It is still not clear who was behind the killing...
He is embarrassed about the motives behind his decision.
PREP
6.
If something or someone is behind you, they support you and help you.
He had the state’s judicial power behind him.
PREP: PREP pron
7.
If you refer to what is behind someone’s outside appearance, you are referring to a characteristic which you cannot immediately see or is not obvious, but which you think is there.
What lay behind his anger was really the hurt he felt at Grace’s refusal...
PREP
8.
If you are behind someone, you are less successful than them, or have done less or advanced less.
Food production has already fallen behind the population growth.
ahead of
PREP

Behind is also an adverb.
The rapid development of technology means that she is now far behind, and will need retraining...
ADV: be ADV, ADV after v
9.
If an experience is behind you, it happened in your past and will not happen again, or no longer affects you.
Maureen put the nightmare behind her...
PREP: PREP pron
10.
If you have a particular achievement behind you, you have managed to reach this achievement, and other people consider it to be important or valuable.
He has 20 years of loyal service to Barclays Bank behind him...
PREP: have/with n PREP pron
11.
If something is behind schedule, it is not as far advanced as people had planned. If someone is behind schedule, they are not progressing as quickly at something as they had planned.
The work is 22 weeks behind schedule...
ahead of
PREP: oft n PREP n
12.
If you stay behind, you remain in a place after other people have gone.
About 1,200 personnel will remain behind to take care of the air base.
ADV: ADV after v
13.
If you leave something or someone behind, you do not take them with you when you go.
The rebels fled into the mountains, leaving behind their weapons and supplies...
ADV: ADV after v

Merriam-Webster's Advanced Learner's Dictionary

Merriam-Webster's Advanced Learner's Dictionary: 

2behind prep
1 : in or to a place at the back of or to the rear of (someone or something)
• Look behind you.
• He was standing in front of me and she was standing behind [=in back of] me.
• The older students entered the room first with the younger students following behind them.
• The house is behind some trees. [=there are some trees in front of the house]
• The cat hid behind the couch.
• The sun went/hid/was behind a cloud.
- see also behind the eight ball at eight ball
2 : losing to (someone or something) in a race or competition
• “How far behind the other runners was she?” “At least 50 yards (behind them).”
• They were ahead of us by 5 points earlier in the game, but now they're behind us by 7.
• The polls show that he is behind the other candidates.
• The company is now behind the competition.
3 : in a less advanced position than (someone or something)
• He was a year behind me in school. [=he finished school a year after I did] : not happening or proceeding as quickly as (someone or something)
• He was behind the other students in his studies.
• This year's sales have lagged considerably/significantly behind last year's sales. [=sales have not been as good this year as they were last year]
• We're running about five minutes behind schedule. [=late]
4 a : in the past for (someone or something)
• Those problems are behind us now.
• Her best work is behind her. [=her best work was in the past]
• He has many years of experience behind him. [=he has many years of experience in his past]
b : out of the mind or thoughts of (someone)
• Let's put our troubles behind us. [=let's stop thinking/worrying about our troubles]
5 a : providing the reason or explanation for (something)
• We need to learn more about the conditions behind the strike. [=the conditions that led to the strike]
• What was really behind his murder? [=what was the real reason for his murder?]
b : responsible for (something)
• We'll get to the bottom of this conspiracy and find out who's behind it!
6 a : in support of (someone or something)
• Despite the controversy, most of his supporters remain solidly behind him.
• We're behind you all the way!
• I encourage everyone to get behind these proposals. [=to support these proposals]
b : with the support of (something)
• They won the game 1–0 behind brilliant pitching. [=brilliant pitching made it possible for them to win the game 1–0]

in

in [preposition] (INSIDE)

Inside or towards the inside of a container, place, or area, or surrounded or closed off by something

US /ɪn/ 
UK /ɪn/ 

درون، داخل

مثال: 

Put the milk back in the fridge when you've finished with it.

Oxford Essential Dictionary

 preposition

1 a word that shows where somebody or something is:
a country in Africa
He put his hand in the water
She was lying in bed.

2 making all or part of something:
There are 100 centimetres in a metre.

3 a word that shows when something happens:
My birthday is in May.
He started school in 1987.

4 a word that shows how long something takes:
I'll be ready in ten minutes.

5 a word that shows what clothes somebody is wearing:
He was dressed in a suit.

6 a word that shows how somebody or something is:
This room is in a mess.
Jenny was in tears (= she was crying).
Sit in a circle.

7 a word that shows somebody's job:
He's in the army.

8 a word that shows in what way or in what language:
Write your name in capital letters.
They were speaking in French.

Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English

in

I. in1 S1 W1 /ɪn/ BrE AmE preposition
[Language: Old English]
1. used with the name of a container, place, or area to say where someone or something is:
There’s some sugar in the cupboard.
My mother was in the kitchen.
He took us for a drive in his new car.
I found her sitting up in bed.
Manson spent fifteen years in prison.
a hole in the ground
Mr Fisher is in Boston this week.
My parents live in New Zealand now.
2. into a container, place etc:
I never went in pubs.
He almost drowned when he fell in the river.
You can put your pyjamas in the bottom drawer.
Get in the car.
She looked in her handbag, but her keys were not there.
3. used to say how something is done or happens:
a room furnished in the modern style
Her parents always talk to her in German.
She shouted my name in a harsh voice.
a short note scribbled in pencil
The title was printed in capital letters.
We waited in silence.
4. used with the names of months, years, seasons etc to say when something happens:
Shaw first visited Russia in 1927.
Bright yellow flowers appear in late summer.
He retired in October.
5. during a period of time:
It was amazing how much we managed to do in a day.
the hardest decision I ever made in my life
GRAMMAR
Do not use in before 'this’, 'last', and 'next' when saying when something happens:
▪ I got a letter from my sister this morning (NOT in this morning).
▪ I hope to go to Europe next summer (NOT in next summer).
You do not normally use in when saying how often something happens during a particular period of time:
▪ The group meets four times a week (NOT four times in a week). But when you are emphasizing how often something happens, you can use in in front of one:
▪ She was late for school four times in one week.
6. at the end of a period of time:
I’ll be with you in a minute.
The results will be announced in two weeks’ time.
7. used with negatives or with ‘first’ to say how much time has passed since the last time something happened:
I haven’t enjoyed myself so much in years.
It was the team’s first win in eighteen months.
8. used to name the book, document, film etc where something or someone appears:
You shouldn’t believe everything you read in the newspapers.
Which actress starred in the film ‘Cleopatra’?
There are a few mistakes in your essay.
In his speech, Professor Leary praised the work of the volunteers.
9. making up the whole of something or included as part of something:
There are twelve programmes in the series.
How many minutes are there in an hour?
Think of a word with eight letters in it meaning ‘cold’.
Owen will be playing in the England team tomorrow.
10. doing or affecting a particular kind of job:
a career in industry
He’s been in politics for fifteen years.
reforms in education
11. wearing something:
He looked very handsome in his uniform.
She was dressed in a blue linen suit.
12. used to talk about the state or situation of something or someone:
I hear that their marriage is in trouble.
The engine appears to be in good condition.
His life was in danger.
The castle now lies in ruins.
13. used to say what activity a group of people do:
About 4,000 students took part in the protest.
his role in the negotiations
14. used to talk about the shape, arrangement, or course of something or someone:
I want you all to stand in a circle.
She slept curled up in a ball.
Can you walk in a straight line?
15. used between a smaller number and a larger number to say how common or how likely something is:
One in ten homes now has cable TV.
Smokers have a one in three chance of dying from their habit.
16. used before a plural number or amount to say how many people or things are involved, or how many there are in each group:
Eggs are still sold in half dozens.
The children work in pairs.
in their hundreds/thousands etc (=in very large numbers)
People flocked in their thousands to greet their new princess.
17. used between a smaller number or amount and a larger one to say what a rate is:
Income tax stands at 23 pence in the pound.
a hill with a gradient of one in six
18. used to say what colour something is or what it is made of:
Do you have the same pattern in blue?
a sculpture in white marble
19. used to say what specific thing your statement is related to:
Milk is very rich in calcium.
Clark had become more extreme in his opinions.
an increase in fuel prices
The street is about a mile in length.
20. used to refer to the weather or the physical conditions somewhere:
I’ve been standing in the rain for over an hour.
Would you prefer to sit in the shade?
21. used to say what feeling you have when you do something:
She looked at me in horror.
It was all done purely in fun.
22. used before the name of someone or something when you are saying how they are regarded:
You have a very good friend in Pat.
In Dwight D. Eisenhower the Republicans had found the ideal candidate.
23. used to say what person or thing has the quality you are mentioning:
There was a hint of spring in the air.
I don’t think Freddy had it in him to be a killer.
She’s everything I’d want in a wife (=she has every quality I would want a wife to have).
24. used to name the substance, food, drink etc that contains something:
Vitamin D is found in butter.
25. used to say how many parts something is divided into:
a radio serial in four parts
in two/halves/pieces etc
I tore the letter in two and threw the pieces in the fire.
26. while doing something or while something is happening, and as a result of this:
In all the confusion, it is quite possible that some people got tickets without paying.
In my excitement, I forgot all about the message.
in doing something
In trying to protect the queen, Howard had put his own life in danger.
27. in that used after a statement to begin to explain in what way it is true:
I’ve been lucky in that I have never had to worry about money.
28. be in your 20s/30s/40s etc to be between the ages of 20 and 29, 30 and 39 etc:
Matthews was already in his mid-40s.
in all at ↑all1(11)
• • •
THESAURUS
after preposition after something happens, or after a period of time has passed. After is used especially when taking about the past: We went for a walk after lunch. | After an hour, we got tired of waiting and went home. | They got married just after Christmas.
in preposition after a particular period of time. In is used especially when talking about the future, especially the next few minutes, hours, days etc: The concert’s due to start in a few minutes. | I’ll come back in an hour. | In a few years’ time, this place will look completely different.
within preposition after less than a month, two weeks etc has passed – used especially when the time seems surprisingly short: within a month/two weeks etc: He developed a headache at lunchtime, and within two hours he was dead. | Within two days of arriving she had managed to upset everyone.
24 hours/a year etc from now at a time 24 hours, a year etc after now: A week from now we’ll be in Paris.
afterwards (also afterward especially American English) adverb after an event or time you have mentioned: Jones admitted afterwards that she had been very nervous during the game. | Speaking to reporters afterward, he said the operation had been a success. | He moved to Belgium, and soon afterwards he met Angela.
later adverb some time after now or after the time you are talking about: I’ll tell you about it later when I’m less busy. | two months/three years etc later: James went off, and came back ten minutes later with some food.
subsequently adverb formal after something had happened in the past: The book was published in 1954 and was subsequently translated into fifteen languages.

