B2 (بالای متوسط)


petal [noun] (ON FLOWER)

any of the usually brightly coloured parts that together form most of a flower

US /ˈpet̬.əl/ 
UK /ˈpet.əl/ 



rose petals

Oxford Essential Dictionary


one of the coloured parts of a flower

Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English


petal /ˈpetl/ BrE AmE noun [countable]
[Date: 1700-1800; Language: Modern Latin; Origin: petalum, from Greek petalon]

one of the coloured parts of a flower that are shaped like leaves:
rose petals
The flower has seven petals.

Oxford Advanced Learner's Dictionary


petal [petal petals]   [ˈpetl]    [ˈpetl]  noun
a delicate coloured part of a flower. The head of a flower is usually made up of several petals around a central part. 
Word Origin:

early 18th cent.: from modern Latin petalum (in late Latin ‘metal plate’), from Greek petalon ‘leaf’, neuter (used as a noun) of petalos ‘outspread’.

Cambridge Advanced Learner's Dictionary

Cambridge Advanced Learner's Dictionary - 4th Edition

petal / ˈpet. ə l /   / ˈpet̬- / noun [ C ] (ON FLOWER)

any of the usually brightly coloured parts that together form most of a flower:

rose petals


petal / ˈpet. ə l /   / ˈpet̬- / noun [ C ] UK informal (PERSON)

a friendly way of talking to someone, especially a woman or child:

What did you say, petal?

© Cambridge University Press 2013

Collins COBUILD Advanced Learner’s English Dictionary


 The petals of a flower are the thin coloured or white parts which together form the flower.
  ...bowls of dried rose petals.

Merriam-Webster's Advanced Learner's Dictionary

Merriam-Webster's Advanced Learner's Dictionary: 


pet·al /ˈpɛtl̩/ noun, pl -als [count] : one of the soft, colorful parts of a flower
• rose petals
• flowers with pink and white petals
- see picture at flower


carry [noun] (TRANSPORT)

to move someone or something from one place to another

US /ˈker.i/ 
UK /ˈkær.i/ 

بردن‌، رساندن‌

Oxford Essential Dictionary


 verb (carries, carrying, carried /, has carried)

1 to hold something and take it to another place or keep it with you:
He carried the suitcase to my room.
I can't carry this box – it's too heavy.
Do the police carry guns in your country?

which word?
Carry or wear? You use wear, not carry, to talk about having clothes on your body: She is wearing a red dress and carrying a black bag.

2 to move people or things:
Special fast trains carry people to the city centre.

carry on to continue:
Carry on with your work.
If you carry on to the end of this road, you'll see the post office on the right.

carry out something to do or finish what you have planned:
The bridge was closed while they carried out the repairs.

Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English


I. carry1 S1 W1 /ˈkæri/ BrE AmE verb (past tense and past participle carried, present participle carrying, third person singular carries)
[Date: 1300-1400; Language: Old North French; Origin: carier 'to take in a vehicle', from car 'vehicle', from Latin carrus; ⇨ ↑car]
1. LIFT AND TAKE [transitive] to hold something in your hand or arms, or support it as you take it somewhere:
Gina was carrying a small bunch of flowers.
Angela carried the child in her arms.
Let me carry that for you.
Jack carried his grandson up the stairs.
carry something to something/somebody
The waiter carried our drinks to the table.
2. VEHICLE/SHIP/PLANE [transitive] to take people or things from one place to another in a vehicle, ship, or plane:
The ship was carrying drugs.
There are more airplanes carrying more people than ever before.
3. PIPE/WIRE ETC [transitive] if a pipe, wire etc carries something such as liquid or electricity, the liquid, electricity etc flows or travels along it:
A drain carries surplus water to the river.
The aim is for one wire to carry both television and telephone calls.
4. MOVE SOMETHING [transitive] to cause something to move along or support something as it moves along:
This stretch of water carries a lot of shipping.
The bridge carries the main road over the railway.
Pollution was carried inland by the wind.
5. HAVE WITH YOU [transitive] to have something with you in your pocket, on your belt, in your bag etc everywhere you go:
I don’t carry a handbag. I just carry money in my pocket.
All the soldiers carried rifles.
He says he’s got to carry a knife to protect himself.
6. HAVE A QUALITY [transitive] to have something as a particular quality:
Degree qualifications carry international recognition.
Few medical procedures carry no risk of any kind.
Older managers carry more authority in a crisis.
The plan is not likely to carry much weight with (=have much influence over) the authorities.
If the child believes in what she is saying, she will carry conviction (=make others believe what she says is true).
7. NEWS/PROGRAMMES [transitive] if a newspaper, a television or radio broadcast, or a website carries a piece of news, an advertisement etc, it prints it or broadcasts it:
The morning paper carried a story about demonstrations in New York and Washington D.C.
The national TV network carries religious programmes.
8. INFORMATION [transitive] if something carries information, the information is written on it:
All tobacco products must carry a health warning.
goods carrying the label ‘Made in the USA’
9. BE RESPONSIBLE [transitive] to be responsible for doing something:
Each team member is expected to carry a fair share of the workload.
Which minister carries responsibility for the police?
Parents carry the burden of ensuring that children go to school.
10. SHOP [transitive] if a shop carries goods, it has a supply of them for sale:
The sports shop carries a full range of equipment.
11. BUILDING [transitive] if a wall etc carries something, it supports the weight of that thing:
These two columns carry the whole roof.
12. TAKE SOMEBODY/SOMETHING [transitive] to take something or someone to a new place, point, or position
carry somebody/something to something
The President wanted to carry the war to the northern states.
Blair carried his party to victory in 1997.
carry somebody/something into something
Clinton carried his campaign into Republican areas.
13. DISEASE [transitive] if a person, animal, or insect carries a disease, they can pass it to other people or animals even if they are not ill themselves ⇨ carrier:
The disease is carried by a black fly which lives in the rivers.
Birds and monkeys can carry disease.
14. carry insurance/a guarantee etc to have insurance etc:
All our products carry a 12-month guarantee.
15. be/get carried away to be so excited, angry, interested etc that you are no longer really in control of what you do or say, or you forget everything else:
It’s easy to get carried away when you can do so much with the graphics software.
16. be carried along (by something) to become excited about something or determined to do something:
The crowd were carried along on a tide of enthusiasm.
You can be carried along by the atmosphere of an auction and spend more than you planned.
17. CRIME [transitive] if a crime carries a particular punishment, that is the usual punishment for the crime:
Drink-driving should carry an automatic prison sentence.
Murder still carries the death penalty.
18. SOUND [intransitive] if a sound carries, it goes a long way:
In the winter air, sounds carry clearly.
The songs of the whales carry through the water over long distances.
19. BALL [intransitive] if a ball carries a particular distance when it is thrown, hit, or kicked, it travels that distance
20. carry something in your head/mind to remember information that you need, without writing it down:
Alice carried a map of the London Underground in her head.
21. TUNE [transitive] to sing a tune using the correct notes:
I sang solos when I was six because I could carry a tune.
The highest voice carries the melody.
22. PERSUADE [transitive] to persuade a group of people to support you:
He had to carry a large majority of his colleagues to get the leadership.
Her appeal to common sense was what finally carried the day (=persuaded people to support her).
23. VOTE be carried if a suggestion, proposal etc is carried, most of the people at an official meeting vote for it and it is accepted:
The amendment was carried by 292 votes to 246.
The resolution was carried unanimously (=everyone agreed).
Those in favour of the motion raise your arm. Those against? The motion is carried (=proposal is accepted).
24. ELECTION [transitive] American English if someone carries a state or local area in a US election, they win in that state or area:
Cuban Americans play an important role in whether he carries Florida in the fall campaign.
25. YOUR BODY [transitive always + adverb/preposition] to stand and move in a particular way, or to hold part of your body in a particular way:
He had a way of carrying his head on one side.
carry yourself
She carried herself straight and with confidence.
26. carry the can (for somebody/something) British English informal to be the person who has to take the blame for something even if it was not their fault, or not their fault alone:
He has been left to carry the can for a decision he didn’t make.
27. NOT ENOUGH EFFORT [transitive] if a group carries someone who is not doing enough work, they have to manage without the work that person should be doing:
The team can’t afford to carry any weak players.
28. CHILD [intransitive and transitive] old-fashioned if a woman is carrying a child, she is ↑pregnant
29. carry all/everything before you literary to be completely successful in a struggle against other people
30. carry something too far/to extremes/to excess to do or say too much about something:
I don’t mind a joke, but this is carrying it too far.
31. WEIGHT [transitive] to weigh a particular amount more than you should or than you did:
Joe carries only nine pounds more than when he was 20.
32. carry a torch for somebody to love someone romantically who does not love you:
He’s been carrying a torch for your sister for years.
33. carry the torch of something to support an important belief or tradition when other people do not:
Leaders in the mountains carried the torch of Greek independence.
34. as fast as his/her legs could carry him/her as fast as possible:
She ran as fast as her legs could carry her.
35. ADDING NUMBERS [transitive] to put a number into the next row to the left when you are adding numbers together
⇨ ↑card-carrying, ↑cash and carry, ⇨ fetch and carry at ↑fetch1(3)
• • •
■ nouns
carry out work You’ll have to get a builder to carry out the work.
carry out your duties/responsibilities She carried out her duties very efficiently.
carry out a task/job He was unable to carry out simple tasks.
carry out research I was in Italy carrying out research for my book.
carry out a survey The committee has carried out a survey of parking problems in residential areas.
carry out a check Manufacturers carry out safety checks on all new cars.
carry out a test Forensic experts are now carrying out DNA tests.
carry out an experiment Many schools need better facilities for carrying out scientific experiments.
carry out a review The government is carrying out a review of state pension provision.
carry out a study He has carried out various studies into violent behaviour.
carry out an investigation The police will carry out an investigation into what actually happened.
carry out an inquiry A formal inquiry into the cause of death will be carried out.
carry out an assessment The company is carrying out an assessment of staff training needs.
carry out a search Here are some more ways of carrying out information searches online.
carry out an attack It became clear that terrorists had carried out the attack.
• • •
carry to have something or someone in your hands or arms when you go somewhere: She was carrying a heavy suitcase. | Mary fainted, and had to be carried inside.
tote especially American English informal to carry something such as a bag or a gun: He came out of the office toting a black leather briefcase. | Guards toting machine guns stood inside the airport.
lug to carry something heavy, with difficulty: They lugged the mail in heavy canvas bags into the building.
cart to carry something large and heavy somewhere, especially when this is annoying or hard work: We carted all the furniture upstairs.
schlep American English informal to carry something heavy: Marty schlepped the suitcases upstairs.
bear formal to carry something – used when talking about what someone has with them when they go somewhere. Bear is commonly used as a participle bearing: They arrived bearing gifts. | Anna returned, bearing a large red packet.
carry something ↔ forward phrasal verb
1. to succeed in making progress with something:
The new team have to carry the work forward.
2. to include an amount of money in a later set of figures or calculations
carry something ↔ off phrasal verb
1. to do something difficult successfully:
I was flattered to be offered the job but wasn’t sure if I could carry it off.
2. to win a prize:
a film that carried off three Oscars
carry on phrasal verb
1. especially British English to continue doing something:
Sorry, I interrupted you. Please carry on.
carry on doing something
You’ll have an accident if you carry on driving like that.
carry on with
I want to carry on with my course.
carry on as usual/as you are/regardless etc
2. to continue moving:
He stopped and looked back, then carried on down the stairs.
Carry straight on until you get to the traffic lights.
3. carry on something if you carry on a particular kind of work or activity, you do it or take part in it:
Mr Dean carried on his baking business until he retired.
It was so noisy it was hard to carry on a conversation.
4. spoken to talk in an annoying way
carry on about
I wish everyone would stop carrying on about it.
5. old-fashioned to have a sexual relationship with someone, when you should not:
Lucy confessed to carrying on behind her husband’s back.
carry on with
She was carrying on with a neighbour.
carry something ↔ out phrasal verb
1. to do something that needs to be organized and planned:
We need to carry out more research.
A survey is now being carried out nationwide.
Turn off the water supply before carrying out repairs.
In written English, people often use conduct when writing about research, experiments etc, because this sounds more formal than carry out:
▪ They conducted experiments to test this theory.
2. to do something that you have said you will do or that someone has asked you to do:
Nicholson didn’t carry out his threat to take legal action.
We carried out her instructions precisely.
Will the government carry out its promise to reform the law?
• • •
■ nouns
carry out work You’ll have to get a builder to carry out the work.
carry out your duties/responsibilities She carried out her duties very efficiently.
carry out a task/job He was unable to carry out simple tasks.
carry out research I was in Italy carrying out research for my book.
carry out a survey The committee has carried out a survey of parking problems in residential areas.
carry out a check Manufacturers carry out safety checks on all new cars.
carry out a test Forensic experts are now carrying out DNA tests.
carry out an experiment Many schools need better facilities for carrying out scientific experiments.
carry out a review The government is carrying out a review of state pension provision.
carry out a study He has carried out various studies into violent behaviour.
carry out an investigation The police will carry out an investigation into what actually happened.
carry out an inquiry A formal inquiry into the cause of death will be carried out.
carry out an assessment The company is carrying out an assessment of staff training needs.
carry out a search Here are some more ways of carrying out information searches online.
carry out an attack It became clear that terrorists had carried out the attack.
carry something ↔ over phrasal verb
1. if something is carried over into a new situation, it continues to exist in the new situation:
The pain and violence of his childhood were carried over into his marriage.
2. to make an official arrangement to do something or use something at a later time:
Up to five days’ holiday can be carried over from one year to the next.
carry somebody/something through phrasal verb
1. to complete or finish something successfully, in spite of difficulties:
I’m determined to carry this through.
2. carry somebody through (something) to help someone to manage during an illness or a difficult period:
Her confidence carried her through.

