B2 (بالای متوسط)

undressed

undressed [verb]

not wearing any clothes

US /ʌnˈdres/ 
UK /ʌnˈdres/ 

لباس درآوردن

مثال: 

got undressed and got into the bath.

 

Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English

undressed

undressed /ˌʌnˈdrest◂/ BrE AmE adjective
[Word Family: noun: ↑dress, ↑dresser, ↑dressing; adjective: ↑dressed ≠ ↑undressed, ↑dressy; verb: ↑dress ≠ ↑undress]
1. [not before noun] not wearing any clothes:
He started to get undressed (=to take his clothes off).
2. an undressed wound has not been covered to protect it
• • •
THESAURUS
naked not wearing any clothes or not covered by clothes - used especially when this seems rather shocking: a naked man | He got out of bed naked, and answered the telephone. | his naked chest
have nothing on/not have anything on to not be wearing any clothes. This phrase is very commonly used in everyday English instead of saying that someone is naked: Can you wait a minute? I've got nothing on! | The little boy didn’t have anything on when he answered the door!
bare used about feet, legs, arms etc that are not covered by clothes: The sand was too hot to walk on in bare feet.
nude naked – used especially when talking about naked people in paintings, films etc: a nude portrait of his wife
undressed [not before noun] not wearing any clothes, especially because you have just taken them off in order to go to bed, have a bath etc: Sara was undressed and ready for bed but Jenny was fully clothed. | Wearily she got undressed and stepped into the shower.
topless if a woman is topless, she is not wearing any clothes on the upper part of her body, so that her breasts are not covered: a topless waitress
in the nude not wearing any clothes: Men and women swam together in the nude and thought nothing of it.
in your birthday suit informal humorous not wearing any clothes: He likes to sleep in his birthday suit. He says pyjamas are uncomfortable.
go commando informal humorous to not wear any underwear: In summertime, he likes to go commando.
in the buff informal not wearing any clothes - a very informal use: a beach where you can sunbathe in the buff

Oxford Advanced Learner's Dictionary

undressed

un·dressed [undressed]   [ʌnˈdrest]    [ʌnˈdrest]  adjective not usually before noun
not wearing any clothes
She began to get undressed (= remove her clothes).
He was half undressed when he answered the door.
Opp:  dressed  
Example Bank:
He was half undressed when the doorbell rang.
She felt undressed without her hat.
He said he felt undressed without a hat.

She began to get undressed.

Cambridge Advanced Learner's Dictionary

Cambridge Advanced Learner's Dictionary - 4th Edition

undressed / -ˈdrest / adjective [ usually after verb ]

B2

You two kids get undressed, and I'll run the bath.

 

Collins COBUILD Advanced Learner’s English Dictionary

undressed

[ʌ̱ndre̱st]
 ADJ
 If you are undressed, you are wearing no clothes or your night clothes. If you get undressed, you take off your clothes.
  Fifteen minutes later he was undressed and in bed...
  He got undressed in the bathroom.

Merriam-Webster's Advanced Learner's Dictionary

Merriam-Webster's Advanced Learner's Dictionary: 

undressed

un·dressed /ˌʌnˈdrɛst/ adj
1 not used before a noun : wearing no clothing : not dressed
• I was undressed when the fire alarm went off.
• She got undressed [=took off her clothes] and went to bed.
2 : not cared for or covered
• an undressed wound
3 technical : not finished : not prepared for use
undressed hides/stones

 

courtesy

courtesy [noun]

polite behaviour, or a polite action or remark

US /ˈkɝː.t̬ə.si/ 
UK /ˈkɜː.tə.si/ 

ادب‌، نزاكت‌

مثال: 

You might get on better with your parents if you showed them some courtesy.

Oxford Essential Dictionary

courtesy

 noun (no plural)
polite behaviour that shows respect for other people

 

Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English

courtesy

I. courtesy1 /ˈkɜːtəsi, ˈkɜːtɪsi $ ˈkɜːr-/ BrE AmE noun (plural courtesies)
[Date: 1200-1300; Language: Old French; Origin: corteisie, from corteis; ⇨ ↑courteous]
1. [uncountable] polite behaviour and respect for other people SYN politeness OPP discourtesy:
It’s a matter of common courtesy to acknowledge letters.
have the courtesy to do something
He didn’t even have the courtesy to call and say he couldn’t come.
2. [countable] something you do or say to be polite:
The two men exchanged courtesies before getting down to business.
3. (by) courtesy of somebody by someone’s permission or kindness, rather than by paying them:
photographs supplied courtesy of Blenheim Palace
4. (by) courtesy of something if one thing happens courtesy of another, the second thing caused the first:
Healy received a deep cut on his left hand, courtesy of Nicole’s ice skate.
5. do somebody the courtesy of doing something to be polite enough to do something for someone:
At least do me the courtesy of telling the truth.