Oxford Advanced Learner's Dictionary

in

in preposition, adverb, adjective, noun   [ɪn]    [ɪn] 

preposition  For the special uses of in in phrasal verbs, look at the entries for the verbs. For example deal in sth is in the phrasal verb section at deal.
1. at a point within an area or a space
a country in Africa
The kids were playing in the street.
• It's in that drawer.

• I read about it in the paper.

2. within the shape of sth; surrounded by sth
She was lying in bed.
sitting in an armchair
• Leave the key in the lock.

• Soak it in cold water.

3. into sth
• He dipped his brush in the paint.

• She got in her car and drove off.

4. forming the whole or part of sth/sb; contained within sth/sb
There are 31 days in May.
• all the paintings in the collection

• I recognize his father in him (= his character is similar to his father's).

5. during a period of time
in 2009
in the 18th century
in spring/summer/autumn/winter
in the fall
in March
• in the morning/afternoon/evening

• I'm getting forgetful in my old age.

6. after a particular length of time
to return in a few minutes/hours/days/months.
It will be ready in a week's time (= one week from now).

• She learnt to drive in three weeks (= after three weeks she could drive).

7. (used in negative sentences or after first, last, etc.) for a particular period of time
• I haven't seen him in years.

• It's the first letter I've had in ten days.

8. wearing sth
dressed in their best clothes
the man in the hat
• to be in uniform

• She was all in black.

9. used to describe physical surroundings
• We went out in the rain.

• He was sitting alone in the darkness.

10. used to show a state or condition
I'm in love!
The house is in good repair.
I must put my affairs in order.
• a man in his thirties

• The daffodils were in full bloom.

11. involved in sth; taking part in sth

• to act in a play

12. used to show sb's job or profession
He is in the army.
• She's in computers.

• in business

13. used to show the form, shape, arrangement or quantity of sth
a novel in three parts
Roll it up in a ball.
• They sat in rows.

• People flocked in their thousands to see her.

14. used to show the language, material, etc. used
Say it in English.
She wrote in pencil.
Put it in writing.
• I paid in cash.

• He spoke in a loud voice.

15. concerning sth
She was not lacking in courage.
• a country rich in minerals

• three metres in length

16. while doing sth; while sth is happening
• In attempting to save the child from drowning, she nearly lost her own life.

• In all the commotion I forgot to tell him the news.

17. used to introduce the name of a person who has a particular quality

• We're losing a first-rate editor in Jen.

18. used to show a rate or relative amount
a gradient of one in five
a tax rate of 22 pence in the pound  
Word Origin:
Old English in (preposition), inn, inne (adverb), of Germanic origin; related to Dutch and German in (preposition), German ein (adverb), from an Indo-European root shared by Latin in and Greek en.

Idioms: have an in with somebody  in and out  in at something  in for something  in on something  in that  in to something  in with somebody  ins and outs 

Cambridge Advanced Learner's Dictionary

Cambridge Advanced Learner's Dictionary - 4th Edition
 

in / ɪn / preposition (INSIDE)

A1 inside or towards the inside of a container, place, or area, or surrounded or closed off by something:

Put the milk back in the fridge when you've finished with it.

Is Mark still in bed?

I got stuck in a traffic jam for half an hour.

They live in a charming old cottage.

How much is that coat on display in the window (= in the space behind the window of the shop) ?

I've got a pain in my back.

What's that in your hand?

I've got something in (= on the surface of) my eye.

They used to live in Paris, but now they're somewhere in Austria.

He's always looking at himself in the mirror (= at the image of his face produced by the mirror) .

I never know what's going on in her head (= what she's thinking about) .

My daughter's in hospital ( US in the hospital) having her tonsils out.

US Is Erika still in school (= does she still go to school) ?
 

in / ɪn / preposition (INTO)

into something:

Come on, we're late - get in the car.

Put it in the cupboard.

They threw him in the swimming pool.
 

in / ɪn / preposition (PART)

A2 forming a part of something:

He used to be the lead singer in a rock 'n' roll band.

There are too many spelling mistakes in this essay.

I've been waiting in this queue for ages.

What do you look for in a relationship?

I can see a future champion in Joely (= I think that Joely might become a champion) .

Talent like hers is rare in someone so young.

© Cambridge University Press 2013

Cambridge Advanced Learner's Dictionary - 4th Edition
 

in / ɪn / preposition (DURING)

A1 during part or all of a period of time:

We're going to Italy in April.

Some trees lose their leaves in (the) autumn.

I started working here in 2009.

Life in the 19th century was very different from what it is now.

Bye, see you in the morning (= tomorrow morning) .

She was a brilliant gymnast in her youth (= when she was young) .

How many civilians died in the Vietnam War?

This is the first cigarette I've had in three years.

I haven't had a decent night's sleep in years/ages (= for a long time) .

in between between the two times mentioned:

I have breakfast at 7.30, lunch at 1.00, and sometimes a snack in between.
 

in / ɪn / preposition (NO MORE THAN)

A2 needing or using no more time than a particular amount of time:

Can you finish the job in two weeks?

She could get that essay done in a couple of hours if she really tried.

They completed the journey in record time (= faster than ever done before) .
 

in / ɪn / preposition (BEFORE THE END)

A2 before or at the end of a particular period:

Dinner will be ready in ten minutes.

We'll all be dead in a hundred years so there's no point worrying about it.

I'm just setting off, so I should be with you in half an hour.
 

in / ɪn / preposition (EXPERIENCING)

B1 experiencing a situation or condition, or feeling an emotion:

We watched in horror as they pulled the bodies from the wreckage.