Oxford Advanced Learner's Dictionary


carry [carry carries carried carrying]   [ˈkæri]    [ˈkæri]  verb (car·ries, carry·ing, car·ried, car·ried)


1. transitive ~ sb/sth to support the weight of sb/sth and take them or it from place to place; to take sb/sth from one place to another
He was carrying a suitcase.
She carried her baby in her arms.
• The injured were carried away on stretchers.

• a train carrying commuters to work

2. transitive ~ sth to have sth with you and take it wherever you go
• Police in many countries carry guns.

• I never carry much money on me.  



3. transitive ~ sth to contain and direct the flow of water, electricity, etc
• a pipeline carrying oil

• The veins carry blood to the heart.  



4. transitive ~ sth if a person, an insect, etc. carries a disease, they are infected with it and might spread it to others although they might not become sick themselves

• Ticks can carry a nasty disease which affects humans.  




5. transitive ~ sth in your head/mind to be able to remember sth  

6. transitive ~ sth to support the weight of sth

• A road bridge has to carry a lot of traffic.  



7. transitive ~ sth to accept responsibility for sth; to suffer the results of sth
He is carrying the department (= it is only working because of his efforts).

• Their group was targeted to carry the burden of job losses.  



8. transitive ~ sth to have sth as a quality or feature
Her speech carried the ring of authority.
My views don't carry much weight with (= have much influence on) the boss.

• Each bike carries a ten-year guarantee.

9. transitive ~ sth to have sth as a result
• Crimes of violence carry heavy penalties.

• Being a combat sport, karate carries with it the risk of injury.  



10. intransitive + noun + adv./prep. if sth that is thrown, kicked, etc. carries a particular distance, it travels that distance before stopping

• The fullback's kick carried 50 metres into the crowd.  




11. intransitive (+ adv./prep.) if a sound carries, it can be heard a long distance away  

12. transitive ~ sth/sb to/into sth to take sth/sb to a particular point or in a particular direction
• The war was carried into enemy territory.

• Her abilities carried her to the top of her profession.  



13. transitive, usually passive ~ sth to approve of sth by more people voting for it than against it

• The resolution was carried by 340 votes to 210.

14. transitive to win the support or sympathy of sb; to persuade people to accept your argument
~ sb His moving speech was enough to carry the audience.

~ sth She nodded in agreement, and he saw he had carried his point.  



15. transitive ~ sth to have a particular label or piece of information attached

• Cigarettes carry a health warning.  




16. transitive ~ sth if a newspaper or broadcast carries a particular story, it publishes or broadcasts it  

17. transitive ~ sth if a shop/store carries a particular item, it has it for sale

• We carry a range of educational software.  



18. transitive be carrying sb to be pregnant with sb

• She was carrying twins.  



19. transitive ~ yourself + adv./prep. to hold or move your head or body in a particular way

• to carry yourself well  



20. transitive ~ sth to add a number to the next column on the left when adding up numbers, for example when the numbers add up to more than ten
more at carry/win the day at  day, carry/take sth too, etc. far at  far  adv., as fast as your legs can carry you at  fast  adv., fetch and carry at  fetch 
Idioms: carried away  carry a torch for somebody  carry all before you  carry the ball  carry the can
Derived: carry on  carry over  carry somebody back  carry somebody through  carry somebody through something  carry something forward  carry something off  carry something on  carry something out  carry something over  carry something through  carry through
See also: carry something over
Verb forms:

Word Origin:
late Middle English: from Anglo-Norman French and Old Northern French carier, based on Latin carrus ‘wheeled vehicle’.  
carry verb
1. T
I'll carry your bags.
informal lugcart|especially AmE, informal tote|old-fashioned formal bear
carry/lug/cart/tote/bear sth to/from/up/along sth
carry/lug/cart/tote sth around
carry/bear sth on your back
2. T
a train carrying hundreds of commuters
carry/transport/take/bring/ferry/deliver sb/sth to/from sb/sth
carry/transport/take/bring/ferry sb/sth back/home
carry/transport/take/bring/ferry/deliver sb/sth by car/rail/truck, etc.
Carry or transport? Carry is used especially to talk about people, transport to talk about goods.  
Example Bank:
I always carry my diary with me.
I don't like carrying a lot of money around.
She expected him to do all the fetching and carrying.
the training necessary to enable them to carry out their duties
A train carrying hundreds of commuters was derailed this morning.
Blood vessels carry blood to every part of the body.
He carried her on his back for over five miles.
He carries around an ancient old blanket.
He is carrying the whole department.
He was carrying a battered suitcase.
How are we going to get this home? It's too heavy to carry.
Several of the ships carrying troops to the area were torpedoed.
She carried a tiny baby in her arms.
Some of the protesters were carrying placards.
The boat can carry up to five people.
The heated air is carried by flues to the walls.
The little girl was exhausted and wanted to be carried.
The pipelines carry oil across Siberia.
The truck was carrying illegal drugs worth up to $2 million.
• We do carry green tea, but we don't have any (in stock) right now.

• Women here have to carry water two miles from the nearest well.

Cambridge Advanced Learner's Dictionary

Cambridge Advanced Learner's Dictionary - 4th Edition

carry / ˈkær.i /   / ˈker- / verb [ I or T ] (TRANSPORT)

A1 to hold something or someone with your hands, arms, or on your back and transport it or them from one place to another:

Would you like me to carry your bag for you?

She carried her tired child upstairs to bed.

These books are too heavy for me to carry.

We only had a small suitcase, so we were able to carry it onto the plane.

Robson injured his leg in the second half of the match and had to be carried off .

Thieves broke the shop window and carried off (= removed) jewellery worth thousands of pounds.

B2 to move someone or something from one place to another:

The bus that was involved in the accident was carrying children to school.

The Brooklyn Bridge carries traffic across the East River from Brooklyn to Manhattan.

Police think that the body was carried down the river (= was transported by the flow of the river) .

Underground cables carry electricity to all parts of the city.

Rubbish left on the beach during the day is carried away (= removed) at night by the tide.


carry / ˈkær.i /   / ˈker- / verb [ T ] (HAVE WITH YOU)

B1 to have something with you all the time:

Police officers in Britain do not usually carry guns.

figurative He will carry the memory of the accident with him (= will remember the accident) for ever.


carry / ˈkær.i /   / ˈker- / verb [ T ] (SPREAD)

C1 to take something from one person or thing and give it to another person or thing:

Malaria is a disease carried by mosquitoes.


carry / ˈkær.i /   / ˈker- / verb [ T ] (HAVE)

C2 to have something as a part, quality, or result:

All cigarette packets carry a government health warning.

Our cars carry a twelve-month guarantee.

His speech carried so much conviction that I had to agree with him.

In some countries, murder carries the death penalty.

I'm afraid my opinion doesn't carry any weight with (= influence) my boss.

US The salesclerk said they didn't carry (= have a supply of) sportswear.


carry / ˈkær.i /   / ˈker- / verb [ T ] (SUPPORT WEIGHT)

C2 to support the weight of something without moving or breaking:

The weight of the cathedral roof is carried by two rows of pillars.


carry / ˈkær.i /   / ˈker- / verb [ T ] (KEEP IN OPERATION)

to support, keep in operation, or make a success:

We can no longer afford to carry people who don't work as hard as they should.

Luckily they had a very strong actor in the main part and he managed to carry the whole play (= make a success of it through his own performance) .


carry / ˈkær.i /   / ˈker- / verb [ T ] (WIN)

to win the support, agreement, or sympathy of a group of people:

The management's plans to reorganize the company won't succeed unless they can carry the workforce with them.


carry / ˈkær.i /   / ˈker- / verb [ T usually passive ] (APPROVE)

to give approval, especially by voting:

The motion/proposal/resolution/bill was carried by 210 votes to 160.


carry / ˈkær.i /   / ˈker- / verb [ T ] (BROADCAST)

(of a newspaper or radio or television broadcast) to contain particular information:

This morning's newspapers all carry the same story on their front page.


carry / ˈkær.i /   / ˈker- / verb [ I ] (REACH)

to be able to reach or travel a particular distance:

The sound of the explosion carried for miles.

The ball carried high into the air and landed the other side of the fence.


carry / ˈkær.i /   / ˈker- / verb [ T usually + adv/prep ] (DEVELOP)

to develop or continue something:

Lenin carried Marx's ideas a stage further by putting them into practice.

If we carry this argument to its logical conclusion, we realize that further investment is not a good idea.

She carries tidiness to extremes/ to its limits (= she is too tidy) .

We must end here, but we can carry today's discussion forward at our next meeting.

He always carries his jokes too far (= he continues making jokes when he should have stopped) .


carry / ˈkær.i /   / ˈker- / verb (MOVE BODY)

carry yourself to move your body in a particular way:

You can tell she's a dancer from the way that she carries herself.


carry / ˈkær.i /   / ˈker- / verb [ T ] (MATHEMATICS)

to put a number into another column when doing addition


carry / ˈkær.i /   / ˈker- / verb [ T ] (BE PREGNANT WITH)

to be pregnant with a child:

It was quite a shock to learn that she was carrying twins.

I was enormous when I was carrying Josh.

© Cambridge University Press 2013


Collins COBUILD Advanced Learner’s English Dictionary


 carries, carrying, carried

 1) VERB If you carry something, you take it with you, holding it so that it does not touch the ground.
  [V n] He was carrying a briefcase...
  [V n prep/adv] He carried the plate through to the dining room...
  [V n prep/adv] She carried her son to the car...
  [V n prep/adv] If your job involves a lot of paperwork, you're going to need something to carry it all in.
 2) VERB If you carry something, you have it with you wherever you go.
  [V n] You have to carry a bleeper so that they can call you in at any time.
 3) VERB If something carries a person or thing somewhere, it takes them there.
  [V n adv/prep] Flowers are designed to attract insects which then carry the pollen from plant to plant...
  [V n adv/prep] The delegation was carrying a message of thanks to President Mubarak...
  [V n] The ship could carry seventy passengers.
 4) VERB If a person or animal is carrying a disease, they are infected with it and can pass it on to other people or animals.
  [V n] The official number of people carrying the AIDS virus is low...
  [V n] Frogs eat pests which destroy crops and carry diseases.
 5) VERB: no passive, no cont If an action or situation has a particular quality or consequence, you can say that it carries it.
  [V n] Check that any medication you're taking carries no risk for your developing baby...
  [V n] Individualism, and the breakdown of social harmony, had a constructive purpose. But they also carried a price.
 6) VERB If a quality or advantage carries someone into a particular position or through a difficult situation, it helps them to achieve that position or deal with that situation.
  [V n prep/adv] He had the ruthless streak necessary to carry him into the Cabinet...
  [V n prep/adv] The warmth and strength of their relationship carried them through difficult times.
 7) VERB If you carry an idea or a method to a particular extent, you use or develop it to that extent.
  [V n prep/adv] It's not such a new idea, but I carried it to extremes...
  [V n prep/adv] We could carry that one step further by taking the same genes and putting them into another crop.
 8) VERB If a newspaper or poster carries a picture or a piece of writing, it contains it or displays it.
  [V n] Several papers carry the photograph of Mr Anderson.
 9) VERB: usu passive In a debate, if a proposal or motion is carried, a majority of people vote in favour of it.
  [be V-ed] A motion backing its economic policy was carried by 322 votes to 296.
 10) VERB: no cont If a crime carries a particular punishment, a person who is found guilty of that crime will receive that punishment.
  [V n] It was a crime of espionage and carried the death penalty.
 11) VERB If a sound carries, it can be heard a long way away.
  [V adv] Even in this stillness Leaphorn doubted if the sound would carry far. [Also V]
 12) VERB: no passive If a candidate or party carries a state or area, they win the election in that state or area. [AM]
  [V n] George W. Bush carried the state with 56 percent of the vote.(in BRIT, usually use take)
 13) VERB If you carry yourself in a particular way, you walk and move in that way.
  [V pron-refl prep/adv] They carried themselves with great pride and dignity.
 14) VERB: usu cont If a woman is carrying a child, she is pregnant. [OLD-FASHIONED]
  [V n] There are many theories that claim to be able to predict whether you're carrying a boy or a girl.
 15) PHRASE: V inflects If you get carried away or are carried away, you are so eager or excited about something that you do something hasty or foolish.
  I got completely carried away and almost cried.
  lose control
  keep control
 16) PHRASE: V inflects If a person or team carries all before them, they succeed very easily.
  In the formative years their alliance carried all before it.
 17) to carry the cansee can
 to carry convictionsee conviction
 to carry the daysee day
 to carry weightsee weight
  Phrasal Verbs:
  - carry off
  - carry on
  - carry out
  - carry over
  - carry through

