A2 (مبتدی)


end [verb]

To finish or stop, or to make something finish or stop

US /end/ 
UK /end/ 


خاتمه یافتن / دادن


Their marriage ended in 1991.

Oxford Essential Dictionary


 verb (ends, ending, ended)
to stop or to finish something:
What time does the film end?
The road ends here.
Most adverbs in English end in '-ly'.
We ended our holiday with a few days on the beach.

end up to finally be in a place or doing something when you did not plan it:
If she continues to steal, she'll end up in prison.
I ended up doing all the work myself

Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English

II. end2 S1 W1 BrE AmE verb
[Word Family: noun: ↑end, ↑ending; adjective: ↑unending, ↑endless; verb: ↑end; adverb: ↑endlessly]
a) [intransitive] if an event, activity, or story ends, it stops happening OPP start, begin:
World War II ended in 1945.
end with
The festival will end with a spectacular laser show.
b) [transitive] to make something stop happening OPP start, begin:
The talks are aimed at ending the conflict.
2. [intransitive] to finish what you are doing OPP start, begin:
I think we'll end there for today.
end by doing something
I’d like to end by inviting questions from the audience.
3. [intransitive] if a road, path, line etc ends, it reaches its final point OPP start, begin:
This is where the line ends.
4. [transitive] to reach the final point in a period of time in a particular condition OPP start, begin:
They ended the game with a score of 63-42.
The company ended the year with record profits.
5. end your days to spend the last part of your life in a particular place or doing a particular thing:
He ended his days in prison.
6. end your life/end it all to kill yourself
7. the ... to end all ... used to describe something that is the best, most important, or most exciting of its kind:
the movie with the car chase to end all car chases
8. the year/week etc ending something used to refer to the year etc that ends on a particular date:
the financial results for the year ending 31 Dec 2008
• • •
end if a event, activity, or story ends, it stops happening: How does the story end? | The school year ends in June.
finish to end - use this about an organized event such as a meeting, party, or lesson, especially when saying what time it ends: The meeting will finish at 5.30. | What time does your Spanish class finish?
be over if an event, activity, or period of time is over, it has ended: I can’t wait for our exams to be over. | The long summer vacation was almost over.
come to an end to finally end – used about a period of time, a situation, or an activity that has continued for a long time: The war finally came to an end six years later.
draw to an end/to a close written to end gradually over a period of time – used in written descriptions: These problems still remained as the twentieth century drew to an end.
time is up if time is up, you are not allowed any more time to do something: I wasn’t able to finish the test before the time was up.
time runs out if time runs out, there is no more time available to do something, especially something important: The desperate search for survivors continues, but time is running out.
expire formal if a ticket, bank card, legal document etc expires, the period of time during which you can use it has ended: I’m afraid we can’t accept this credit card – it expired last week.
be at an end if something is at an end, it has ended: We both knew that our marriage was at an end. | The long wait was at an end.
end in something phrasal verb
1. to finish in a particular way:
One in three marriages ends in divorce.
2. it’ll (all) end in tears British English spoken used to say that something will have a bad result or not be successful
end up phrasal verb
to be in a particular situation, state, or place after a series of events, especially when you did not plan it:
He came round for a coffee and we ended up having a meal together.
I wondered where the pictures would end up after the auction.
end up doing something
Most slimmers end up putting weight back on.
end up with
Anyone who swims in the river could end up with a nasty stomach upset.
end up as
He could end up as President.
end up like
I don’t want to end up like my parents.