He's living in luxury in the south of France.

She left in a bit of a hurry.

You're in great danger.

Could I have a word with you in private?

Have you ever been in love?

Your car's in very good condition, considering how old it is.
 

in / ɪn / preposition (EXPRESSED)

B1 expressed or written in a particular way:

Cheques should be written in ink.

She usually paints in watercolour.

They spoke in Russian the whole time.

He always talks in a whisper.
 

in / ɪn / preposition (RESULT)

B2 used when referring to something that is done as a result of something else:

I'd like to do something for you in return / exchange for everything you've done for me.

The changes are in response to demand from our customers.

He refused to say anything in reply to the journalists' questions.
 

in / ɪn / preposition (ARRANGEMENT)

B1 used to show how things or people are arranged or divided:

We all sat down in a circle.

The desks were arranged in rows of ten.

Discounts are available to people travelling in large groups.

Sometimes customers buy books in twos and threes, but rarely in larger quantities than that.

Cut the potatoes in two.

People are dying in their thousands from cold and starvation.
 

in / ɪn / preposition (AGE/TEMPERATURE)

used when referring approximately to someone's age or the weather temperature:

Nowadays many women are in their late thirties when they have their first child.

Temperatures will be in the mid-twenties (= about 25 degrees) .

 

in / ɪn / preposition (INVOLVED)

B1 involved or connected with a particular subject or activity:

I never knew you were in publishing.

a degree in philosophy

advances in medical science
 

in / ɪn / preposition (WEARING)

B1 wearing:

Do you recognize that man in the grey suit?

Pat can't resist men in uniform.

You look nice in green (= green clothes) .
 

in / ɪn / preposition (COMPARING AMOUNTS)

used to compare one part of an amount of something with the total amount of it:

Apparently one in ten people/one person in ten has problems with reading.

UK The basic rate of income tax is 25 pence in ( US on ) the pound.
 

in / ɪn / preposition (CHARACTERISTIC)

used to show which characteristic or part of a person or thing is being described:

The new version is worse in every respect - I much preferred the original.

Are the two bags equal in weight?

She's deaf in her left ear.
 

in / ɪn / preposition (CAUSE)

[ + -ing verb ] used to show when doing one thing is the cause of another thing happening:

In refus ing (= because she refused) to work abroad, she missed an excellent job opportunity.

The government banned tobacco advertising and, in doing so (= because of this) , contributed greatly to the nation's health.

in that formal because:

This research is important in that it confirms the link between aggression and alcohol.

© Cambridge University Press 2013

Collins COBUILD Advanced Learner’s English Dictionary

in
I. POSITION OR MOVEMENT

The preposition is pronounced /ɪn/. The adverb is pronounced /ɪn/.
Frequency: The word is one of the 700 most common words in English.
Note: In addition to the uses shown below, 'in' is used after some verbs, nouns, and adjectives in order to introduce extra information. 'In' is also used with verbs of movement such as ‘walk’ and ‘push’, and in phrasal verbs such as ‘give in’ and ‘dig in’.
1.
Someone or something that is in something else is enclosed by it or surrounded by it. If you put something in a container, you move it so that it is enclosed by the container.
He was in his car.
...clothes hanging in the wardrobe...
PREP
2.
If something happens in a place, it happens there.
We spent a few days in a hotel...
He had intended to take a holiday in America...
PREP
3.
If you are in, you are present at your home or place of work.
My flatmate was in at the time...
out
ADV: be ADV
4.
When someone comes in, they enter a room or building.
She looked up anxiously as he came in...
They shook hands and went in.
ADV: ADV after v
5.
If a train, boat, or plane has come in or is in, it has arrived at a station, port, or airport.
We’d be watching every plane coming in from Melbourne...
Look. The train’s in. We’ll have to run for it now.
ADV: ADV after v, be ADV
6.
When the sea or tide comes in, the sea moves towards the shore rather than away from it.
She thought of the tide rushing in, covering the wet sand...
out
ADV: ADV after v, be ADV
7.
Something that is in a window, especially a shop window, is just behind the window so that you can see it from outside.
There was a camera for sale in the window.
PREP
8.
When you see something in a mirror, the mirror shows an image of it.
I couldn’t bear to see my reflection in the mirror...
PREP
9.
If you are dressed in a piece of clothing, you are wearing it.
He was a big man, smartly dressed in a suit and tie.
PREP: oft -ed PREP n
10.
Something that is covered or wrapped in something else has that thing over or round its surface.
His legs were covered in mud.
PREP: oft -ed PREP n
11.
If there is something such as a crack or hole in something, there is a crack or hole on its surface.
There was a deep crack in the ceiling above him.
PREP

II. INCLUSION OR INVOLVEMENT

/ɪn/
Frequency: The word is one of the 700 most common words in English.
1.
If something is in a book, film, play, or picture, you can read it or see it there.
Don’t stick too precisely to what it says in the book.
PREP
2.
If you are in something such as a play or a race, you are one of the people taking part.
Alf offered her a part in the play he was directing...
More than fifteen thousand people took part in the memorial service.
PREP
3.
Something that is in a group or collection is a member of it or part of it.
The New England team are the worst in the league.
PREP
4.
You use in to specify a general subject or field of activity.
...those working in the defence industry.
...future developments in medicine.
PREP

III. TIME AND NUMBERS

/ɪn/
Frequency: The word is one of the 700 most common words in English.
1.
If something happens in a particular year, month, or other period of time, it happens during that time.
...that early spring day in April 1949...
Export orders improved in the last month...
In the evening, the people assemble in the mosques...
PREP
2.
If something happens in a particular situation, it happens while that situation is going on.
His father had been badly wounded in the last war.
...issues you struggle with in your daily life.
PREP
3.
If you do something in a particular period of time, that is how long it takes you to do it.
He walked two hundred and sixty miles in eight days.
PREP: PREP amount
4.
If something will happen in a particular length of time, it will happen after that length of time.
I’ll have some breakfast ready in a few minutes...
They’ll be back in six months.
PREP: PREP amount
5.
You use in to indicate roughly how old someone is. For example, if someone is in their fifties, they are between 50 and 59 years old.
...young people in their twenties.
PREP: PREP poss pl-num
6.
You use in to indicate roughly how many people or things do something.
...men who came there in droves...
PREP: oft PREP num
7.
You use in to express a ratio, proportion, or probability.
Last year, one in five boys left school without a qualification...
PREP: num PREP num

IV. STATES AND QUALITIES

/ɪn/
Frequency: The word is one of the 700 most common words in English.
1.
If something or someone is in a particular state or situation, that is their present state or situation.
The economy was in trouble...
Dave was in a hurry to get back to work...
Their equipment was in poor condition...
PREP: v-link PREP n
2.
You use in to indicate the feeling or desire which someone has when they do something, or which causes them to do it.
Simpson looked at them in surprise...
Chris was weeping in anger and grief...
PREP
3.
If a particular quality or ability is in you, you naturally have it.
Violence is not in his nature...
PREP: oft PREP pron to-inf
4.
You use in when saying that someone or something has a particular quality.
He had all the qualities I was looking for in a partner...
‘I don’t agree,’ she said, surprised at the strength in her own voice...
PREP
5.
You use in to indicate how someone is expressing something.
Information is given to the patient verbally and in writing.
...lessons in languages other than Spanish.
PREP
6.
You use in in expressions such as in a row or in a ball to describe the arrangement or shape of something.
The cards need to be laid out in two rows...
Her ear, shoulder and hip are in a straight line...
PREP
7.
If something is in a particular colour, it has that colour.
...white flowers edged in pink...
PREP: oft -ed PREP colour
8.
You use in to specify which feature or aspect of something you are talking about.
The movie is nearly two hours in length...
There is a big difference in the amounts that banks charge.
...a real increase in the standard of living...
PREP

V. OTHER USES AND PHRASES

Pronounced /ɪn/ for meanings 1 and 3 to 8, and /ɪn/ for meaning 2.