Merriam-Webster's Advanced Learner's Dictionary

Merriam-Webster's Advanced Learner's Dictionary: 

1car·ry /ˈkeri/ verb -ries; -ried; -ry·ing
1 [+ obj] : to move (something) while holding and supporting it
• She helped me carry [=transport] the boxes out to my car.
• I'll carry your luggage to your room.
• He was carrying his baby daughter in his arms.
• For two months, I carried the book around with me everywhere I went.
• The waitress carried away our empty dinner plates.
• The wind carried the smoke away from the campsite.
• These planes can carry up to 300 passengers.
• a ship carrying thousands of gallons of oil
- sometimes used figuratively
• Your talent will carry you far. [=it will make you very successful]
• She intended the play to carry audiences toward a sense of peace and understanding.
• She still carries the memories of an unhappy childhood.
• The song carries me back to [=it makes me remember] my first year of college.
2 [+ obj] : to contain and direct the flow of (water, electricity, etc.)
• Oil is carried to the factory through these pipes.
• We installed gutters that will carry water away from the house.
• blood vessels that carry blood to the heart
• These cables carry electricity to hundreds of homes.
• The bridge carries traffic in two directions.
3 [+ obj] : to have (something) with you or on your body
• Do police officers carry guns when they're off duty?
• This bus driver doesn't carry change, so please have the exact fare ready.
• I always carry $20 in case of an emergency.
• tourists carrying cameras
4 [+ obj] : to be able to give (a disease or a gene) to others even though you may not be affected by it
• One percent of the population now carries the virus, and one in three will suffer symptoms of the disease.
5 [+ obj] : to be pregnant with (a baby)
• She's carrying her second child.
6 [+ obj] : to hold (your body or your head) in a particular way
• He's over 80 years old and still carries himself erect/upright like a soldier.
• Be proud of yourself. Walk tall and carry your head high!
• She always carries [=(more formally) comports] herself with dignity and grace.
7 [+ obj]
a : to have (something) in a store and ready to be sold : to keep (something) in stock
• Our grocery store carries a good selection of wines.
• We no longer carry that brand.
b : to have (someone or something) on a list or record
• The company carries nearly 200 employees on its payroll.
8 [+ obj]
a : to have (something) as a quality or characteristic
• All of our products carry a lifetime guarantee.
• Your promises would carry more weight [=they would be more meaningful] if you didn't break them so often.
b : to be marked or labeled with (something)
• Cigarettes are required to carry a government health warning.
• men who carry the physical scars of war
9 [+ obj] : to have (something) as a result or consequence
• Such crimes carry [=entail, involve] a heavy penalty.
• The surgery does carry certain risks.
- often + with
• You must understand that the job carries with it great responsibility.
10 [+ obj] : to have (something) as a duty or responsibility
• I'm carrying a full course load this semester.
• He carries the weight of the world on his shoulders. [=he feels much pressure because he has great responsibilities]
11 [+ obj] : to be responsible for the success of (something or someone)
• He's a player that's capable of carrying a team on his own.
• Her spectacular performance as Carmen carried the opera.
12 a [+ obj] : to make (something) continue
• They carried [=took, extended] the game into the 10th inning.
• The newspaper carried the story over to the following page.
• The design calls for the columns to be carried all the way up to the top of the building.
carrying the war to another continent
b [no obj] : to travel a long distance
• His deep voice carries well.
• Baseballs don't carry well in cold weather.
13 [+ obj] : to continue (something) beyond a normal or acceptable limit
• He realized that he had carried the joke too far and hurt her feelings.
- see also carry (something) to extremes at 2extreme
14 [+ obj] : to sing (a tune) correctly
• I've never been able to carry a tune.
15 [+ obj] : to present (a story, sports event, TV show, etc.) to the public
• Channel 9 will carry the game.
• Every local newspaper carried [=ran] the photograph.
• The trial was carried live [=broadcast as it was happening] on television.
16 a : to cause (a bill or an official proposal) to be passed or adopted

[+ obj]

- often used as (be) carried
• The bill was carried in the Senate by a vote of 75–25.

[no obj]

• He called for a motion to stop debate, but the motion did not carry.
• The motion carried unanimously. [=everyone voted to pass it]
b [+ obj] chiefly US : to win a majority of votes in (a state, legislature, etc.)
• The bill carried the Senate by a vote of 75–25.
• In the presidential election of 1936, Franklin D. Roosevelt carried [=won, took] all the states except Maine and Vermont.
17 [+ obj] : to move (a number) from one column to another when you are adding numbers together
• When you added these two numbers, you forgot to carry the 1.
be/get carried away : to be so excited that you are no longer in control of your behavior
• I shouldn't have behaved like that. I just got carried away.
• Just relax! There's no need to get carried away.
• They allowed themselves to be carried away by fear.
carry all/everything before you literary : to be completely successful
• This young boxer has the talent to carry all before him.
carry a torch for
- see 1torch
carry coals to Newcastle
- see coal
carry into effect
- see 1effect
carry off [phrasal verb] carry off (something) or carry (something) off
1 : to do (something difficult) successfully : to achieve or accomplish (something)
• He tried to look cool but couldn't carry it off. [=pull it off]
• She's the only actress I know with enough talent to carry this off.
2 : to win (something)
• We carried off the prize.
carry on [phrasal verb]
1 : to continue to do what you have been doing
• I didn't mean to interrupt you—please carry on.
• She carried on as if nothing had happened. : to continue despite problems
• I know it's difficult, but you need to carry on as best you can.
2 : to behave or speak in an excited or foolish way
• They laughed and carried on like they were old friends.
• We were embarrassed by the way he was carrying on.
• She's always carrying on [=talking in an excited way] about her neighbors.
• screaming, crying, and carrying on
- see also carryings-on, carry-on
3 carry on (something)
a : to manage or participate in (an activity)
• She carried on an affair with her boss.
• It's too noisy in here to carry on a conversation.
• The police are carrying on [=conducting] an investigation into his murder.
carrying on a campaign against illegal drug use
b : to continue doing (something)
• The money allows us to carry on our research.
• Although the teacher spoke to them, they just carried on [=went on, kept on] talking.
c : to cause (something, such as a tradition) to continue
• We were the only ones left to carry on the tradition.
carrying on the family name
4 carry on with (something) : to continue doing or participating in (an activity)
• Please carry on with what you were doing.
• They carried on with their conversation.
5 carry on with (someone) chiefly Brit old-fashioned : to have an often immoral sexual relationship with (someone)
• I found out that he had been carrying on with [=(more commonly) fooling around with] my sister.
carry out [phrasal verb] carry (something) out or carry out (something)
1 : to do and complete (something)
• We carried out several experiments to test the theory.
• An investigation carried out several years ago revealed no new information.
2 : to act on (a promise, plan, etc.) : to do something that you said you would do or that someone has asked you to do
• She failed to carry out [=fulfill] her promise.
• The town has plans to build a new school, but it currently lacks the money to carry them out.
• You'll be paid when you've carried out [=executed] your instructions/orders/duties.
- see also carryout
carry over [phrasal verb]
1 : to continue to exist or be seen in another place or situation
• His unhappiness at home carried over into/to his work.
• Her abilities in singing didn't carry over to acting.
2 carry (something) over or carry over (something) : to cause or allow (something) to continue in another place or situation
• People can carry bad eating habits learned in childhood over to/into adulthood.
- see also carryover
carry the ball
- see 1ball
carry the can
- see 2can
carry the day
- see day
carry the torch
- see 1torch
carry through [phrasal verb]
1 a : to continue to exist or happen - usually + to
• The yellow and blue theme in the kitchen carries through to the rest of the house.
• Our conversation carried through to dessert.
b : to continue to do something - usually + to
• Though extremely tired, she managed to carry through to the finish.
2 carry through with/on (something) US : to do (something that you said you would do)
• The mayor carried through [=followed through] on her promise to clean up the city.
• We're beginning to carry through with [=carry out] our plans.
3 carry (something) through : to successfully finish or complete (something that you have begun or said you will do)
• Whatever project you begin, you must carry it through to completion.
4 a carry (someone) through : to help or allow (someone) to survive or continue
• We had enough supplies to carry us through (until spring).
• His faith carried him through.
b carry (someone) through (something) : to help or allow (someone) to survive or continue during (a period of time)
• We had enough supplies to carry us through the winter.
• His faith carried him through a difficult time in his life.
• I borrowed a few more books to carry me through the summer.
fetch and carry
- see fetch


manner [noun] (BEHAVIOUR)

the usual way in which you behave towards other people, or the way you behave on a particular occasion

US /ˈmæn.ɚ/ 
UK /ˈmæn.ər/ 

(طرز) رفتار، خو، عادت‌


I found his manner extremely unpleasant.

There’s something about his manner I don’t like.

به نظرم رفتارش بی‌نهایت بد بود.

چیزی در رفتارش هست که خوشم نمی‌آید.

Oxford Essential Dictionary



1 the way that you do something or the way that something happens:
Don't get angry. Let's try to talk about this in a calm manner.

2 manners (plural) the way you behave when you are with other people:
It's bad manners to talk with your mouth full.

Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English


manner S3 W2 /ˈmænə $ -ər/ BrE AmE noun
[Date: 1100-1200; Language: Old French; Origin: maniere 'way of acting, way of handling', from Latin manuarius 'of the hand', from manus 'hand']
1. [singular] formal the way in which something is done or happens
manner of (doing) something
It seemed rather an odd manner of deciding things.
He felt some guilt over the manner of her death.
in a ... manner
I had hoped you would behave in a more responsible manner.
The issue will be resolved in a manner that is fair to both sides.
criticism of the manner in which the bishop was appointed
in the usual/normal etc manner
The matter should be submitted to the accounts committee in the usual manner.
In everyday English, people usually say in a ... way rather than in a ... manner, or they use an adverb instead:
▪ They behaved in a very reasonable way.
▪ They behaved very reasonably.
2. [singular] the way in which someone behaves towards or talks to other people:
She has a calm relaxed manner.
manner towards
Something in Beth’s manner towards him had changed.
Sophie resented his high-handed manner.
3. manners [plural] polite ways of behaving in social situations:
Her children all had such good manners.
It’s bad manners to talk with your mouth full (=talk and eat at the same time).
His manners were impeccable.
Dad gave us a lecture about our table manners.
You mind your manners, young man!
‘Lesley just got up and left.’ ‘Some people have no manners.’
Good heavens, child, where are your manners?
4. manners [plural] formal the customs of a particular group of people:
a book about the life and manners of Victorian London
5. in a manner of speaking in some ways, though not exactly:
‘Are you his girlfriend?’ Nicola asked. ‘In a manner of speaking.’
6. all manner of something formal many different kinds of things or people:
We would discuss all manner of subjects.
The British Isles have been conquered by all manner of people.
7. in the manner of somebody/something formal in the style that is typical of a particular person or thing:
a painting in the manner of the early Impressionists
8. what manner of ...? literary what kind of:
What manner of son would treat his mother in such a way?
9. not by any manner of means British English spoken formal not at all:
I haven’t lost my interest in politics by any manner of means.
10. (as) to the manner born if you do something new as to the manner born, you do it in a natural confident way, as if you have done it many times before
• • •
COLLOCATIONS (for Meaning 3)
■ verbs
have good/bad manners All their children have such good manners.
mind your manners (also remember your manners British English) (=used for telling a child to behave politely) I frowned at him and told him to mind his manners.
have no manners (=regularly not behave politely) He has no manners and he eats like a pig.
forget your manners (=behave in an impolite way) Oh, I’m forgetting my manners. Let me introduce you to Suzanne.
teach somebody manners (=often used when criticizing someone’s impolite behaviour) Those girls need to be taught some manners!
■ phrases
it’s good/bad manners to do something It’s bad manners to chew with your mouth open.
where are your manners? British English (=used for telling a child to stop behaving impolitely) Jamie! Where are your manners?
good manners Good manners could not prevent her from asking the question.
bad manners She apologized for her son’s bad manners.
excellent/beautiful manners (=very good manners) Her children have excellent manners.
perfect/impeccable manners Suddenly, his perfect manners were gone.
nice manners (=good manners) She has such nice manners.
table manners (=the polite way of eating at a table) My parents expected us to have good table manners.
• • •
behaviour British English, behavior American English the way someone behaves: Chemicals added to food may be responsible for children’s bad behaviour. | Tatsuya apologized for his behaviour towards me.
conduct formal the way someone behaves in public or in their job – used mainly in official or legal contexts: Bates was arrested and charged with disorderly conduct (=noisy and violent). | The committee found him guilty of unsatisfactory professional conduct.
manner the way someone behaves when they are talking to or dealing with other people, which is shown in their expression, their voice etc: She had a pleasant friendly manner. | Suddenly his whole manner changed, and he started shouting. | His initial manner towards her had been rather formal.
demeanour British English, demeanor American English formal the way someone looks and behaves, which shows you something about their character or feelings: She maintained a calm demeanour at all times. | Wenger’s demeanour suggested that he was not happy with the situation.
antics someone’s behaviour – used when you think it is silly, funny, strange, or annoying: The drunken antics of some English football fans has brought shame on the country. | The actor is becoming known for his increasingly bizarre off-screen antics.

Oxford Advanced Learner's Dictionary


man·ner [manner manners]   [ˈmænə(r)]    [ˈmænər]  noun
1. singular (formal) the way that sth is done or happens
She answered in a businesslike manner.

• The manner in which the decision was announced was extremely regrettable.

2. singular the way that sb behaves towards other people
to have an aggressive/a friendly/a relaxed manner
• His manner was polite but cool.

see also  bedside manner

3. manners plural behaviour that is considered to be polite in a particular society or culture
to have good/bad manners
It is bad manners to talk with your mouth full.
He has no manners (= behaves very badly).
• She could at least have the good manners to let me know she won't be able to attend.

see also  table manners

4. manners plural (formal) the habits and customs of a particular group of people

• the social morals and manners of the seventeenth century

Rem: or
Idioms: all manner of somebody  in a manner of speaking  in the manner of somebody  the manner born  what manner of …  
Word Origin:
Middle English: from Old French maniere, based on Latin manuarius ‘of the hand’, from manus ‘hand’.  
manner noun
1. sing. (formal)
She answered in a business-like manner.
a manner/way/style of (doing) sth
in a (…) manner/way/style
a traditional/conventional/different/casual/informal/formal manner/way/style/approach
have/adopt a/an manner/way/style/approach
2. sing.
She has a friendly, relaxed manner.
sb's general manner/air/appearance
a confident manner/air/appearance
have a …manner/air/appearance/look
3. manners pl.
It is bad manners to talk with your mouth full.
politenessetiquettecourtesyrespectgraceformality|formal civility
good manners/grace
show manners/politeness/courtesy/respect 
Example Bank:
All claims must be settled in a professional and timely manner.
Chemical waste must be disposed of in an environmentally responsible manner.
Didn't your parents teach you any manners?
Files have been stored in such a haphazard manner that they are impossible to find.
Forgive my manners. I forgot to introduce myself.
He answered in such an off-hand manner that I wondered if he'd misheard me.
He could at least have had the manners to answer my letter.
He had very bad table manners.
He lectured us in the manner of a headmaster.
He tends to adopt a condescending manner when talking to young women.
He told her in no uncertain manner that her actions were unacceptable.
He was behaving in a highly suspicious manner.
He was not as loutish as his manner suggested.
He's a good doctor with a sympathetic bedside manner.
Her brusque manner concealed a caring nature.
Her lack of manners is appalling.
His children have no table manners.
His manner changed abruptly when he heard how much I wanted.
His no-nonsense manner gave him the reputation of being a good doctor.
I did my best to behave in the appropriate manner.
I disliked him but I knew my manners so I answered his question.
I got into trouble if I didn't show good manners towards/toward other people.
I'm sorry, I was forgetting my manners. Can I offer you a drink?
It's not good manners to stare at people.
Now sit down and eat and mind your manners!
She accused the teacher of not acting in a professional manner.
She has a very pleasant telephone manner.
The authoritative manner in which he talked concealed his ignorance.
The dispute could have been handled in a more constructive manner.
The inspection was conducted in a thoroughly professional manner.
There was something in his manner that I found very irritating.
You are not approaching the problem in the correct manner.
His manner was polite but cool.
She answered in a business-like manner.
She has a friendly, relaxed manner.
The manner in which the decision was taken is extremely regrettable.
• They shouldn't be treated in such an offhand manner.

• Your complaint should be dealt with in an efficient manner.

Cambridge Advanced Learner's Dictionary

Cambridge Advanced Learner's Dictionary - 4th Edition

manner / ˈmæn.ə r /   / -ɚ / noun [ S ] (BEHAVIOUR)

B2 the usual way in which you behave towards other people, or the way you behave on a particular occasion:

She has a rather cold, unfriendly manner.

As soon as he realized that we weren't going to buy anything, his whole manner changed.


manner / ˈmæn.ə r /   / -ɚ / noun (WAY)

B2 [ S ] the way in which something is done:

She stared at me in an accusing manner.

He was elected in the normal manner.

It was the manner of her death that stuck in the public's mind.

in the manner of sth in the style of something:

Her latest film is a suspense thriller very much in the manner of Hitchcock.


manner / ˈmæn.ə r /   / -ɚ / noun (POLITE BEHAVIOUR)

manners B2 [ plural ] polite ways of treating other people and behaving in public:

He needs to be taught some manners.

It's bad manners to eat with your mouth open.

It's considered good manners in some societies to leave a little food on your plate.


manner / ˈmæn.ə r /   / -ɚ / noun [ U ] formal (TYPE)

a type:

Very little is known about the new candidate - what manner of man is he?

© Cambridge University Press 2013

Collins COBUILD Advanced Learner’s English Dictionary



 1) N-SING: with supp The manner in which you do something is the way that you do it.
  She smiled again in a friendly manner...
  I'm a professional and I have to conduct myself in a professional manner...
  The manner in which young children are spoken to varies depending on who is present.
 2) N-SING: with supp If something is done in the manner of something else, it is done in the style of that thing.
  It's a satire somewhat in the manner of Dickens...
  We kissed each other's cheeks in the European manner.
 3) N-SING: usu poss N Someone's manner is the way in which they behave and talk when they are with other people, for example whether they are polite, confident, or bad-tempered.
  His manner was self-assured and brusque...
  Her manner offstage, like her manner on, is somewhat surly.
  Derived words:
  -mannered COMB in ADJ-GRADED Forrest was normally mild-mannered, affable, and untalkative... The British are considered ill-mannered, badly dressed and unsophisticated.
 4) N-PLURAL If someone has good manners, they are polite and observe social customs. If someone has bad manners, they are impolite and do not observe these customs.
  He dressed well and had impeccable manners...
  The manners of many doctors were appalling...
  They taught him his manners.
 5) → See also bedside manner, table manners
 6) PHRASE: PHR n If you refer to all manner of objects or people, you are talking about objects or people of many different kinds.
  Mr Winchester is impressively knowledgeable about all manner of things.
  ...her pictures of all manner of wildlife.
 7) PHRASE: PHR with cl (vagueness) You say in a manner of speaking to indicate that what you have just said is true, but not absolutely or exactly true.
  An attorney is your employee, in a manner of speaking...
  `You said she was a poor widow lady!' - `In a manner of speaking she is,' Alison said.
  in a way
 8) PHRASE: PHR n You use what manner of to suggest that the person or thing you are about to mention is of an unusual or unknown kind. [LITERARY]
  There was much curiosity about what manner of man he was...
  What manner of place is this?

Merriam-Webster's Advanced Learner's Dictionary

Merriam-Webster's Advanced Learner's Dictionary: 


man·ner /ˈmænɚ/ noun, pl -ners
1 [singular] somewhat formal : the way that something is done or happens
• She has a very forceful manner of speaking.
• I objected to the manner in which the decision was made.
- often used after in
• Continue stirring in this manner until the sauce thickens.
In this manner, we were able to save enough money for a new car.
In what manner was the data collected? [=how was the data collected?]
• We worked in a quick manner. [=we worked quickly]
• She taught her class in an informal manner.
• He always begins his stories in the same manner.
• We were allowed to spend the money in any manner we wanted.
2 a [count] : the way that a person normally behaves especially while with other people - usually singular
• He had a gentle manner (about him).
• He listened patiently to his children, as was his manner.
• It was her energetic and friendly manner that got her the job.
- see also bedside manner
b manners [plural] : behavior while with other people
• His children have excellent manners. [=his children behave very well]
• It's bad manners [=it is impolite] to talk with your mouth full.
c manners [plural] : knowledge of how to behave politely while with other people
• Some people have no manners.
• Someone should teach you some manners!
• He forgot his manners and reached across the table for the salt.
✦To remember/mind your manners is to behave in a polite and proper way.
• “Mind your manners,” Mom said sternly, “and thank your uncle for the nice gifts.”
- see also table manners
3 [singular] : an artistic style or method
• He painted this picture in his early manner.
- often used in the phrase in/after the manner of
• She wrote after the manner of [=in the style of] her favorite poet.
• This church was built in the manner of the English Gothic style.
all manner of : all kinds or sorts of (things or people)
• The store sells all manner of musical instruments.
All manner of people come to the city.
in a manner of speaking
- used to say that a statement is true or accurate in a certain way even if it is not literally or completely true
• His retirement was, in a manner of speaking, the beginning of his real career.
• After the storm destroyed their house, they were, in a manner of speaking [=so to speak, as it were], lost at sea. [=they felt lost and confused after their house was destroyed]
not by any manner of means
- see means
to the manner born : suited to a particular position, role, or status in a way that seems very natural
• He had never been on a boat before, but he walked along the deck as if to the manner born.
what manner of old-fashioned + literary : what kind or sort of
What manner of person could have committed such a crime?
What manner of woman is she to have done something like that?


intimidating [adjective]

making you feel frightened or nervous

US /ɪnˈtɪm.ə.deɪ.t̬ɪŋ/ 
UK /ɪnˈtɪm.ɪ.deɪ.tɪŋ/ 

هراسناک، وحشتناک


She can be very intimidating when she's angry.

Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English


intimidating /ɪˈtɪmədeɪtɪŋ, ɪˈtɪmɪdeɪtɪŋ/ BrE AmE adjective
making you feel worried and not confident:
Some people find interview situations very intimidating.
• • •
frightening making you feel frightened: Being held at gunpoint had been the most frightening moment of his life. | The experience was very frightening.
scary especially spoken frightening. Scary is less formal than frightening and is very common in everyday English: The movie was really scary. | There were some scary moments.
chilling frightening, especially because violence, cruelty, or danger is involved: a chilling tale of revenge, murder and madness | The court heard chilling details about the attack.
spooky frightening and strange, especially because something involves ghosts or powers that people do not understand: The forest is really spooky in the dark. | a spooky coincidence | spooky stories
creepy informal frightening in a way that makes you feel nervous, especially when you are not sure exactly why – used especially about places, people, and feelings: This place is really creepy. Let’s get out of here. | a creepy guy | Do you know that creepy feeling when you're sure someone’s there but you can’t see or hear anything?
eerie especially literary strange and frightening: There was an eerie silence immediately after the bomb went off. | an eerie light | an eerie feeling
intimidating making you feel frightened, nervous, or lacking in confidence: Big schools can be an intimidating place for young children. | Giving evidence in court is often a rather intimidating experience. | the intimidating presence of a large number of soldiers
menacing frightening because you think someone is going to hurt you, even though they have not said or done anything violent – used especially about someone’s expression or voice: The woman had a very menacing look. | ‘I’d like to have a word with you outside,’ he said in a menacing tone.