Oxford Advanced Learner's Dictionary

courtesy

cour·tesy [courtesy courtesies] noun, adjective   [ˈkɜːtəsi]    [ˈkɜːrtəsi] 

noun (pl. cour·tesies)
1. uncountable polite behaviour that shows respect for other people
Syn:  politeness
I was treated with the utmost courtesy by the staff.
We asked them, as a matter of courtesy, if we could photograph their house.

It's only common courtesy to tell the neighbours that we'll be having a party (= the sort of behaviour that people would expect).

2. countable, usually plural (formal) a polite thing that you say or do when you meet people in formal situations
an exchange of courtesies before the meeting  
Word Origin:
Middle English: from Old French cortesie, from corteis, based on Latin cohors ‘yard, retinue’.  
Example Bank:
He listened to all the complaints with great courtesy.
It's a matter of courtesy to write and thank people after a party.
It's common courtesy to give up your seat for elderly people.
It's common courtesy to warn your neighbours if your children are going to have a party.
She contacts clients regularly as a professional courtesy.
She might have done me the courtesy of replying to my letter.
You could at least have had the courtesy to let me know.
her unfailing courtesy to everyone
He bowed his head with exaggerated courtesy.
It's only common courtesy to tell the neighbours that we'll be having a party.
The prime minister was welcomed with the usual courtesies.
We asked them as a matter of courtesy.

Idioms: courtesy of somebody  do somebody the courtesy of doing something  have the courtesy to do something 

Cambridge Advanced Learner's Dictionary

Cambridge Advanced Learner's Dictionary - 4th Edition
 

courtesy / ˈkɜː.tə.si /   / ˈkɝː.t̬ə- / noun [ U or C ]

B2 polite behaviour, or a polite action or remark:

You might get on better with your parents if you showed them some courtesy.

[ + to infinitive ] He could at least have had the courtesy to say sorry.

The president welcomed the Queen with the usual courtesies.

(by) courtesy of by permission of:

Jessie J appears courtesy of Universal Records.

because of:

Did the Conservatives win courtesy of the division of the opposition vote between Labour and the Liberal Democrats?

Collins COBUILD Advanced Learner’s English Dictionary

courtesy

[kɜ͟ː(r)tɪsi]
 courtesies
 1) N-UNCOUNT Courtesy is politeness, respect, and consideration for others. [FORMAL]
  ...a gentleman who behaves with the utmost courtesy towards ladies...
  He did not even have the courtesy to reply to my fax.
  Syn:
  politeness
  Ant:
  rudeness
 2) N-SING: usu the N of -ing/n If you refer to the courtesy of doing something, you are referring to a polite action. [FORMAL]
  By extending the courtesy of a phone call to my clients, I was building a personal relationship with them...
  At least if they're arguing, they're doing you the courtesy of being interested.
 3) N-COUNT: usu pl Courtesies are polite, conventional things that people say in formal situations. [FORMAL]
  Hugh and John were exchanging faintly barbed courtesies.
  Syn:
  formalities
 4) ADJ: ADJ n Courtesy is used to describe services that are provided free of charge by an organization to its customers, or to the general public.
  A courtesy shuttle bus operates between the hotel and the town.
  ...a courtesy phone.
 5) ADJ: ADJ n A courtesy call or a courtesy visit is a formal visit that you pay someone as a way of showing them politeness or respect.
  The President paid a courtesy call on Emperor Akihito.
 6) N-UNCOUNT: N n, by N A courtesy title is a title that someone is allowed to use, although it has no legal or official status.
  Both were accorded the courtesy title of Lady...
  My title, by courtesy only, is the Honourable Amalia Lovell.
 7) PHR-PREP If something is provided courtesy of someone or by courtesy of someone, they provide it. You often use this expression in order to thank them.
  The waitress brings over some congratulatory glasses of champagne, courtesy of the restaurant...
  Illustrations by courtesy of the National Gallery.
 8) PHR-PREP If you say that one thing happens courtesy of another or by courtesy of another, you mean that the second thing causes or is responsible for the first thing.
  The air was fresh, courtesy of three holes in the roof...
  As millions will have seen, by courtesy of the slow motion re-runs, the referee made a mistake.