(ins)
Frequency: The word is one of the 700 most common words in English.
1.
If you say that something is in, or is the in thing, you mean it is fashionable or popular. (INFORMAL)
A few years ago jogging was the in thing...
ADJ
2.
You use in with a present participle to indicate that when you do something, something else happens as a result.
In working with others, you find out more about yourself.
PREP: PREP -ing
3.
If you say that someone is in for a shock or a surprise, you mean that they are going to experience it.
You might be in for a shock at the sheer hard work involved...
PHRASE: V inflects, PHR n
4.
If someone has it in for you, they dislike you and try to cause problems for you. (INFORMAL)
The other kids had it in for me.
PHRASE: V inflects, PHR n
5.
If you are in on something, you are involved in it or know about it.
I don’t know. I wasn’t in on that particular argument...
PREP-PHRASE: v-link PREP n, v n PREP n
6.
If you are in with a person or group, they like you and accept you, and are likely to help you. (INFORMAL)
PHRASE: PHR n
7.
You use in that to introduce an explanation of a statement you have just made.
I’m lucky in that I’ve got four sisters.
PHRASE
8.
The ins and outs of a situation are all the detailed points and facts about it.
...the ins and outs of high finance...
PHRASE: usu the PHR of n/-ing

Merriam-Webster's Advanced Learner's Dictionary

Merriam-Webster's Advanced Learner's Dictionary: 

1in /ˈɪn, ən/ prep
1
- used to indicate location or position within something
• We went for a swim in the lake.
• They have a house in the country.
• Albuquerque is in New Mexico.
• There wasn't a cloud in the sky.
• I like to read in bed. [=while sitting or lying on my bed]
• He was wounded in the leg.
• We had to stand in line for tickets.
• Why don't you look it up in the dictionary?
• There's something in my eye. [=between my eyelid and my eyeball]
• There was fear in their eyes. [=I could tell they were afraid when I looked at their eyes]
• I held her in my arms.
• He saw his reflection in the mirror.
2 : to the inside of (a room, container, etc.)
• She went in [=into] the house.
• Don't come in here with those muddy feet!
• I threw it in [=into] the garbage.
3 a
- used to indicate that someone or something belongs to or is included as part of something
• She used to play in [=as a member of] a band.
• There are 12 in a dozen. [=a dozen is equal to 12]
b
- used to indicate the existence of something or someone within a story, movie, etc.
• a character in a story
• a scene in a movie
• He saw it in a dream.
4 a : during (a period of time, a season, etc.)
• It happened in the 1930s.
• She likes to travel in [=during] the summer.
• Call us sometime in [=during] the morning/afternoon/evening.
• They plan to open in September.
• We haven't seen them in [=for] ages!
• Back in those days, we didn't have computers.
• an important moment in history
• Never in my life have I heard such a thing!
• I lost track of them in [=during] all the commotion/confusion.
b : at the end of (a period of time)
• I'll be there in a minute.
• The movie is coming out in a few months.
• He got his degree in only three years.
c
- used to indicate an approximate age or number
• a woman in her thirties [=a woman who is between 30 and 39 years old]
• Our members number in the thousands. [=more than 2,000]
5 a
- used to indicate the method, materials, or form of something
• a note written in pencil [=using a pencil]
• a note written in French
• a symphony in (the key of) C
• The book is bound in leather.
• They were covered in mud from head to toe.
• She gave us 50 dollars in cash.
• The measurements are listed in both inches and centimeters.
• The shirts come in three sizes.
b
- used to indicate the color of something
• I decorated the room in blues and grays. [=using different shades of blue and gray]
6 a
- used to indicate the state or condition of someone or something
• We'll be in trouble if we can't get the brakes to work! [=we will experience a situation that is difficult, dangerous, etc.]
• She was in and out of trouble for many years.
• young people in love [=experiencing romantic love]
• Are you in much pain?
• I just stood there gaping in amazement.
• They're not in any danger.
b : to a specified state, condition, or form
• They were always getting in [=into] trouble.
• The vase broke in [=into] pieces.
• They divided the money in [=into] thirds.
7
- used to indicate how people or things are arranged
• They stood in a circle.
• The chairs were placed in a row.
8
- used to indicate the conditions that are around someone or something
• I found her sitting in the dark. = I found her sitting in darkness.
• Don't just stand there in the rain!
9 : while or as a result of (doing something)
In trying to please everyone, I ended up pleasing no one.
• Many mistakes were made in planning the project.
10
- used to indicate the manner or purpose of something
• “No way!” she said in reply.
• The remark was made in jest.
• They sure left in a hurry!
• We held a banquet in his honor. [=to honor him]
• They went in search of lost treasure. [=to search for lost treasure]
• She moved to the city in hopes of finding a better job. [=with the hope that she would find a better job]
• They increased the penalties in an attempt to discourage lawbreakers.
11
- used to make a statement or description more limited or specific in meaning
• They are slow in their movements. [=their movements are slow]
• The two are alike in some ways/respects. [=they have some similarities]
• It measures two feet in length. [=it is two feet long]
• The idea works in theory, but not in practice.
In a way, it makes sense. [=it makes sense if you consider a particular fact, idea, etc.]
12
- used to indicate the person who is being described
• We've lost a valuable employee in Mike.
In her, you have a true friend.
13
- used to indicate the object of a belief, opinion, or feeling
• Have a little faith in them!
• Do you believe in ghosts? [=do you think ghosts are real?]
• I really don't know what she sees in him. [=I don't know why she likes/loves him]
• I have no interest in sports. [=sports do not interest me]
14
- used to indicate a job or area of activity
• She has a job in marketing.
• I hear he's in advertising. [=he has a job that involves advertising]
• She's struggling in math.
15
- used to indicate the existence of something as a part of someone's character
• He has no pity in him.
• I tried to be tough with them, but I just didn't have it in me. [=I wasn't able to be tough with them]
16 : wearing (something) as clothes
• He showed up in his best suit.
• the boy in the red jacket
• a lady in black [=a lady wearing black clothes]
17
- used to describe how common something is by comparing a smaller number to a larger number
• This condition affects one in five [=1 in 5; one out of every five] Americans.

next

next [adjective]

Being the first one after the present one or after the one just mentioned

US /nekst/ 
UK /nekst/ 

بعدی

مثال: 

Take the next turning on the right.

Oxford Essential Dictionary

 adjective

1 coming after this one:
I'm going on holiday next week.
Take the next road on the right.

2 nearest to this one:
I live in the next village.

next to somebody or something at the side of somebody or something same meaning beside:
The bank is next to the post office.

Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English

next

I. next1 S1 W1 /nekst/ BrE AmE determiner, adjective
1. the next event, day, time etc is the one that happens after the present one, or the previous one:
I just missed my flight to Chicago. When’s the next one?
We’ll look at the proposals at the next meeting.
Over the next couple of months, try to relax more and get more exercise.
next week/year/Monday etc
We’re hoping to open the factory some time next year.
the next day/week etc (=on or during the following day, week etc)
She called me and we arranged to meet the next day.
(the) next time
Next time I go skiing, I’ll wear warmer clothes.
2. the next house, room, place etc is the one that is nearest to where you are now:
Turn left at the next corner.
We could hear them arguing in the next room. ⇨ ↑next to
3. the next person or thing in a list, series etc comes after the one that you are dealing with now:
Read the next two chapters before Friday.
Do they have the next size up (=a slightly bigger size)?
4. next biggest/most common etc almost as big, more common etc than the one you are talking about:
Cancer-related diseases are the next biggest killers.
5. the next best thing the thing or situation that is almost as good as the one you really want:
If I can’t be home for Christmas, phoning you on the day is the next best thing.
6. the next thing I/she etc knew informal used when something surprising happens very suddenly:
The next thing I knew, I was lying face down on the pavement.
7. as the next man/person as any other man or person:
I am as keen to do well as the next man.
• • •
THESAURUS
next happening or coming immediately after another one: When does the next train to London leave? | I’ll see you next Saturday.
following happening or coming immediately after something – used about periods of time, or parts of a piece of writing: We met the following day. | The following weeks passed quickly. | the following pages of the book
subsequent formal happening or coming at some time after something else: the subsequent success of the film | This will be explained in more detail in subsequent chapters. | This figure is expected to rise steeply in subsequent years.
succeeding coming after someone or something else – used about a series of groups of people, periods of time, or parts of a book: succeeding generations | Succeeding governments have made the same mistake. | During the succeeding weeks he wrote several more letters.
coming happening soon: The information will be mailed to members during the coming weeks. | The villagers are storing up wood for the coming winter.
II. next2 S1 W1 BrE AmE adverb
1. immediately afterwards:
With John here, you never know what will happen next.
Next, put it in the oven for 20 minutes.
2. the next time:
When I next saw her she completely ignored me.