Oxford Advanced Learner's Dictionary



in·timi·dat·ing [intimidating]   [ɪnˈtɪmɪdeɪtɪŋ]    [ɪnˈtɪmɪdeɪtɪŋ]  adjective
frightening in a way which makes a person feel less confident
an intimidating manner
~ for/to sb This kind of questioning can be very intimidating to children.  
Example Bank:

The atmosphere was less intimidating than I had imagined.

Cambridge Advanced Learner's Dictionary

Cambridge Advanced Learner's Dictionary - 4th Edition

intimidating / ɪnˈtɪm.ɪ.deɪ.tɪŋ /   / -t̬ɪŋ / adjective

making you feel frightened or nervous:

an intimidating array of weapons

an intimidating manner

She can be very intimidating when she's angry.

© Cambridge University Press 2013

Collins COBUILD Advanced Learner’s English Dictionary


 If you describe someone or something as intimidating, you mean that they are frightening and make people lose confidence.
  He was a huge, intimidating figure.

Merriam-Webster's Advanced Learner's Dictionary

Merriam-Webster's Advanced Learner's Dictionary: 



in·tim·i·date /ɪnˈtɪməˌdeɪt/ verb -dates; -dat·ed; -dat·ing [+ obj] : to make (someone) afraid
• He tries to intimidate his opponents.
• You shouldn't allow his reputation to intimidate you.
- often used as (be) intimidated
• Many people are intimidated by new technology.
• Some people are easily intimidated.
• She was intimidated by the size of the campus.
- intimidated adj [more ~; most ~]
• I feel less intimidated now than I did when I started the job.
- intimidating adj [more ~; most ~]
• He is one of the most intimidating men I have ever met.
• Speaking in front of a large audience can be very intimidating.
- in·tim·i·dat·ing·ly /ɪnˈtɪməˌdeɪtɪŋli/ adv
• The system is intimidatingly complex.
- in·tim·i·da·tion /ɪnˌtɪməˈdeɪʃən/ noun [noncount]
intimidation of jurors/witnesses
• enforcing agreement by intimidation or violence
- in·tim·i·da·tor /ɪnˈtɪməˌdeɪtɚ/ noun, pl -tors [count]


supposed [adjective] (DUTY)

to have to; to have a duty or a responsibility to

US /səˈpoʊzd/ 
UK /səˈpəʊzd/ 

موظف بودن، مجاز بودن، حق داشتن، اجازه داشتن


You think he was gonna

let you off without a scratch?

فکر کردی بدون این که بلایی سرت بیاره میذاشت بری

You'd still be standing there

if I hadn't hit you.

اگه نزده بودمت که الان اونجا ایستاده بودی

So am I supposed to thank you?

پس باید ازت تشکر کنم؟

You're supposed to be smart.

باید حواست باشه.

If I wanted to hurt you,

I would have.

اگه میخواستم بهت آسیبی بزنم، زده بودم.

The children are supposed to be at school by 8.45 a.m.


Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English

 be supposed to do/be something
a) used to say what someone should or should not do, especially because of rules or what someone in authority has said:
We’re supposed to check out of the hotel by 11 o'clock.
I’m not supposed to tell anyone.
What time are you supposed to be there?
b) used to say what was or is expected or intended to happen, especially when it did not happen:
No one was supposed to know about it.
The meeting was supposed to take place on Tuesday, but we’ve had to postpone it.
The new laws are supposed to prevent crime.
c) used to say that something is believed to be true by many people, although it might not be true or you might disagree:
The castle is supposed to be haunted.
‘Dirty Harry’ is supposed to be one of Eastwood’s best films.
Mrs Carver is supposed to have a lot of money.
Do not say 'be suppose to do something'. Use be supposed to:
▪ You’re supposed to take your shoes off.
▪ He’s supposed to be very clever.


sup·posed [supposed]   [səˈpəʊzd]    [səˈpoʊzd]  adjective only before noun
used to show that you think that a claim, statement or way of describing sb/sth is not true or correct, although it is generally believed to be
Syn:  alleged
This is the opinion of the supposed experts.

When did this supposed accident happen?

Oxford Advanced Learner's Dictionary

 be supposed to do/be something
1  to be expected or required to do/be something according to a rule, a custom, an arrangement, etc You're supposed to buy a ticket, but not many people do.
 I thought we were supposed to be paid today.
 The engine doesn't sound like it's supposed to.
 You were supposed to be here an hour ago!
 How was I supposed to know you were waiting for me?
 ‘Yes and no.’ ‘What is that supposed to mean?’ (= showing that you are annoyed)


2  to be generally believed or expected to be/do something I haven't seen it myself, but it's supposed to be a great movie.
 She's supposed to have had hundreds of lovers.

 not be supposed to do something
to not be allowed to do something You're not supposed to walk on the grass.
Oxford Advanced Learner's Dictionary 9th edition © Oxford University Press, 2015

Cambridge Advanced Learner's Dictionary

Cambridge Advanced Learner's Dictionary - 4th Edition

supposed / səˈpəʊzd /   / -ˈpoʊzd / adjective (DUTY)

be supposed to B2 to have to; to have a duty or a responsibility to:

The children are supposed to be at school by 8.45 a.m.

What are you doing out of bed - you're supposed to be asleep.

You're not supposed (= allowed) to park here.

© Cambridge University Press 2013

Collins COBUILD Advanced Learner’s English Dictionary


 (Pronounced [səpo͟ʊzd] or [səpo͟ʊst] for meanings 1 to 4, and [səpo͟ʊzɪd] for meaning 5.)
 1) PHR-MODAL If you say that something is supposed to happen, you mean that it is planned or expected. Sometimes this use suggests that the thing does not really happen in this way.
  He produced a hand-written list of nine men he was supposed to kill...
  Public spending is supposed to fall, not rise, in the next few years.
  is meant to
 2) PHR-MODAL If something was supposed to happen, it was planned or intended to happen, but did not in fact happen.
  He was supposed to go back to Bergen on the last bus, but of course the accident prevented him...
  The first debate was supposed to have been held on Tuesday.
 3) PHR-MODAL If you say that something is supposed to be true, you mean that people say it is true but you do not know for certain that it is true.
  `The Whipping Block' has never been published, but it's supposed to be a really good poem...
  `The President cannot be disturbed,' his son is supposed to have told an early morning caller.
  be meant to
 4) PHR-MODAL (feelings) You can use `be supposed to' to express annoyance at someone's ideas, or because something is not happening in the proper way.
  You're supposed to be my friend!...
  Don't try to tell me what I'm supposed to be feeling...
  What am I supposed to have done wrong now?
 5) ADJ: ADJ n You can use supposed to suggest that something that people talk about or believe in may not in fact exist, happen, or be as it is described.
  Not all indigenous regimes were willing to accept the supposed benefits of British trade.
  ...when the rule of law is broken by its supposed guardians.
  Derived words:
  supposedly [səpo͟ʊzɪdli] ADV ADV with v, ADV with cl/group He was more of a victim than any of the women he supposedly offended... Supposedly his last words to her were: `You must not pity me.'

Merriam-Webster's Advanced Learner's Dictionary

Merriam-Webster's Advanced Learner's Dictionary: 



sup·posed /səˈpoʊzəd/ adj always used before a noun : claimed to be true or real - used to say that a particular description is probably not true or real even though many people believe that it is
• a supposed cure for cancer
supposed experts


trade [verb] (EXCHANGE)

to exchange something, or to stop using or doing something and start using or doing something else instead

US /treɪd/ 
UK /treɪd/ 

عوض کردن، جایگزین کردن، تعویض کردن


زیرنویس کلیپ ویدیویی:

Monica: All right. I’ll prove it to you.  I'll trade you Joey for Rachel and I’ll still win the game.


Ross: Fine, fine Rachel, you're with Monica. Joey, you're with me.

باشه. ریچل برو با مونیکا. جویی تو هم با منی.

Rachel: I cannot believe you are trading me.

باورم نمیشه داری منو جابجا میکنی.

Monica: Come on Rachel, com'on. Let's see what it's like to be on a winning team for a change.

بیا ریچل بیا تا یک بار هم شده (برای تنوع) ببینیم توی تیم برنده بودن چطوره.

We traded our necklaces. 

باشه. بت ثابت میکنم. من جویی رو بت میدم، ریچل رو میگیرم و بازم بازی رو میبرم.


ما گردن بندهایمان را عوض کردیم.


Oxford Essential Dictionary


 verb (trades, trading, traded)
to buy and sell things:
Japan trades with many different countries.

Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English

II. trade2 S3 W2 BrE AmE verb
[Word Family: noun: ↑trade, ↑trader, ↑trading; verb: ↑trade]
1. [intransitive and transitive] to buy and sell goods, services etc as your job or business
trade with
India began trading with Europe in the 15th and 16th centuries.
trade in
The company trades in silk, tea, and other items.
They had to travel into town to trade the produce from their farm.
2. [intransitive] British English to exist and operate as a business:
The firm now trades under the name Lanski and Weber.
cease trading (=stop being a business because you are bankrupt)
3. [transitive usually passive] to buy or sell something on the ↑stock exchange:
Over a million shares were traded today.
4. trade insults/blows etc to insult or hit each other during an argument or fight
5. [intransitive and transitive] especially American English to exchange something you have for something someone else has SYN swap British English:
We traded necklaces.
trade something with somebody
I wouldn’t mind trading jobs with her.
trade (somebody) something for something
I’ll trade you my camera for your drill.
trade at something phrasal verb
if shares etc trade at a particular price, they cost that amount to buy
trade down phrasal verb
to replace something you own with something cheaper, or buy a cheaper type of thing than before
trade down to
Many of their customers are trading down to cheaper cigarettes.
trade something ↔ in phrasal verb
to give something such as a car to the person you are buying a new one from, as part of the payment
trade something ↔ in for
He traded his old car in for a new model.
⇨ ↑trade-in
• • •
exchange to give something to someone, and receive a similar thing from them at the same time. Exchange is often used about people telling each other about their ideas, phone numbers, addresses etc: They exchanged photographs before they met. | a place where people can exchange ideas | We exchanged email addresses. | if you are unhappy with the jacket, you can always take it back and exchange it for another one. | These coupons can be exchanged for meals and accommodation.
change to exchange something, especially money. Also used in British English about exchanging something you have bought for something different: I need to change some dollars. | She changed all her money into euros. | We thought it was time we changed our car for something more modern.
swap (also do a swap British English) informal to give something to someone, who gives you something similar: The two schools use the Internet to swap pictures, stories, and jokes. | I like your room better – do you want to do a swap?
trade (also do a trade American English) to exchange something that you have for something that someone else has: The stolen phones are being traded for drugs. | The boys trade sports cards on the playground. | We've got lots of plants we don't need – do you want to do a trade?
switch to change the places of two or more people or things, so that each one is in the place the other was before: Can I switch seats with you?
reciprocate to do or give something, because someone has done or given something similar to you – a rather formal use: They invited us to dinner a while ago, and I'd like to reciprocate.
in exchange/return (for something) if you give something in exchange or in return for something else, you give it in order to get something else back: Williams will plead guilty in exchange for a reduced sentence.
trade something ↔ off phrasal verb
to balance one situation or quality against another, in order to produce an acceptable result
trade something ↔ off for/against
Companies are under pressure to trade off price stability for short-term gains.
⇨ ↑trade-off
trade on/upon something phrasal verb
to use a situation or someone’s kindness in order to get an advantage for yourself:
If you ask me, they’re just trading on Sam’s good nature.
trade up phrasal verb
to replace something you own with something better, or buy a better type of thing than before
trade up to/from
It also encourages existing home owners to trade up to larger accommodation.

Oxford Advanced Learner's Dictionary

1. intransitive, transitive to buy and sell things
~ (in sth) (with sb) The firm openly traded in arms.
Early explorers traded directly with the Indians.
trading partners (= countries that you trade with)

~ sth (with sb) Our products are now traded worldwide.

2. intransitive to exist and operate as a business or company
• The firm has now ceased trading.

~ as sb/sth They traded as ‘Walker and Son’.

3. intransitive, transitive ~ (sth) to be bought and sold, or to buy and sell sth, on a stock exchange

• Shares were trading at under half their usual value.