Merriam-Webster's Advanced Learner's Dictionary

Merriam-Webster's Advanced Learner's Dictionary: 

1cour·te·sy /ˈkɚtəsi/ noun, pl -sies
1 [noncount] : polite behavior that shows respect for other people
• They treated us with courtesy and kindness.
• He didn't even have the common courtesy [=he was not even as polite as people can usually be expected to be] to say goodbye when he left.
2 [count]
a : something that you do because it is polite, kind, etc.
• She did it as a courtesy, not because she had to.
b : something that you say to be polite especially when you meet someone
• Everyone knows each other here, so we won't bother with the usual courtesies.
• They shook hands and exchanged courtesies before beginning their discussion.
courtesy of
✦If you say that something has been provided through the courtesy of or (by) courtesy of a person, organization, business, etc., you are politely saying that they paid for it, gave it, or let it be used.
• The flowers were provided through the courtesy of a local florist.
• This program is brought to you courtesy of our sponsors. [=it has been paid for by our sponsors] The word courtesy is sometimes used informally by itself in this way.
• Photo courtesy Helen Jones. [=Helen Jones is allowing the photograph to be used] The phrase courtesy of is sometimes also used informally to indicate the cause of something.
• I have a bad cold now, courtesy of my brother. [=I have a bad cold that I caught from my brother]

productively

productively [adverb]

in a productive way

US /prəˈdʌk.tɪv.li/ 
UK /prəˈdʌk.tɪv.li/ 

به طور مفید

مثال: 

It's important to spend your time productively.

Oxford Advanced Learner's Dictionary

productively

pro·duct·ive·ly   [prəˈdʌktɪvli]  ;   [prəˈdʌktɪvli]  adverb

to use land more productively

It's important to spend your time productively.

Cambridge Advanced Learner's Dictionary

Cambridge Advanced Learner's Dictionary - 4th Edition

productively / -li / adverb

Their working system is based on the belief that people work more productively (= produce better results) in a team.

Merriam-Webster's Advanced Learner's Dictionary

Merriam-Webster's Advanced Learner's Dictionary: 

- pro·duc·tive·ly adv
• The farmers learned to use their land more productively.
• The team worked productively.

come up with sth

come up with sth [phrasal verb]

to suggest or think of an idea or plan

US /kʌm/ 
UK /kʌm/ 

راهی پیدا کردن، به ذهن رسیدن

مثال: 

She's come up with some amazing scheme to double her income.

Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English

come up with something phrasal verb

1 to think of an idea, answer etc

 Is that the best excuse you can come up with? 

We’ve been asked to come up with some new ideas.

2 informal to produce an amount of money 

We wanted to buy the house but we couldn’t come up with the cash. 

How am I supposed to come up with $10,000?

Cambridge Advanced Learner's Dictionary

Cambridge Advanced Learner's Dictionary - 4th Edition
 

come up with sth — phrasal verb with come / kʌm / verb ( came , come )

B2 to suggest or think of an idea or plan:

She's come up with some amazing scheme to double her income.

Collins COBUILD Advanced Learner’s English Dictionary

come up with

 1) PHRASAL VERB If you come up with a plan or idea, you think of it and suggest it.
  [V P P n] Several of the members have come up with suggestions of their own...
  [V P P n] 30 years ago, scientists came up with the theory that protons and neutrons are composed of three smaller particles.
 2) PHRASAL VERB If you come up with a sum of money, you manage to produce it when it is needed.
  [V P P n] If Warren can come up with the $15 million, we'll go to London.

Merriam-Webster's Advanced Learner's Dictionary

Merriam-Webster's Advanced Learner's Dictionary: 

come up with something

[no passive] to find or produce an answer, a sum of money, etc.

She came up with a new idea for increasing sales.

How soon can you come up with the money?

to-do list

to-do list [noun]

a list of tasks that need to be done

فهرست کارهای اجرایی

مثال: 

It's on my to-do list.

Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English

to-ˈdo list noun [countable]  

a list of jobs you have to do

 Painting the bedroom is at the top of my to-do list.

Cambridge Advanced Learner's Dictionary

to-do list

noun [ C ] UK  US  WORKPLACE

a list of tasks that need to be done:

It's on my to-do list.

Merriam-Webster's Advanced Learner's Dictionary

Merriam-Webster's Advanced Learner's Dictionary: 

to-do list

 noun

Definition of to-do list

: a list of things to doCalling the plumber is on my to-do list.

kill time

kill time [idiom]

to do something that keeps you busy while you are waiting for something else to happen

وقت کشی کردن، وقت تلف کردن

مثال: 

Are you really watching that nonsense movie or just trying to kill your time?

 

Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English

8. kill time/an hour etc to spend time doing something which is not important, while you are waiting to do something important or waiting for something else to happen:
With time to kill, he took a cab to the centre.