Oxford Advanced Learner's Dictionary

next

next adjective, adverb, noun   [nekst]   [nekst] 

adjective only before noun
1. (usually with the) coming straight after sb/sth in time, order or space
The next train to Baltimore is at ten.
The next six months will be the hardest.
the next chapter
Who's next?
the woman in the next room
I fainted and the next thing I knew I was in the hospital.

(informal) Round here, you leave school at sixteen and next thing you know, you're married with three kids.

2. (used without the) ~ Monday, week, summer, year, etc. the Monday, week, etc. immediately following
Next Thursday is 12 April.
Next time I'll bring a book.
more at from one day to the next at  day, better luck next time at  luck  n.  
Word Origin:
Old English nēhsta ‘nearest’, superlative of nēah ‘nigh’; compare with Dutch naast and German nächste.  
Thesaurus:
next adj. only before noun
The next train to Baltimore will be at 12.20.
the followingcomingfuturelater|especially AmE upcoming|formal subsequentforthcomingprospective
Opp: last, Opp: past
the next/following month/decade/generation
the next event /future/later/upcoming/subsequent/forthcoming events
sb's next/future/later/upcoming/subsequent/forthcoming book/marriage  
Which Word?:
next / nearest
(The) next means ‘after this/that one’ in time or in a series of events, places or people: When is your next appointment? Turn left at the next traffic lights. Who’s next? (The) nearest means ‘closest’ in space: Where’s the nearest supermarket?
Notice the difference between the prepositions nearest to and next to: Janet’s sitting nearest to the window (= of all the people in the room) . Sarah’s sitting next to the window (= right beside it). In informal BrE nearest can be used instead of nearest to: Who’s sitting nearest the door?  
Example Bank:
I'm going away next month.
Next time I'll bring a book.
Round here, you leave school at sixteen and next thing you know, you're married with three kids.
The next chapter deals with the post-war situation.
The woman in the next room was talking in a very loud voice.
• Who's next?

Idiom: next man/woman/person

Cambridge Advanced Learner's Dictionary

Cambridge Advanced Learner's Dictionary - 4th Edition
 

next / nekst / adjective , pronoun

A1 being the first one after the present one or after the one just mentioned:

Who works in the office next to yours?

Take the next turning on the right.

Who do you think will be the next president?

Nothing really changes around here. One day is pretty much like the next.

(The) next time you want to borrow something, please ask me first.

I'm so busy it's hard to remember what I'm supposed to be doing from one moment to the next.

She's on holiday for the next few days.

You'll have to wait until your next birthday for a new bike.

Can we arrange a meeting for the week after next?

What do you think you'll be doing this time next year?

We had a dreadful argument, but he phoned me the next day (= the day after) to apologize.

Excuse me, it's my turn to be served - I was next.

© Cambridge University Press 2013

Collins COBUILD Advanced Learner’s English Dictionary

next

/nekst/

Frequency: The word is one of the 700 most common words in English.

1.
The next period of time, event, person, or thing is the one that comes immediately after the present one or after the previous one.
I got up early the next morning.
...the next available flight...
Who will be the next prime minister?...
I want my next child born at home...
Many senior citizens have very few visitors from one week to the next...
ORD

2.
You use next in expressions such as next Friday, next day and next year to refer, for example, to the first Friday, day, or year that comes after the present or previous one.
Let’s plan a big night next week...
He retires next January...
Next day the EU summit strengthened their ultimatum.
DET

Next is also an adjective.
I shall be 26 years old on Friday next.
ADJ: n ADJ

Next is also a pronoun.
He predicted that the region’s economy would grow by about six per cent both this year and next.
PRON

3.
The next place or person is the one that is nearest to you or that is the first one that you come to.
Grace sighed so heavily that Trish could hear it in the next room...
The man in the next chair was asleep...
Stop at the next corner. I’m getting out.
ADJ: det ADJ

4.
The thing that happens next is the thing that happens immediately after something else.
Next, close your eyes then screw them up tight...
I don’t know what to do next...
The news is next.
ADV: ADV with cl, ADV after v, be ADV

5.
When you next do something, you do it for the first time since you last did it.
I next saw him at his house in Berkshire...
When we next met, he was much more jovial.
ADV: ADV before v

6.
You use next to say that something has more of a particular quality than all other things except one. For example, the thing that is next best is the one that is the best except for one other thing.
The one thing he didn’t have was a son. I think he’s felt that a grandson is the next best thing...
At least three times more daffodils are grown than in Holland, the next largest grower.
= second
ADV: ADV adj-superl

7.
You use after next in expressions such as the week after next to refer to a period of time after the next one. For example, when it is May, the month after next is July.
...the party’s annual conference, to be held in Bournemouth the week after next.
PHRASE: n PHR

8.
If you say that you do something or experience something as much as the next person, you mean that you are no different from anyone else in the respect mentioned.
I’m as ambitious as the next man. I’d like to manage at the very highest level.
PHRASE: as group PHR [emphasis]

9.
If one thing is next to another thing, it is at the other side of it.
She sat down next to him on the sofa.
...at the southern end of the Gaza Strip next to the Egyptian border...
The car was parked in the small weedy lot next to the hotel.
= beside
PREP-PHRASE

10.
You use next to in order to give the most important aspect of something when comparing it with another aspect.
Her children were the number two priority in her life next to her career...
= after
PREP-PHRASE

11.
You use next to before a negative, or a word that suggests something negative, to mean almost, but not completely.
Johnson still knew next to nothing about tobacco...
Most pre-prepared weight loss products are next to useless.
= virtually
PHRASE: PHR after v, v-link PHR, PHR nothing/adj

 

Merriam-Webster's Advanced Learner's Dictionary

Merriam-Webster's Advanced Learner's Dictionary: 

1next /ˈnɛkst/ adj
1 : coming after this one : coming after the one that just came, happened, etc.
• the next day [=the day that comes after this day]
• Please turn to the next [=following] page.
• I'll see you next Monday.
• Are you coming this Thursday or next Thursday? [=are you coming on Thursday of this week or Thursday of next week?]
Next year's party will be even better.
• For the next two years [=two years after this point], she did nothing but eat, sleep, and study.
• the very next thing that happened
• Can I help the next person in line? Who's next?
• We could hear people talking in the next room.
• At the next set of lights, turn left.
Next stop, Los Angeles.
• I need the next size up.
• The next time we will see each other will be on our wedding day.
Next time, please remember to bring your books to class.
in the next life [=in the afterlife; in the life that we may have after death]
• I slipped, and the next thing I knew [=right after that happened], I was lying face up on the ground.
2 : any other
• He said he's as willing to do it as the next man. [=he's as willing as anyone else would be]
• She knew the answer as well as the next person.
next to : almost but not quite
• It's next to [=nearly, practically] impossible to drive in this snow.
• You ate next to nothing at dinner. Aren't you hungry?
• We were next to last in line. [=there was one person or group behind us]
• He finished next to last in the race.
• the next to last day of our vacation [=the day immediately before the last day of our vacation]

under

under [preposition] (LOWER POSITION)

In or to a position below or lower than something else, often so that one thing covers the other

US /ˈʌn.dɚ/ 
UK /ˈʌn.dər/ 

زیر، پایین

مثال: 

He hid under the bed.

Oxford Essential Dictionary

under

 preposition, adverb

1 in or to a place that is lower than or below something:
The cat is under the table.
We sailed under the bridge.
The boat filled with water, then went under.

2 less than something:
If you are under 17 you are not allowed to drive a car.

3 covered by something same meaning underneath:
I'm wearing a vest under my shirt.