4. transitive to exchange sth that you have for sth that sb else has
~ (sb) sth to trade secrets/insults/jokes
~ sth for sth She traded her posters for his CD.
~ sth with sb I wouldn't mind trading places with her for a day.
Verb forms:
Word Origin:
late Middle English (as a noun): from Middle Low German, literally track, of West Germanic origin; related to tread. Early senses included ‘course, way of life’, which gave rise in the 16th cent. to ‘habitual practice of an occupation’, ‘skilled handicraft’. The current verb senses date from the late 16th cent.  
Example Bank:
He claimed that all businesses should be able to trade freely on Sundays.
The company has now ceased trading.
The company openly traded in arms.
The company trades under the name ‘English Estates’.
They now trade as a partnership.
countries trading illegally in rhinoceros horn
publicly traded securities
After settling in Madeira they began trading in flour, sugar and leather.
Cabinet colleagues traded insults over the future of the pound.
I wouldn't mind trading places with her for a day.
• The countries are now trading partners.

• The futures contract is traded at a clean price and does not include accrued interest payments.

Cambridge Advanced Learner's Dictionary

trade / treɪd / verb (EXCHANGE)

[ T ] to exchange something, or to stop using or doing something and start using or doing something else instead:

The children traded comics.

[ + two objects ] I'll trade you some of my chocolate for some of your ice cream.

I wouldn't trade you for the world (= I do not want a different partner) .

→  See also trade sth in

[ T ] If people trade statements of a particular type, they say or tell them to each other:

We sat around the dinner table, trading stories.

The two politicians didn't really discuss the issues, they just traded insults 


trade / treɪd / adjective

trade publication/journal/magazine/paper a newspaper, etc. produced for people working in a particular business or industry:

a steel industry trade journal

Collins COBUILD Advanced Learner’s English Dictionary


 trades, trading, traded
 1) N-UNCOUNT: usu with supp Trade is the activity of buying, selling, or exchanging goods or services between people, firms, or countries.
  The ministry had direct control over every aspect of foreign trade.
  ...negotiations on a new international trade agreement...
  Texas has a long history of trade with Mexico.
 2) VERB When people, firms, or countries trade, they buy, sell, or exchange goods or services between themselves.
  They may refuse to trade, even when offered attractive prices...
  [V with n] They had years of experience of trading with the West...
  [V in n] He has been trading in antique furniture for 25 years.
  Derived words:
  trading N-UNCOUNT usu with supp Trading on the stock exchange may be suspended... Sunday trading laws will be reformed.
 3) N-COUNT: usu supp N A trade is a particular area of business or industry.
  They've completely ruined the tourist trade for the next few years.
  ...the arms trade.
 4) N-COUNT: oft poss N, also by N Someone's trade is the kind of work that they do, especially when they have been trained to do it over a period of time.
  He learnt his trade as a diver in the North Sea...
  Allyn was a jeweller by trade...
  She is a patron of small businesses and trades.
 5) V-RECIP If someone trades one thing for another or if two people trade things, they agree to exchange one thing for the other thing. [mainly AM]
  [V n for n (non-recip)] They traded land for goods and money...
  [V n for n (non-recip)] He still claims the arms weren't traded for hostages...
  [pl-n V n] Kids used to trade baseball cards...
  [V n with n] They suspected that Neville had traded secret information with Mr Foster.
 Trade is also a noun. I am willing to make a trade with you... It wouldn't exactly have been a fair trade. (in BRIT, use exchange)
 6) V-RECIP If you trade places with someone or the two of you trade places, you move into the other person's position or situation, and they move into yours. [mainly AM]
  [V n with n] Mike asked George to trade places with him so he could ride with Tod...
  [V n with n] Kennedy mischievously suggested that professors ought to trade jobs for a time with janitors...
  [pl-n V n] The receiver and the quarterback are going to trade positions.
 7) VERB In professional sports, for example football or baseball, if a player is traded from one team to another, they leave one team and begin playing for another. [AM]
  [be V-ed] He was traded from the Giants to the Yankees...
  [V n] The A's have not won a game since they traded him.(in BRIT, use transfer)
 8) V-RECIP If two people or groups trade something such as blows, insults, or jokes, they hit each other, insult each other, or tell each other jokes. [mainly AM]
  [pl-n V n] Children would settle disputes by trading punches or insults in the schoolyard...
  [V n with n] They traded artillery fire with government forces inside the city.
  Phrasal Verbs:
  - trade in
  - trade off
  - trade on
  - trade up

Merriam-Webster's Advanced Learner's Dictionary

Merriam-Webster's Advanced Learner's Dictionary: 


2trade verb trades; trad·ed; trad·ing
1 a : to give something to someone and receive something in return : to give something in exchange for something else

[no obj]

• Do you want to trade? [=swap]
• If you don't like your seat, I'll trade with you.

[+ obj]

• We traded [=switched] seats halfway through the show.
• I'll trade my chips for your popcorn. = I'll trade you my chips for your popcorn.
• I traded seats with her halfway through the show.
• The boys are on the phone trading jokes/secrets. [=telling each other jokes/secrets]
• I got tired of listening to them trade insults. [=insult each other]
• I would love to trade places with him. [=I would love to be in his situation]
b [+ obj] US sports : to give (one of your players) to another team in exchange for one of their players
• He was traded to the Yankees.
• They traded him to the Broncos.
2 [+ obj] : to stop using (one thing) and start using another
• I traded my pen for a pencil and kept writing.
3 a [no obj] : to buy, sell, or exchange goods or services - often + with or in
• The two countries continue to trade with each other.
• They are suspected of trading in illegal weapons.
• China is one of our biggest trading partners.
b : to buy and sell stocks, bonds, etc.

[+ obj]

• Their firm specializes in trading bonds.

[no obj]

• She mostly trades in stocks.
• The stock is trading at [=is being sold for] $71 a share.
4 [no obj] chiefly Brit : to exist as a company or business
• Our company trades [=does business] under the name Smith & Sons.
trade down [phrasal verb] : to sell something you own and buy a similar thing that costs less money
• They traded down to a smaller house after their children had grown up and moved away.
trade in [phrasal verb] trade (something) in or trade in (something) : to sell (something) back to a business as part of your payment for something else
• We traded our car in for a newer model.
Trade in your car and get $3,000 towards a new car!
- see also trade-in
trade off [phrasal verb]
1 trade off or trade off (something) US
- used to describe a situation in which one person does something, then another person does it, and so on
• When you get tired of driving, I'll trade off with you. = When you get tired of driving, we can trade off. [=when you get tired, I will drive for a while]
• They trade off [=take turns] babysitting each other's kids.
• Two of the band members traded off guitar solos. [=they took turns playing guitar solos]
2 trade off (something) : to give up (something that you want) in order to have something else - usually + for
• The car's designers traded off some power for greater fuel efficiency.
- see also trade-off
trade on [phrasal verb] trade on (someone or something) : to use (something) in a way that helps you : to get an advantage from (something)
• He wants to succeed by working hard instead of just trading on his good looks.
trade up [phrasal verb] : to sell something you own and buy a similar thing that is more expensive
• They keep trading up, buying larger and larger houses.


nuts [noun] (FOOD)

the dry fruit of particular trees that grows in a hard shell and can often be eaten

US /nʌts/ 
UK /nʌts/ 

ميوه‌ى مغزدار (مانند بادام‌ و پسته‌ و فندق‌ و غيره‌)


Sprinkle some roasted chopped nuts on top.

Oxford Essential Dictionary



1 a dry fruit that has a hard outside part with a seed inside. Many types of nut can be eaten:
walnuts, hazelnuts and peanuts

2 a metal ring that you put on the end of a long piece of metal (called a bolt) to fix things together

Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English


I. nut1 S3 /nʌt/ BrE AmE noun [countable]
[Language: Old English; Origin: hnutu]

1. FOOD a dry brown fruit inside a hard shell, that grows on a tree:
a pine nut
roasted nuts
We were sitting round the fire cracking nuts (=opening them).
TOOL a small piece of metal with a hole through the middle which is screwed onto a ↑bolt to fasten things together:
Use a wrench to loosen the nut.
3. CRAZY PERSON informal someone who is crazy or behaves strangely:
My dad is such a nut.
What are you, some kind of nut?
4. golf/opera etc nut informal someone who is very interested in golf etc ⇨ fanatic:
You don’t have to be a sports nut to enjoy skiing.
5. SEX ORGAN nuts [plural] informal a man’s ↑testicles
6. the nuts and bolts of something informal the practical details of a subject or job:
the nuts and bolts of government
7. tough/hard nut informal someone who is difficult to deal with:
He may have softened a bit in his old age but he’s still a tough nut.
8. a hard/tough nut to crack a difficult problem or situation:
Celtic have lost only once this season and will be a tough nut to crack.
9. be off your nut British English spoken informal to be crazy:
You must be off your nut!
10. do your nut British English spoken to become very angry or worried:
I didn’t get home till three – my mum did her nut!
11. HEAD British English spoken old-fashioned your head or brain
sb’s nut
Oh come on, use your nut!

Oxford Advanced Learner's Dictionary



nut [nut nuts nutted nutting] noun, verb   [nʌt]    [nʌt] 



1. (often in compounds) a small hard fruit with a very hard shell that grows on some trees
to crack a nut (= open it)
a Brazil nut
a hazelnut
• nuts and raisins

see also  monkey nut

2. a small piece of metal with a hole through the centre that is screwed onto a bolt to hold pieces of wood, machinery, etc. together
• to tighten a nut

• a wheel nut


3. (BrE, slang) a person's head or brain

4. (BrE also nut·ter) (informal) a strange or crazy person
• He's a complete nut, if you ask me.

see also  nuts, nutty

5. (informal) (in compounds) a person who is extremely interested in a particular subject, activity, etc

• a fitness/tennis/computer, etc. nut

6. nuts plural (slang) a man's testicles
more at use a sledgehammer to crack a nut at  sledgehammer  
Word Origin:
Old English hnutu, of Germanic origin; related to Dutch noot and German Nuss.  
Example Bank:
The documentary focuses on the real nuts and bolts of the film-making process.
a jar full of nuts and bolts
nut-allergy sufferers
I cracked a nut and ate it.
She is allergic to nuts.
Idioms: do your nut  hard nut  nuts and bolts  off your nut

Derived: nut something out 

Cambridge Advanced Learner's Dictionary

nut / nʌt / noun [ C ] (FOOD)

B2 the dry fruit of particular trees that grows in a hard shell and can often be eaten:

a Brazil/cashew nut

Sprinkle some roasted chopped nuts on top.

Collins COBUILD Advanced Learner’s English Dictionary


 1) N-COUNT The firm shelled fruit of some trees and bushes are called nuts. Some nuts can be eaten.
 → See also groundnut, hazelnut, peanut
  Nuts and seeds are good sources of vitamin E.
 2) N-COUNT A nut is a thick metal ring which you screw onto a metal rod called a bolt. Nuts and bolts are used to hold things such as pieces of machinery together.
  If you want to repair the wheels you just undo the four nuts.
  ...nuts and bolts that haven't been tightened up.
 3) N-COUNT: usu with supp If you describe someone as, for example, a football nut or a health nut, you mean that they are extremely enthusiastic about the thing mentioned. [INFORMAL]
  ...a football nut who spends thousands of pounds travelling to watch games.
 4) ADJ: v-link ADJ about n (feelings) If you are nuts about something or someone, you like them very much. [INFORMAL]
  They're nuts about the car...
  She's nuts about you.
 5) N-COUNT (disapproval) If you refer to someone as a nut, you mean that they are mad. [INFORMAL]
  There's some nut out there with a gun.
 6) ADJ: v-link ADJ If you say that someone goes nuts or is nuts, you mean that they go crazy or are very foolish. [INFORMAL]
  You guys are nuts...
  A number of the French players went nuts, completely out of control.
 7) N-PLURAL A man's testicles can be referred to as his nuts. [INFORMAL, RUDE]
 8) N-COUNT: usu poss N Your head can be referred to as your nut. [INFORMAL]
 9) PHRASE: V inflects If someone goes nuts, or in British English does their nut, they become extremely angry. [INFORMAL]
  My father would go nuts if he saw bruises on me...
  We heard your sister doing her nut.
 10) PHRASE: usu the PHR of n If you talk about the nuts and bolts of a subject or an activity, you are referring to the detailed practical aspects of it rather than abstract ideas about it.
  He's more concerned about the nuts and bolts of location work.
 11) PHRASE: usu v-link PHR If you think someone is difficult to deal with, you can say they are a tough nut or a hard nut. [INFORMAL]
  The Daily Express describes Dr Carey as a pretty tough nut.
 12) PHRASE: usu v-link PHR If you say that something is a hard nut to crack or a tough nut to crack, you mean that it is difficult to do or to understand. [INFORMAL]
  Getting out there is in many ways the hardest nut to crack.