Oxford Advanced Learner's Dictionary

kill time

kill ˈtime | kill an ˈhour, a couple of ˈhours, etc. idiom

to spend time doing sth that is not important while you are waiting for sth else to happen

We killed time playing cards.

Cambridge Advanced Learner's Dictionary

Cambridge Advanced Learner's Dictionary - 4th Edition
 

kill time, an hour, etc.

B2 to do something that keeps you busy while you are waiting for something else to happen:

The train was late, so I killed an hour or so window-shopping.

Prioritize

Prioritize [verb]

to decide which of a group of things are the most important so that you can deal with them first

US /praɪˈɔːr.ə.taɪz/ 
UK /praɪˈɒr.ɪ.taɪz/ 

اولویت دادن

مثال: 

You must learn to prioritize your work.

Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English

prioritize

prioritize AC BrE AmE (also prioritise British English) /praɪˈɒrətaɪz, praɪˈɒrɪtaɪz $ -ˈɔːr-/ verb [transitive]
[Word Family: noun: ↑priority, ↑prioritization; verb: ↑prioritize]
1. to put several things, problems etc in order of importance, so that you can deal with the most important ones first:
You need to prioritize your tasks.
2. to deal with one thing first, because it is the most important:
The public wants to see the fight against crime prioritized.

Oxford Advanced Learner's Dictionary

prioritize

pri·ori·tize AW (BrE also -ise) [prioritize prioritizes prioritized prioritizing]   [praɪˈɒrətaɪz]    [praɪˈɔːrətaɪz]  verb
1. transitive, intransitive ~ (sth) to put tasks, problems, etc. in order of importance, so that you can deal with the most important first

You should make a list of all the jobs you have to do and prioritize them.

2. transitive ~ sth (formal) to treat sth as being more important than other things

The organization was formed to prioritize the needs of older people.

Cambridge Advanced Learner's Dictionary

Cambridge Advanced Learner's Dictionary - 4th Edition
 

prioritize ( UK usually prioritise ) / praɪˈɒr.ɪ.taɪz /   / -ˈɔːr.ə- / verb [ I or T ]

to decide which of a group of things are the most important so that you can deal with them first:

You must learn to prioritize your work.

Collins COBUILD Advanced Learner’s English Dictionary

prioritize

[praɪɒ̱rɪtaɪz, AM -ɔ͟ːr-]
 prioritizes, prioritizing, prioritized
 (in BRIT, also use prioritise)
 1) VERB If you prioritize something, you treat it as more important than other things.
  [V n] The government is prioritising the service sector, rather than investing in industry and production.
 2) VERB If you prioritize the tasks that you have to do, you decide which are the most important and do them first.
  [V n] Make lists of what to do and prioritize your tasks. [Also V]

 

Merriam-Webster's Advanced Learner's Dictionary

Merriam-Webster's Advanced Learner's Dictionary: 

prioritize

pri·or·i·tize also Brit pri·or·i·tise /praɪˈorəˌtaɪz/ verb -tiz·es; -tized; -tiz·ing
1 : to organize (things) so that the most important thing is done or dealt with first

[+ obj]

• It's always difficult to prioritize work, school, and family.

[no obj]

• If you want to do your job efficiently, you have to learn to prioritize.
2 [+ obj] : to make (something) the most important thing in a group
• The town council hopes to prioritize the bridge construction project at the next meeting.

Declutter

Declutter [verb]

to make a place tidy by removing things you do not want or need

US /-ˈklʌt̬.ɚ/ 
UK /ˌdiːˈklʌt.ər/ 

نظم بخشیدن و چیزهای بدردنخور را دور ریختن

مثال: 

I decided it was time to declutter my bedroom.

 

Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English

declutter

declutter /diːˈklʌtə $ -ər/ BrE AmE verb [intransitive and transitive]
to make a place tidy by removing things you do not want or need:
I decided it was time to declutter my bedroom.

Oxford Advanced Learner's Dictionary

declutter

declutter 8 [declutter] (also de-clutter)  [diːˈklʌtə(r)]    [diːˈklʌtər]  verb intransitive, transitive
to remove things that you do not use so that you have more space and can easily find things when you need them
Moving is a good opportunity to declutter.
~ sth a 7-step plan to help you declutter your home
Declutter one room at a time.
She helps people declutter their schedules, houses, and minds.

multitasking

multitasking [noun] (PERSON)

a person's ability to do more than one thing at a time

US /ˌmʌl.tiˈtæs.kɪŋ/ 
UK /ˌmʌl.tiˈtɑːs.kɪŋ/ 

چند کارگی، چند کاری

مثال: 

Women are often very good at multitasking.

Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English

multitasking

multitasking /ˈmʌltiˌtɑːskɪŋ $ -ˌtæs-/ BrE AmE noun [uncountable]
1. a computer’s ability to do more than one job at a time
2. when a person does more than one thing at a time:
Women are traditionally supposed to be good at multitasking.

Oxford Advanced Learner's Dictionary

multitasking

multi·tasking f58 [multitasking]   [ˌmʌltiˈtɑːskɪŋ]    [ˌmʌltiˈtæskɪŋ]  noun uncountable

1. (computing) the ability of a computer to operate several programs at the same time

2. the ability to do several things at the same time

Cambridge Advanced Learner's Dictionary

Cambridge Advanced Learner's Dictionary - 4th Edition
 

multitasking / ˌmʌl.tiˈtɑːs.kɪŋ /   / -t̬iˈtæs- / noun [ U ] (PERSON)

a person's ability to do more than one thing at a time:

Women are often very good at multitasking.

 

Merriam-Webster's Advanced Learner's Dictionary

Merriam-Webster's Advanced Learner's Dictionary: 

multitasking

mul·ti·task·ing /ˈmʌltiˌtæskɪŋ, Brit ˈmʌltiˌtɑːskɪŋ/ noun [noncount] : the ability to do several things at the same time
• The job requires someone who is good at multitasking.

procrastinate

procrastinate [verb]

to keep delaying something that must be done, often because it is unpleasant or boring

US /proʊˈkræs.tə.neɪt/ 
UK /prəˈkræs.tɪ.neɪt/ 

به تاخیر انداختن، تعلل کردن

مثال: 

I know I've got to deal with the problem at some point - I'm just procrastinating.

Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English

procrastinate

procrastinate /prəˈkræstəneɪt, prəˈkræstɪneɪt/ BrE AmE verb [intransitive]
[Date: 1500-1600; Language: Latin; Origin: past participle of procrastinare, from cras 'tomorrow']
formal to delay doing something that you ought to do, usually because you do not want to do it SYN put off:
People often procrastinate when it comes to paperwork.

Oxford Advanced Learner's Dictionary

procrastinate

pro·cras·tin·ate [procrastinate procrastinates procrastinated procrastinating]   [prəʊˈkræstɪneɪt]    [proʊˈkræstɪneɪt]  verb intransitive (formal, disapproving)
to delay doing sth that you should do, usually because you do not want to do it
People were dying of starvation while governments procrastinated.
Derived Word: procrastination
 
Word Origin:

late 16th cent.: from Latin procrastinat- ‘deferred till the morning’, from the verb procrastinare, from pro- ‘forward’ + crastinus ‘belonging to tomorrow’ (from cras ‘tomorrow’).

Cambridge Advanced Learner's Dictionary

Cambridge Advanced Learner's Dictionary - 4th Edition
 

procrastinate / prəˈkræs.tɪ.neɪt /   / proʊ- / verb [ I ]

to keep delaying something that must be done, often because it is unpleasant or boring:

I know I've got to deal with the problem at some point - I'm just procrastinating.

 

procrastination / -ˌkræs.tɪˈneɪ.ʃ ə n / noun [ U ]

Collins COBUILD Advanced Learner’s English Dictionary

procrastinate

[proʊkræ̱stɪneɪt]
 procrastinates, procrastinating, procrastinated
 VERB

 If you procrastinate, you keep leaving things you should do until later, often because you do not want to do them. [FORMAL]
  Most often we procrastinate when faced with something we do not want to do.
 Syn:
 stall
  Derived words:
  procrastination [proʊkræ̱stɪne͟ɪʃ(ə)n] N-UNCOUNT He hates delay and procrastination in all its forms.

Merriam-Webster's Advanced Learner's Dictionary

Merriam-Webster's Advanced Learner's Dictionary: 

procrastinate

pro·cras·ti·nate /prəˈkræstəˌneɪt/ verb -nates; -nat·ed; -nat·ing [no obj] : to be slow or late about doing something that should be done : to delay doing something until a later time because you do not want to do it, because you are lazy, etc.
• He procrastinated and missed the submission deadline.
• He told her to stop procrastinating and get to work.
- pro·cras·ti·na·tion /prəˌkræstəˈneɪʃən/ noun [noncount]
• She is not prone to procrastination.
- pro·cras·ti·na·tor /prəˈkræstəneɪtɚ/ noun, pl -tors [count]
• Some people are procrastinators when it comes to paying their bills.

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