4 controlled by somebody or something:
The team are playing well under their new captain.

Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English

under

under S1 W1 /ˈʌndə $ -ər/ BrE AmE preposition, adverb
[Language: Old English]
1. BELOW below or at a lower level than something, or covered by something OPP over:
Wendy had hidden the box under her bed.
We sailed under the Golden Gate Bridge.
Write your name under your picture.
I could see something glittering under the water.
He was wearing a jacket under his coat.
Under her arm, she carried a large portfolio.
In summer, we often slept under the stars.
I’d scare my mom by diving in and staying under (=staying under the water) for as long as I could.
The bench collapsed under the weight of (=unable to support the weight of) so many people.
2. LESS THAN less than a particular number, amount, age, or price OPP over:
These toys are not suitable for children under five.
Most of the events listed cost under £60.
I spend just under four hours a day seeing customers.
and/or under
Children aged 12 or under must be accompanied by an adult.
be under age (=be too young to legally drink, have sex etc)
3. HAVING SOMETHING DONE TO IT used to say what is being done to something or how it is being dealt with
under discussion/consideration/review etc
The possibility of employing more staff is still under discussion (=being discussed, considered etc).
All categories of expenditure are under review.
Four new power stations are currently under construction.
The port was coming under attack from enemy warships.
4. AFFECTED BY SOMETHING affected by a particular condition, influence, or situation:
She’s been under a lot of pressure at work.
under the influence of alcohol/drink/drugs etc
He was accused of driving while under the influence of alcohol.
The operation was carried out while she was under general anaesthetic.
I’m glad to see that you have everything under control.
Two of our national parks are currently under threat from road schemes.
The doctor injected something into my arm and I immediately felt myself going under (=becoming unconscious).
5. under ... conditions/circumstances if something happens under particular conditions, it happens when those conditions exist:
I wish I’d met him under different circumstances.
The system operates well under normal conditions.
6. LAW/AGREEMENT according to a particular agreement, law etc:
the question of whether the trade is illegal under international law
Under the terms of the agreement, the debt will be repaid over a 20-year period.
7. IN POWER if something happens under a particular leader, government etc, it happens when they are in power:
a program initiated under President Clinton and continued under President Bush
Under her leadership, the magazine’s circulation doubled in less than a year.
Would it have been different under a Labour government?
8. POSITION AT WORK if you work under someone, they have a higher position in the company, organization etc than you, and they help to direct your work:
She had a total staff of ten working under her.
From 1847 to 1851 he served under Captain John Randolph Stokes.
At Cambridge he studied under (=was a student of) F. R. Leavis.
9. WHERE INFORMATION IS used to say in which part of a book, list, or system particular information can be found
be/be filed/be listed etc under
The baby’s records are filed under the mother’s last name.
10. DIFFERENT NAME if you write or do something under a particular name, you do it using that name instead of your real name:
He made a few records under the name of Joe Ritchie.
• • •
THESAURUS
under something that is under something else has that thing directly above it or covering it: The pen was under the desk. | She had a T-shirt on under her sweater.
below in a lower position than something else, though not always directly under it: From the cliffs we could barely see the people on the beach below us. | His apartment is below ours on the left.
underneath under – used especially to emphasize that something covers, touches, or hides something: The girls wear shorts underneath their cheerleading skirts. | I found the book underneath the sofa.
beneath formal under or at a lower level: They strolled hand in hand beneath the summer moon. | The water lies just beneath the surface of the earth.

Oxford Advanced Learner's Dictionary

under

under preposition, adverb, adjective   [ˈʌndə(r)]    [ˈʌndər] 

preposition
1. in, to or through a position that is below sth
Have you looked under the bed?
She placed the ladder under (= just lower than) the window.

The dog squeezed under the gate and ran into the road.

2. below the surface of sth; covered by sth

The boat lay under several feet of water.

3. less than; younger than
an annual income of under £10 000
It took us under an hour.

Nobody under 18 is allowed to buy alcohol.

4. used to say who or what controls, governs or manages sb/sth
The country is now under martial law.
The coinage was reformed under Elizabeth I (= when she was queen).
She has a staff of 19 working under her.

Under its new conductor, the orchestra has established an international reputation.

5. according to an agreement, a law or a system
Six suspects are being held under the Prevention of Terrorism Act.
Under the terms of the lease you had no right to sublet the property.

Is the television still under guarantee?

6. experiencing a particular process
The hotel is still under construction.

The matter is under investigation.

7. affected by sth
The wall collapsed under the strain.
I've been feeling under stress lately.
I'm under no illusions about what hard work this will be.

You'll be under anaesthetic, so you won't feel a thing.

8. using a particular name

She also writes under the pseudonym of Barbara Vine.

9. found in a particular part of a book, list, etc
If it's not under ‘sports’, try looking under ‘games’.  
Word Origin:

Old English, of Germanic origin; related to Dutch onder and German unter.

Cambridge Advanced Learner's Dictionary

Cambridge Advanced Learner's Dictionary - 4th Edition
 

under / ˈʌn.də r /   / -dɚ / preposition (LOWER POSITION)

A1 in or to a position below or lower than something else, often so that one thing covers the other:

He hid under the bed.

In AD 79 the city of Pompei was buried under a layer of ash seven metres deep.

She put the thermometer under my tongue.

She was holding a file under her arm (= between her upper arm and the side of her chest) .

They stood under a tree (= below its branches) to avoid getting wet.

specialized If a piece of land is under a particular type of plant, that plant is growing on the whole of that area:

The main fields are under wheat.

If a book, article, or piece of information is under a particular title, you can find it below or following that title in a list, book, library, etc.:

Books on Cecil Beaton will probably be under Art or Photography rather than Drama.

Trifle? That comes under Puddings and Desserts.
 

under / ˈʌn.də r /   / -dɚ / preposition (LESS THAN)

A2 less than:

All items cost/are under a pound.

The discount applies only to children under (the age of) ten (= younger than ten) .

If you get under 50 percent, you've failed the exam.

→  Opposite over

 

under / ˈʌn.də r /   / -dɚ / preposition (EXPERIENCING)

B2 happening during, as a result of, or according to a particular situation, event, rule, etc.:

The work was completed under very difficult conditions.

Now that the deadline is approaching we all feel under pressure.

The chair broke under his weight (= because he was too heavy for it) .

Under the present rules, you can buy ten litres of wine.

under attack, consideration, discussion, etc. B2 in the process of being attacked, considered, discussed, etc.:

The town is under fire (= is being attacked) from the air.

The proposals are now under consideration by the Board of Governors.

The situation is still not under control .

under sedation, anaesthetic, etc. UK treated in the way mentioned:

The patient is being kept under heavy sedation.

She'll have to go under anaesthetic for the operation.

old-fashioned She's been under the doctor for a viral infection.

be under an impression/belief B2 to believe something, often wrongly:

He was under the mistaken belief that I was in charge.

 

under / ˈʌn.də r /   / -dɚ / preposition (CONTROL)

controlled or governed by a particular person, organization, or force:

He's a Colonel, with hundreds of soldiers under him (= obeying his orders) .

I wonder what Britain was like under the Romans (= during the time when the Romans controlled Britain) .

People born under (= during the period of) the star sign Pisces are supposed to be dreamy and artistic.

be under orders to have been ordered to do something:

They're under strict orders not to discuss the situation.

He's under doctor's orders (= has been told by a doctor) to cut down on fatty food and to drink no alcohol for at least six months.
 

under / ˈʌn.də r /   / -dɚ / preposition (NAME)

using a particular name, especially one that is not your real name:

He writes under the name (of) John le Carré.

For his own safety, he has to operate under a false name/an alias.

© Cambridge University Press 2013

Collins COBUILD Advanced Learner’s English Dictionary

under

/ʌndə(r)/

Frequency: The word is one of the 700 most common words in English.

Note: In addition to the uses shown below, 'under' is also used in phrasal verbs such as ‘go under’ and ‘knuckle under’.