Merriam-Webster's Advanced Learner's Dictionary

Merriam-Webster's Advanced Learner's Dictionary: 


nut /ˈnʌt/ noun, pl nuts
1 [count]
a : a small dry fruit with a hard shell that grows on trees, bushes, etc.
• The squirrel cracked/opened the nut and ate the meat inside.
• walnuts, almonds, peanuts, and other nuts
- see picture on next page
b : the inside part of a nut that is used as food
• The squirrel sat and ate the nut.
• Are you allergic to nuts?
• a bowl of nuts and raisins
2 [count] : a piece of metal that has a hole through it so that it can be screwed onto a bolt or screw - see picture at carpentry; see also lug nut, wing nut
3 [count] informal
a : a crazy or strange person
• That guy is a real nut.
b : a person who is very interested in or enthusiastic about something
• She's a real baseball/car/health/movie/travel nut.
4 nuts [plural] informal + impolite : a man's testicles
• He got kicked in the nuts.
a hard/tough nut (to crack) : a person or thing that is difficult to deal with, understand, or influence
• The team's defense is a tough nut to crack.
• The problem is a hard nut to crack.
• He's a tough nut, but I think I can get him to agree to the contract.
nuts and bolts : the basic parts or details of an activity, job, etc.
• She's still learning the nuts and bolts of the business.
• Tell me what the nuts and bolts of the plan involve.
soup to nuts
- see 1soup
- nut·like /ˈnʌtˌlaɪk/ adj [more ~; most ~]
• The cake had a nutlike [=nutty] taste.


still [adjective]

staying in the same position; not moving

US /stɪl/ 
UK /stɪl/ 

بی حرکت


Children find it difficult to sit/stand/stay still for very long.


Oxford Essential Dictionary



1 without moving:
Please stand still while I take a photo.
The water was perfectly still.

2 (British) (used about a drink) not containing any bubbles or gas:
still mineral water
 opposite fizzy, sparkling

Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English

II. still2 S3 BrE AmE adjective
[Language: Old English; Origin: stille]
1. not moving:
We stood still and watched as the deer came closer.
Keep still while I tie your shoe.
the still waters of the lake
2. quiet and calm:
The house was completely still.
3. not windy:
a hot still day
4. British English a still drink does not contain gas:
still or sparkling mineral water
5. still waters run deep used to say that someone who is quiet may have very strong feelings or a lot of knowledge
—stillness noun [uncountable]:
Somewhere in the stillness of the night, an owl hooted.

Oxford Advanced Learner's Dictionary

1. not moving; calm and quiet
still water
Keep still while I brush your hair.
The kids found it hard to stay still.
Can't you sit still?

• We stayed in a village where time has stood still (= life has not changed for many years).

2. with no wind
• a still summer's day

• the still night air

3. (BrE) (of a drink) not containing bubbles of gas; not fizzy
still mineral water  
Word Origin:
adv. and adj. v. and n. sense 1 Old English stille stillan West Germanic ‘be fixed, stand’
n. sense 2 mid 16th cent. still ‘extract by distillation’ distil
still adj.
Stay absolutely still.
stationaryat a standstill|formal inert|written motionlessimmobile
Opp: moving
remain still/stationary/inert/motionless/immobile
stay/lie still/inert/motionless/immobile
sit/stand still/motionless/immobile 
Example Bank:
He stood stock-still, hardly daring to breathe.
Hold still a minute while I pin your dress up.
I held the cat still while the vet gave the injection.
It was a completely still, warm evening.
Please sit still!
Suddenly everything went still.
The air was strangely still and silent.
A fallen tree floated in the still water.
Her voice carried on the still air.
Hold the ladder still while I try to get over the wall.
I sat stock still, hardly breathing.
I wish you'd keep still.
It was a still night and the tall trees stood silently against the stars.
Keep your head still.
Stand still when I'm talking to you!
Stay absolutely still.
• The cat remained perfectly still.

• The surface of the lake was calm and still.

Cambridge Advanced Learner's Dictionary

still / stɪl / adjective

B2 staying in the same position; not moving:

Children find it difficult to sit/stand/stay still for very long.

I can't brush your hair if you don't keep/hold still.

She sat perfectly still while I took her photograph.

The air was so still (= there was so little wind) that not even the leaves were moving.

She dived into the still (= calm and not flowing) water of the lake.

B1 mainly UK A still drink is one that is not fizzy (= with bubbles) :

Would you like still or sparkling water?


stillness / ˈstɪl.nəs / noun [ U ]

Collins COBUILD Advanced Learner’s English Dictionary



 1) ADV: ADV before v, ADV group If a situation that used to exist still exists, it has continued and exists now.
  I still dream of home...
  Brian's toe is still badly swollen and he cannot put on his shoe...
  If you don't like the job, why are you still there?...
  There are still doubts about the final signing of the two treaties.
 2) ADV: ADV before v If something that has not yet happened could still happen, it is possible that it will happen. If something that has not yet happened is still to happen, it will happen at a later time.
  Big money could still be made if the crisis keeps oil prices high...
  We could still make it, but we won't get there till three...
  The details have still to be worked out...
  Still to come, the financial news and the weather at a quarter to two.
 3) ADV: be ADV n If you say that there is still an amount of something left, you are emphasizing that there is that amount left.
  Bardi coloured the milk with the slightest touch of coffee, of which there was still plenty...
  There are still some outstanding problems...
  There's still time to catch up with them.
 4) ADV: ADV before v You use still to emphasize that something remains the case or is true in spite of what you have just said.
  I'm average for my height. But I still feel I'm fatter than I should be...
  Despite the ruling, Boreham was still found guilty.
 5) ADV: ADV with cl You use still to indicate that a problem or difficulty is not really worth worrying about.
  Their luck had simply run out. Still, never fear...
  `Any idea who is going to be here this weekend?' - `No. Still, who cares?'
 6) ADV: ADV n/adv (emphasis) You use still in expressions such as still further, still another, and still more to show that you find the number or quantity of things you are referring to surprising or excessive.
  We look forward to strengthening still further our already close co-operation with the police service...
  Why did the bank not conduct its own audit before lending still more?
  even, yet
 7) ADV: ADV with compar (emphasis) You use still with comparatives to indicate that something has even more of a quality than something else.
  Formula One motor car racing is supposed to be dangerous. `Indycar' racing is supposed to be more dangerous still.II [stɪ̱l]NOT MOVING OR MAKING A NOISE

 stiller, stillest, stills, stilling, stilled
 1) ADJ-GRADED: ADJ after v, v-link ADJ, ADJ n If you stay still, you stay in the same position and do not move.
  David had been dancing about like a child, but suddenly he stood still and looked at Brad...
  He played the tape through once, then sat very still for several minutes...
  He recalled her still face and the hurt in her eyes when he had refused her help...
  Gladys was still, then she shook her head slowly.
 2) ADJ-GRADED If air or water is still, it is not moving.
  The night air was very still...
  He watched the still water over the side of the boat.
 3) ADJ Drinks that are still do not contain any bubbles of carbon dioxide.
  ...a glass of still orange.
  fizzy, carbonated
 4) ADJ-GRADED If a place is still, it is quiet and shows no sign of activity.
  In the room it was very still.
  quiet, tranquil
  Derived words:
  stillness N-UNCOUNT Four deafening explosions shattered the stillness of the night air.
 5) V-ERG If a sound stills or is stilled, it becomes quiet. [LITERARY]
  Her crying slowly stilled...
  The roar of the crowd stilled to an expectant murmur...
  [be V-ed] The people's voice has been stilled.
 6) N-COUNT: oft N n A still is a photograph taken from a cinema film which is used for publicity purposes.III [stɪ̱l]EQUIPMENT

 A still is a piece of equipment used to make strong alcoholic drinks by a process called distilling.

Merriam-Webster's Advanced Learner's Dictionary

Merriam-Webster's Advanced Learner's Dictionary: 

2still adj
1 a : not moving
still water
• The cat twitched slightly, and then was still.
- see also stock-still
b : lacking motion or activity
• Everyone had left, and the house was finally still.
• a hot, still day [=a day without wind]
2 photography
- used to describe an ordinary photograph that does not show movement as compared to a movie
still photographs
b : relating to or used for still photographs
• a class in still photography
• a still camera
3 chiefly Brit of a liquid : not having bubbles
• They had still and fizzy drinks.
still wine
still waters run deep
- used to say that people who are quiet or shy are often very intelligent and interesting;
- still·ness noun [noncount]


justice [noun] (FAIRNESS)

fairness in the way people are dealt with

US /ˈdʒʌs.tɪs/ 
UK /ˈdʒʌs.tɪs/ 

عدالت‌، عدل‌


There's no justice in the world when people can be made to suffer like that.

Oxford Essential Dictionary


 noun (no plural)

1 treatment of people in a fair way:
the struggle for justice
 opposite injustice

2 the law:
the criminal justice system


Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English


justice W2 /ˈdʒʌstəs, ˈdʒʌstɪs/ BrE AmE noun
[Date: 1100-1200; Language: Old French; Origin: Latin justitia, from justus; ⇨ ↑just2]
1. SYSTEM OF JUDGEMENT [uncountable] the system by which people are judged in courts of law and criminals are punished:
a book on the criminal justice system
The killers will be brought to justice (=caught and punished).
Acts of terrorism must not escape justice. ⇨ ↑miscarriage of justice
2. FAIRNESS [uncountable] fairness in the way people are treated OPP injustice:
Children have a strong sense of justice.
His people came to him demanding justice. ⇨ ↑poetic justice
3. BEING RIGHT [uncountable] the quality of being right and deserving fair treatment:
No one doubts the justice of our cause.
4. do justice to somebody/something (also do somebody/something justice) to treat or represent someone or something good, beautiful etc in a way that is as good as they deserve:
The photo doesn’t do her justice.
No words can do justice to the experience.
5. do yourself justice to do something such as a test well enough to show your real ability:
Sara panicked in the exam and didn’t do herself justice.
6. justice has been done/served used to say that someone has been treated fairly or has been given a punishment they deserve
7. JUDGE [countable] (also Justice)
a) American English a judge in a law court
b) British English the title of a judge in the High Court
rough justice at ↑rough1(16)

Oxford Advanced Learner's Dictionary



just·ice [justice justices]   [ˈdʒʌstɪs]    [ˈdʒʌstɪs]  noun
1. uncountable the fair treatment of people
laws based on the principles of justice
They are demanding equal rights and justice.
Opp:  injustice 

see also  poetic justice, rough justice

2. uncountable the quality of being fair or reasonable
Who can deny the justice of their cause?
• He demanded, not without justice, that he should be allowed to express his views.