1.
If a person or thing is under something, they are at a lower level than that thing, and may be covered or hidden by it.
...swimming in the pool or lying under an umbrella...
Under a wide shelf that holds coffee jars stands a pile of magazines...
She buried her head under the covers, pretending to be asleep...
A path runs under the trees.
PREP

2.
In a place such as a sea, river, or swimming pool, if someone or something is under the water, they are fully in the water and covered by it.
They said he’d been held under the water and drowned...
Goldfish were swimming lazily in a group just under the surface.
PREP

Under is also an adverb.
When the water was up to his neck, a hand came from behind and pushed his head under.
ADV: ADV after v

3.
If you go under something, you move from one side to the other of something that is at a higher level than you.
He went under a brick arch...
A river boat passed under the bridge.
PREP

4.
Something that is under a layer of something, especially clothing, is covered by that layer.
I was wearing two sweaters under the green army jacket...
It was hard to see the colours under the layer of dust.
PREP

5.
You can use under before a noun to indicate that a person or thing is being affected by something or is going through a particular process.
...fishermen whose livelihoods are under threat...
I’m rarely under pressure and my co-workers are always nice to me...
Firemen said they had the blaze under control...
He was rushed to court yesterday under armed guard.
PREP

6.
If something happens under particular circumstances or conditions, it happens when those circumstances or conditions exist.
His best friend was killed by police under extremely questionable circumstances...
Under normal conditions, only about 20 to 40 per cent of vitamin E is absorbed...
PREP

7.
If something happens under a law, agreement, or system, it happens because that law, agreement, or system says that it should happen.
Under law, your employer has the right to hire a temporary worker to replace you...
Under the Constitution, you cannot be tried twice for the same crime.
PREP

8.
If something happens under a particular person or government, it happens when that person or government is in power.
There would be no new taxes under his leadership.
...the realities of life under a brutal dictatorship...
PREP

9.
If you study or work under a particular person, that person teaches you or tells you what to do.
Kiefer was just one of the artists who had studied under Beuys in the early Sixties...
I am the new manager and you will be working under me.
PREP

10.
If you do something under a particular name, you use that name instead of your real name.
Were any of your books published under the name Amanda Fairchild?...
The patient was registered under a false name.
PREP

11.
You use under to say which section of a list, book, or system something is in.
This study is described under ‘General Diseases of the Eye’...
‘Where would it be?’—‘Filed under C, second drawer down.’
PREP

12.
If something or someone is under a particular age or amount, they are less than that age or amount.
...jobs for those under 65...
Expenditure this year should be just under 15 billion pounds.
over
PREP: PREP amount

Under is also an adverb.
...free childminding service for 5’s and under.
ADV: amount and ADV

Merriam-Webster's Advanced Learner's Dictionary

Merriam-Webster's Advanced Learner's Dictionary: 

 

1un·der /ˈʌndɚ/ prep
1 : in or to a lower place than (something) : below or beneath (something) : underneath
• They couldn't climb over the wall, so they dug a hole under it.
• Draw a line under each word you don't know.
• We sat under a tree and rested a while.
• I'm wearing a sweater under my jacket.
• The ball rolled under the car.
• He had a mechanic check under the hood (of the car).
• How long can you hold your breath under water?
• There were 12 of us living under one roof. [=in one place]
2 : guided or managed by (a person or group)
• The cafe is under new management.
• The army captured three forts while under the general's command.
• She has 12 employees (working) under her.
3 : controlled or affected by (something)
• He has been under a lot of pressure/stress at work lately.
• The roof collapsed under the weight of the snow. [=the weight of the snow on the roof caused it to collapse]
• The work was done under the direction/guidance/supervision of an architect. [=an architect directed/guided/supervised the work]
• She was not under a doctor's care [=she did not have a doctor] at the time of the accident.
• Driving while under the influence of alcohol [=driving while drunk] is dangerous and illegal.
• You will be under anesthesia during the operation.
• I can't work under these conditions!
• I would never, under any circumstances, agree to do such a thing.
• The company was under no obligation [=was not obligated/required] to release the information.
• I was under the impression [=I thought] that admission was free.
4 : in a particular state or condition : affected by a particular process
• The police put her under arrest. [=the police arrested her]
• The house is under construction. [=is now being built]
• The incident is currently under investigation. [=is being investigated]
• His suggestion is still under discussion/consideration/review [=is still being discussed/considered/reviewed] by the committee.
5 : according to (something)
Under the terms of the lease, rent will be due on the first of each month.
• They have fulfilled all their obligations under the treaty.
6 : within the group that has (a particular title or label)
• The purchase is listed under “debits.”
• Many of these foods would come under the heading (of) “delicacies” in certain parts of the world.
7
- used to say that a particular name is used to indicate something
• The table is reserved under my last name.
8 : less or lower than (a certain age, amount of money, etc.)
• All the children in the class are under the age of 14.
• We arrived in under an hour.
• You get all three items for under $10.
9 : hidden below (an outward appearance)
Under that rough exterior, he is a kind and gentle man.

 

between

between [preposition, adverb]

In or into the space that separates two places, people, or objects

US /bɪˈtwiːn/ 
UK /bɪˈtwiːn/ 

میان، بین

مثال: 

The town lies halfway between Rome and Florence.

Oxford Essential Dictionary

between

 preposition, adverb

1 in the space in the middle of two things or people:
The letter B comes between A and C.
I sat between Sylvie and Bruno.
I see her most weekends but not very often in between.
Look at the note at among.

2 to and from two places:
The boat sails between Dover and Calais.

3 more than one thing but less than another thing:
The meal will cost between £20 and £25.

4 after one time and before the next time:
I'll meet you between 4 and 4.30.

5 for or by two or more people or things:
We shared the cake between us (= each of us had some cake).

6 a word that you use when you compare two people or things:
What is the difference between 'some' and 'any'?

Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English

between

between S1 W1 /bɪˈtwiːn/ BrE AmE adverb, preposition
[Language: Old English; Origin: betweonum]
1. (also in between) in or through the space that separates two things, people, or places:
I sat down between Sue and Jane.
a house and stables, with a yard in between
The ball rolled between his feet.
2. (also in between) in the time that separates two times or events:
Are there any public holidays between Christmas and Easter?
You shouldn’t eat between meals.
The team have a lot of work to do between now and Sunday.
A lot of students spend a year abroad in between school and university.
I’ve had a few jobs, with long periods of unemployment in between.
3. within a range of amounts, numbers, distances etc:
The project will cost between eight and ten million dollars.
Most of the victims were young men between the ages of 16 and 21.
4. used to say which two places are joined or connected by something:
They’re building a new road between Manchester and Sheffield.
5. used to say which people or things are involved in something together or are connected:
the long-standing friendship between Bob and Bryan
co-operation between the two countries
She had overheard a private conversation between two MPs.
the link between serious sunburn and deadly skin cancer
6. used to say which people or things get, have, or are involved in something that is shared:
Tom divided his money between his children.
Between the four of them they managed to lift her into the ambulance.
We collected £17 between us.
7. used to say which two things or people you are comparing:
the contrast between town and country life
In her book she makes a comparison between Russian and British ballet.
the difference between good music and really great music
8. between you and me (also between ourselves) spoken used before telling someone something that you do not want them to tell anyone else:
Between you and me, I think Schmidt’s about to resign.
9. come between somebody if something comes between two people, it causes an argument or problems between them:
I let my stupid pride come between us.
10. used when it is difficult to give an exact description of something and you therefore have to compare it to two things that are similar to it:
He uttered a sound that was something between a sigh and a groan.

Oxford Advanced Learner's Dictionary

between

be·tween preposition, adverb   [bɪˈtwiːn]    [bɪˈtwiːn]

preposition
1. in or into the space separating two or more points, objects, people, etc
Q comes between P and R in the English alphabet.
I sat down between Jo and Diana.
Switzerland lies between France, Germany, Austria and Italy.
• The paper had fallen down between the desk and the wall.

(figurative) My job is somewhere between a secretary and a personal assistant.

2. in the period of time that separates two days, years, events, etc
It's cheaper between 6 p.m. and 8 a.m.
Don't eat between meals.
• Children must attend school between the ages of 5 and 16.

• Many changes took place between the two world wars.

3. at some point along a scale from one amount, weight, distance, etc. to another
• It weighed between nine and ten kilos.

• The temperature remained between 25 ° C and 30 ° C all week.

4. (of a line) separating one place from another

• the border between Sweden and Norway

5. from one place to another

• We fly between Rome and Paris twice daily.

6. used to show a connection or relationship
a difference/distinction/contrast between two things
a link between unemployment and crime
• There's a lot of bad feeling between them.

• I had to choose between the two jobs.

7. shared by two or more people or things
• We ate a pizza between us.

• This is just between you and me / between ourselves (= it is a secret).

8. by putting together the efforts or actions of two or more people or groups
• We ought to be able to manage it between us.

• China and India between them account for a third of the world's population.

9. ~ doing sth used to show that several activities are involved
Between working full-time and taking care of the kids, he didn't have much time for hobbies.  
Word Origin:

Old English betwēonum, from be ‘by’ + a Germanic word related to two.

Cambridge Advanced Learner's Dictionary

Cambridge Advanced Learner's Dictionary - 4th Edition
 

between / bɪˈtwiːn / preposition , adverb (SPACE)

A1 in or into the space that separates two places, people, or objects:

The town lies halfway between Rome and Florence.

Standing between the two adults was a small child.

She squeezed between the parked cars and ran out into the road.

There were two houses with a narrow path in between.
 

between / bɪˈtwiːn / preposition , adverb (AMOUNT)

A2 If something is between two amounts, it is greater than the first amount but smaller than the second:

She weighs between 55 and 60 kilograms.

The competition is open to children between six and twelve years of age.

The room was either extremely cold or hot, never anything in between (= in the middle) .

 

between / bɪˈtwiːn / preposition , adverb ( also in between ) (TIME)

A1 in the period of time that separates two different times or events:

You shouldn't eat between meals.

There is a break of ten minutes between classes.

The shop is closed for lunch between 12.30 and 1.30.

In between sobs, he managed to tell them what had happened.

He visits his parents every month and sometimes in between.

 

between / bɪˈtwiːn / preposition (SHARED)

B1 among two or more people or things:

The money was divided equally between several worthy causes.

We drank two bottles of wine between four of us.

Trade between the two countries (= their trade with each other) has increased sharply in the past year.

There is a great deal of similarity between Caroline and her mother (= they are very similar) .

 

between / bɪˈtwiːn / preposition (OPPOSING)

A1 A discussion, argument, or game between two or more people or groups of people involves both people or groups:

The negotiations between the union and management have broken down.

There has always been a fierce rivalry between the two clubs.

Tonight's game is between the New Orleans Saints and the Los Angeles Rams.
 

between / bɪˈtwiːn / preposition (CHOICE)

If you choose between two things, you choose one thing or the other:

You'll have to choose between a holiday or a new washing machine.

She was torn between loyalty to her father and love for her husband (= she could not decide which one to support) .
 

between / bɪˈtwiːn / preposition (CONNECTING)

A2 connecting two or more places, things, or people:

There is a regular train service between Glasgow and Edinburgh.

The survey shows a link between asthma and air pollution.

from one place to another:

He commutes daily between Leeds and Manchester.
 

between / bɪˈtwiːn / preposition (SEPARATING)

A2 separating two places or things:

The wall between East and West Berlin came down in 1989.

The report states that the gap between the rich and the poor has increased dramatically over the past decade.

© Cambridge University Press 2013

Collins COBUILD Advanced Learner’s English Dictionary

between

/bɪtwi:n/

Frequency: The word is one of the 700 most common words in English.

Note: In addition to the uses shown below, 'between' is used in a few phrasal verbs, such as ‘come between’.

1.
If something is between two things or is in between them, it has one of the things on one side of it and the other thing on the other side.
She left the table to stand between the two men...
Charlie crossed between the traffic to the far side of the street.
PREP: usu PREP pl-n

2.
If people or things travel between two places, they travel regularly from one place to the other and back again.
I spent a lot of time in the early Eighties travelling between London and Bradford.
PREP: PREP pl-n

3.
A relationship, discussion, or difference between two people, groups, or things is one that involves them both or relates to them both.
I think the relationship between patients and doctors has got a lot less personal...
There has always been a difference between community radio and commercial radio.
PREP: PREP pl-n

4.
If something stands between you and what you want, it prevents you from having it.
His sense of duty often stood between him and the enjoyment of life.
PREP: PREP n and n

5.
If something is between two amounts or ages, it is greater or older than the first one and smaller or younger than the second one.
Amsterdam is fun–a third of its population is aged between 18 and 30.
PREP: PREP num and num

6.
If something happens between or in between two times or events, it happens after the first time or event and before the second one.
The canal was built between 1793 and 1797...
PREP: PREP pl-n, PREP num and num

Between is also an adverb.
...a journey by jetfoil, coach and two aircraft, with a four-hour wait in Bangkok in between.
ADV: ADV with cl/group

7.
If you must choose between two or more things, you must choose just one of them.
Students will be able to choose between English, French and Russian as their first foreign language.
PREP: PREP pl-n

8.
If people or places have a particular amount of something between them, this is the total amount that they have.
The three sites employ 12,500 people between them...
PREP: PREP pron

9.
When something is divided or shared between people, they each have a share of it.
There is only one bathroom shared between eight bedrooms.
= amongst
PREP: PREP pl-n

10.
When you introduce a statement by saying ‘between you and me’ or ‘between ourselves’, you are indicating that you do not want anyone else to know what you are saying.
Between you and me, though, it’s been awful for business...
Between ourselves, I know he wants to marry her.
PHRASE: PHR with cl

Merriam-Webster's Advanced Learner's Dictionary

Merriam-Webster's Advanced Learner's Dictionary: 

1be·tween /bɪˈtwiːn/ prep
1 : in the space that separates (two things or people)
• The ball rolled between the desk and the wall.
• He stood between his mother and his father.
• The office has two desks with a table between them.
• They put up a fence between their house and their neighbor's house.
• There are fences between all the houses.
- often used figuratively
• a book that blurs the line/boundary between fact and fiction
- often used in the phrase in between
• There are fences in between all the houses.
2 : in the time that separates (two actions, events, etc.)
• If you want to lose weight, you shouldn't eat between meals.
Between bites of food, they talked to their teacher.
• The two days between Monday and Thursday are Tuesday and Wednesday.
• We should arrive between 9 and 10 o'clock.
- often used in the phrase in between
• You shouldn't eat in between meals.
3
- used to indicate the beginning and ending points of a group of numbers, a range of measurement, etc.
• a number between 1 and 20
• The package weighs somewhere between a pound and a pound and a half.
- sometimes used in the phrase in between
• a number in between 1 and 20
4 : in shares to each of (two or more people)
• The property was divided equally between the son and the daughter. [=the son and the daughter received an equal share of the property]
• His estate was divided between [=among] his four grandchildren.
5
- used to indicate two or more people or things that together produce a result or have an effect
• She ate two hot dogs, and he ate three hot dogs, so between them they ate five hot dogs.
Between work and family life, she has no time for hobbies. [=because of all the time she spends on her work and family life, she has no time for hobbies]
6
- used to indicate two people or teams that are involved in a game, activity, etc.
• There's a game tonight between the Red Sox and the Yankees. [=the Red Sox are playing a game against the Yankees tonight]
7
- used to indicate two or more people or things that are joined, related, or connected in some way
• There are many relations/connections between linguistics, philosophy, and psychology.
• There is a passageway between the two rooms.
• the bond between friends
• We used to love each other, but there's nothing between us now. [=we don't love each other now]
8
- used to indicate two or more people or things that are being considered, compared, etc.
• They compared the cars but found few differences between them.
• We were allowed to choose between two/several options.
• There's not much to choose between the two cars. [=the two cars are very similar]
• There is very little difference between the two cars.
9
- used to indicate movement from one place to another place
• He flies between Miami and Chicago twice a week.
• The airline provides service between New York and Paris.
10 : known only by (two people)
• They shared a secret between them.
• (Just) Between you and me, I think he's wrong. [=I'm telling you that I think he's wrong, but you should not tell anyone else what I've told you]
• What I'm going to tell you should remain a secret (just) between us/ourselves.

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