Opp:  injustice

3. uncountable the legal system used to punish people who have committed crimes
the criminal justice system
The European Court of Justice
(BrE) They were accused of attempting to pervert the course of justice.
(NAmE) They were accused of attempting to obstruct justice.

see also  miscarriage of justice

4. (also Just·ice) countable (NAmE) a judge in a court (also used before the name of a judge)

see also  chief justice

5. Just·ice countable (BrE, CanE) used before the name of a judge in a court of appeal
Mr Justice Davies
more at pervert the course of justice at  pervert  v.
Idioms: bring somebody to justice  do justice to somebody do somebody justice  do yourself justice  
Word Origin:
late Old English iustise ‘administration of the law’, via Old French from Latin justitia, from justus, from jus ‘law, right’.  
the legal system
In Britain, for historical reasons, the system of law used in Scotland is different from that in England and Wales, with the law in Northern Ireland similar to that in England. When making decisions Scottish courts look for an appropriate general principle and apply it to a particular situation. English law relies on case law, a collection of previous decisions, called precedents. English courts look at precedents for the case being tried and make a similar judgement. A basic principle of law in Britain is that anyone accused is innocent until proven guilty, so it is the job of the prosecution to prove beyond reasonable doubt that the defendant (= the person accused) has broken the law as stated in the charge. If this cannot be proved the person must be acquitted (= allowed to go free, with no blame attached).
British law is divided into civil law which concerns disagreements between individuals about matters such as business contracts, and criminal law which deals with offences that involve harm to a person resulting from somebody breaking the law. In civil cases, the plaintiff (= the person who claims to have been wronged) brings an action against the defendant in the hope of winning damages (= a financial payment) or an injunction (= a court order preventing the defendant from doing something). Criminal cases are brought against criminals by the state, in England and Wales by the Director of Public Prosecutions and in Scotland through procurators fiscal.
In England and Wales most towns have a Magistrates' Court where minor cases are judged and more serious cases are passed to higher courts by three magistrates called Justices of the Peace, specially trained members of the public. The more serious cases are heard in a Crown Court by a judge and a jury. Minor civil cases, such as divorce and bankruptcy, are heard in the county courts and more serious ones in the High Court of Justice. Appeals against decisions from the Crown Court or the High Court go to the Court of Appeal and a few cases, where a question of law is in doubt, are passed to the House of Lords.
In Scotland, criminal cases are heard in District Courts by members of the public called lay justices. More serious cases go to regional sheriff courts and are heard by the sheriff and a jury. Appeals go to the High Court of Justiciary in Edinburgh. Civil cases begin in the sheriff court and may go on appeal to the Court of Session.
In the US, the judicial system is one of the three branches of the federal government, but the legal system operates at many levels with state, county and city courts as well as federal courts. The right to trial by jury is provided by the Constitution. Each type of court has its own jurisdiction, that is it deals with certain kinds of cases. Both civil and criminal cases are first heard in trial courts and there is a right to appeal against the court’s decision in a court of appeals. Many states have family courts where people get divorced and small claims courts which deal with small amounts of money. States also have trial courts, which hear a wider range of cases, and courts of appeal called superior courts or district courts. Most states have a supreme court where the most serious appeals are held. States have their own criminal code, but some crimes are federal offences, i.e. against federal law, and crimes may fall under federal jurisdiction if more than one state is involved.
Most courts have only one judge, but some higher courts have several. In the US Supreme Court, the nine judges are called justices. The people on either side of a case are represented by lawyers, also called attorneys-at-law. In a criminal trial the defendant is represented by a defense attorney, or if he or she is too poor to pay a lawyer, the court will appoint a public defender. The prosecution is led by an assistant district attorney or, in federal cases, by a federal attorney
justice noun U
Our laws must be based on principles of justice.
fairnessfair playequality|formal equity
Opp: injustice
justice/fairness/fair play/equality/equity for sb
social/economic justice/fairness/equality/equity
ensure justice/fairness/fair play/equality/equity
guarantee justice/fairness/equality/equity 
Criminal justice
Breaking the law
break/violate/obey/uphold the law
be investigated/arrested/tried for a crime/a robbery/fraud
be arrested/ (especially NAmE) indicted/convicted on charges of rape/fraud/(especially US) felony charges
be arrested on suspicion of arson/robbery/shoplifting
be accused of/be charged with murder/(especially NAmE) homicide/four counts of fraud
face two charges of indecent assault
admit your guilt/liability/responsibility (for sth)
deny the allegations/claims/charges
confess to a crime
grant/be refused/be released on/skip/jump bail
The legal process
stand/await/bring sb to/come to/be on trial
take sb to/come to/settle sth out of court
face/avoid/escape prosecution
seek/retain/have the right to/be denied access to legal counsel
hold/conduct/attend/adjourn a hearing/trial
sit on/influence/persuade/convince the jury
sit/stand/appear/be put/place sb in the dock
plead guilty/not guilty to a crime
be called to/enter (BrE) the witness box
take/put sb on the stand/(NAmE) the witness stand
call/subpoena/question/cross-examine a witness
give/hear the evidence against/on behalf of sb
raise/withdraw/overrule an objection
reach a unanimous/majority verdict
return/deliver/record a verdict of not guilty/unlawful killing/accidental death
convict/acquit the defendant of the crime
secure a conviction/your acquittal
lodge/file an appeal
appeal (against)/challenge/uphold/overturn a conviction/verdict
Sentencing and punishment
pass sentence on sb
carry/face/serve a seven-year/life sentence
receive/be given the death penalty
be sentenced to ten years (in prison/jail)
carry/impose/pay a fine (of $3 000)/a penalty (of 14 years imprisonment)
be imprisoned/jailed for drug possession/fraud/murder
do/serve time/ten years
be sent to/put sb in/be released from jail/prison
be/put sb/spend X years on death row
be granted/be denied/break (your) parole
more collocations at crime  
Example Bank:
Civilians were not subject to summary justice.
He saw it as rough justice when he got food poisoning from the stolen meat.
He spent twenty years in prison as a result of a miscarriage of justice.
Justice must be done in every case.
Maybe there's a sort of poetic justice to it.
Restorative justice can only work when all parties agree.
She was charged with perverting the course of justice after admitting to burning vital evidence.
So far the robbers have escaped justice.
Some people saw the epidemic as divine justice.
Somebody out there needs to make sure justice is served.
The teacher's system of punishments appealed to the children's sense of justice.
They saw the reform proposals as a way to promote social justice.
They were accused of attempting to obstruct justice.
They were accused of attempting to pervert the course of justice.
We have been denied justice for too long.
the battle for Taylor to face justice before the High Court
the deadliest episode of vigilante justice in American history
those who are ultimately responsible for dispensing justice
victims seeking retributive justice
Children often have a highly developed sense of justice.
Our laws must be based on the principles of justice.
Sometimes I feel that there's no justice in the world.
• They're demanding equal rights and social justice.

• We will not get social order until we have economic justice.

Cambridge Advanced Learner's Dictionary

justice / ˈdʒʌs.tɪs / noun [ U ] (FAIRNESS)

B2 fairness in the way people are dealt with:

There's no justice in the world when people can be made to suffer like that.

The winner has been disqualified for cheating, so justice has been done (= a fair situation has been achieved) .

→  Opposite injustice


justice / ˈdʒʌs.tɪs / noun [ U ] (LAW)

B2 the system of laws in a country that judges and punishes people:

the justice system in this country consists of a series of law courts at different levels.

The police are doing all they can to bring those responsible for the bombing to justice.

They are victims of a miscarriage of justice (= when the law has been carried out wrongly) .

He has been accused of obstructing the course of justice (= preventing the law being put into action) .


justice / ˈdʒʌs.tɪs / noun (JUDGE)

[ C ] US a judge in a law court:

The president is expected to name a new Supreme Court justice within the next few days.

Justice Ben Overton

[ C ] UK used before the name of a judge in the High Court:

Mr Justice Ellis

Collins COBUILD Advanced Learner’s English Dictionary



 1) N-UNCOUNT Justice is fairness in the way that people are treated.
  He has a good overall sense of justice and fairness...
  He only wants freedom, justice and equality...
  There is no justice in this world!
 2) N-UNCOUNT The justice of a cause, claim, or argument is its quality of being reasonable, fair, or right.
  We are a minority and must win people round to the justice of our cause.
 3) N-UNCOUNT: oft N n Justice is the legal system that a country uses in order to deal with people who break the law.
  Many in Toronto's black community feel that the justice system does not treat them fairly...
  A lawyer is part of the machinery of justice.
 4) N-COUNT A justice is a judge. [AM]
  Thomas will be sworn in today as a justice on the Supreme Court.
 5) N-TITLE Justice is used before the names of judges.
  A preliminary hearing was due to start today before Mr Justice Hutchison, but was adjourned.
 6) → See also miscarriage of justice
 7) PHRASE: V inflects If a criminal is brought to justice, he or she is punished for a crime by being arrested and tried in a court of law.
  They demanded that those responsible be brought to justice...
  She'd need proof to bring Jason to justice.
 8) PHRASE: V inflects To do justice to a person or thing means to reproduce them accurately and show how good they are.
  The photograph I had seen didn't do her justice...
  Most TV sets don't have the sound quality to do justice to the music.
 9) PHRASE: V inflects, usu PHR to n If you do justice to someone or something, you deal with them properly and completely.
  No one article can ever do justice to the topic of fraud...
  It is impossible here to do justice to the complex history of the Legion.
 10) PHRASE: V inflects If you do yourself justice, you do something as well as you are capable of doing it.
  I don't think he could do himself justice playing for England...
  I don't think I can win, but I want to do myself justice.
 11) PHRASE If you describe someone's treatment or punishment as rough justice, you mean that it is not given according to the law. [BRIT]
  Trial by television makes for very rough justice indeed.
 12) PHRASE: v-link PHR If you say that something is rough justice for someone, you mean that they have not been treated fairly. [BRIT]
  It would have been rough justice had he been deprived of this important third European win.

Merriam-Webster's Advanced Learner's Dictionary

Merriam-Webster's Advanced Learner's Dictionary: 



jus·tice /ˈʤʌstəs/ noun, pl -tic·es
1 [noncount] : the process or result of using laws to fairly judge and punish crimes and criminals
• They received justice in court.
• the justice system
• the U.S. Department of Justice
• criminals attempting to escape justice
• The role of the courts is to dispense justice fairly to everyone.
• Many people do not believe that justice has been served/done in his case. [=that he has been given proper punishment or fair treatment by the legal system]
• His supporters claim that he is an innocent man and that his conviction was a miscarriage of justice. [=an error made in a court of law that results in an innocent person being punished or a guilty person being freed]
✦Someone who is brought to justice is arrested and punished for a crime in a court of law.
• The police couldn't bring the killer to justice.
- see also poetic justice
2 a [count] US : a judge in a court of law
• She is a justice of the state supreme court.
- see also chief justice
b Justice
- used as a title for a judge (such as a judge of the U.S. Supreme Court)
Justice Marshall
3 [noncount]
a : the quality of being fair or just
• a sense of justice
• I saw no justice in the court's decision.
b : fair treatment
• We should strive to achieve justice for all people.
do justice
✦To do justice to something or someone or to do someone or something justice is to treat or show something or someone in a way that is as good as it should be.
• Words could never do justice to her beauty. [=could not adequately describe her beauty]
• The movie does not do justice to the book. = The movie does not do the book justice. [=the movie is not as good as the book]
• a brief summary that does not do justice to [=does not adequately show] the complexity of this issue
obstruction of justice
- see obstruction
pervert the course of justice
- see 1pervert


dairy [adjective]

used to refer to cows that are used for producing milk, rather than meat, or to foods that are made from milk, such as cream, butter, and cheese

US /ˈder.i/ 
UK /ˈdeə.ri/ 

لبنی، مربوط به لبنیات


dairy products

Oxford Essential Dictionary


 noun (plural dairies)

Be careful! Don't confuse dairy and diary. You spell dairy with AI.

a place where milk is kept or where milk products like butter and cheese are made

Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English


dairy /ˈdeəri $ ˈderi/ BrE AmE noun (plural dairies) [countable]
[Date: 1200-1300; Origin: dey 'female servant (in a dairy)' (10-19 centuries), from Old English dæge 'maker of bread']
1. a place on a farm where milk is kept and butter and cheese are made
2. a company which sells milk and sometimes makes other things from milk, such as cheese
3. dairy products/produce milk, butter, cheese etc

Oxford Advanced Learner's Dictionary

adjective only before noun
1. made from milk

dairy products/produce

2. connected with the production of milk rather than meat
the dairy industry
dairy cattle/farmers
a dairy cow/farm  
Word Origin:

Middle English deierie, from deie ‘dairymaid’ (in Old English dǣge ‘female servant’), of Germanic origin; related to Old Norse deigja, also to dough  and to the second element of Old English hlǣfdige (see lady).

Cambridge Advanced Learner's Dictionary

dairy / ˈdeə.ri /   / ˈder.i / adjective

B2 used to refer to cows that are used for producing milk, rather than meat, or to foods that are made from milk, such as cream, butter, and cheese:

dairy cattle

dairy farmers

dairy products

Collins COBUILD Advanced Learner’s English Dictionary


 1) N-COUNT A dairy is a shop or company that sells milk and food made from milk, such as butter, cream, and cheese.
 2) N-COUNT On a farm, the dairy is the building where milk is kept or where cream, butter, and cheese are made.
 3) ADJ: ADJ n Dairy is used to refer to foods such as butter and cheese that are made from milk.
  ...dairy produce.
  ...vitamins found in eggs, meat and dairy products.
 4) ADJ: ADJ n Dairy is used to refer to the use of cattle to produce milk rather than meat.
  ...a small vegetable and dairy farm.
  ...the feeding of dairy cows.

Merriam-Webster's Advanced Learner's Dictionary

Merriam-Webster's Advanced Learner's Dictionary: 


2dairy adj always used before a noun
1 : made from milk
dairy products/foods such as cheese and ice cream : relating to foods made from milk
• You'll find yogurt in the dairy section of the grocery store.
2 : of or relating to a type of farming that deals with the production of milk and foods made from milk
dairy farms/farmers
dairy cows/cattle [=cows that are raised to produce milk]
• the dairy industry


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