Oxford Advanced Learner's Dictionary

verb intransitive, transitive
to finish; to make sth finish
The road ends here.
How does the story end?
The speaker ended by suggesting some topics for discussion.
~ with sth Her note ended with the words: ‘See you soon.’
~ sth They decided to end their relationship.
~ sth with sth They ended the play with a song.
+ speech ‘And that was that,’ she ended.
Word Origin:
Old English ende (noun), endian (verb), of Germanic origin; related to Dutch einde (noun), einden (verb) and German Ende (noun), enden (verb).  
end verb I, T
How does the story end?
finishstopclosewind (sth) up|BrE round sth off|AmE round sth out|formal concludeterminate
Opp: begin
end/finish/conclude/round sth off/round sth out by/with sth
end/finish/conclude/close/wind up a meeting
a play/show/film ends/finishes/concludes
a story/letter/note ends/concludes
End, finish, stop or conclude? End, finish and conclude are used especially about things that you do not expect to start again
The war ended in 1945.
The concert should finish by 10 o'clock.
She concluded her speech with a quotation from Shakespeare.
Stop is used about things that may or will start again
The rain stopped for a couple of hours.
Example Bank:
A back injury effectively ended her career.
After all that excitement the day was bound to end in tears.
At last the war ended.
His speech ended on a positive note.
The attempt finally ended in failure.
The meeting ended abruptly when the chairman was called away.
The military action could end in disaster.
The peace talks have ended inconclusively, with neither side prepared to give way on key points.
The show ended with a song.

We thought they'd never end.

Cambridge Advanced Learner's Dictionary

Cambridge Advanced Learner's Dictionary - 4th Edition

end / end / verb [ I or T ]

A2 to finish or stop, or to make something finish or stop:

When is your meeting due to end?

Her resignation ends months of speculation about her future.

Their marriage ended in 1991.

The match ended in a draw.

I'd like to end with a song from my first album.

She ended her speech on an optimistic note.

© Cambridge University Press 2013

Collins COBUILD Advanced Learner’s English Dictionary


(ends, ending, ended)

Frequency: The word is one of the 700 most common words in English.

The end of something such as a period of time, an event, a book, or a film is the last part of it or the final point in it.
The £5 banknote was first issued at the end of the 18th century...
The report is expected by the end of the year...
You will have the chance to ask questions at the end.
N-SING: the N, usu prep N, N of n

When a situation, process, or activity ends, or when something or someone ends it, it reaches its final point and stops.
The meeting quickly ended and Steve and I left the room...
Talks have resumed to try to end the fighting...
VERB: V, V n
The ending of a marriage by death is different in many ways from an ending occasioned by divorce.
N-SING: usu the N of n

An end to something or the end of it is the act or result of stopping it so that it does not continue any longer.
The French government today called for an end to the violence...
I was worried she would walk out or bring the interview to an end...
Francis fined him two weeks’ wages and said: ‘That’s the end of the matter.’
N-COUNT: usu sing, oft N to/of n

If you say that someone or something ends a period of time in a particular way, you are indicating what the final situation was like. You can also say that a period of time ends in a particular way.
The markets ended the week on a quiet note...
The evening ended with a dramatic display of fireworks.
VERB: V n prep/adv, V prep, also V n by -ing, V n -ing

If a period of time ends, it reaches its final point.
Its monthly reports on program trading usually come out about three weeks after each month ends...
The first figure shows sales for week ending July 27.

If something such as a book, speech, or performance ends with a particular thing or the writer or performer ends it with that thing, its final part consists of the thing mentioned.
His statement ended with the words: ‘Pray for me.’...
The book ends on a lengthy description of Hawaii...
Dawkins ends his discussion with a call for liberation...
The memo ends: ‘Please give this matter your most urgent attention.’
VERB: V with/on n, V with/on n, V n with/on n, V with quote

If a situation or event ends in a particular way, it has that particular result.
The incident could have ended in tragedy...
Our conversations ended with him saying he would try to be more understanding...
Shares ended 1.7 per cent firmer on the Frankfurt exchange.
VERB: V in n, V with n -ing, V adv/adj

The two ends of something long and narrow are the two points or parts of it that are furthest away from each other.
The company is planning to place surveillance equipment at both ends of the tunnel...
A typical fluorescent lamp is a tube with metal electrodes at each end.
N-COUNT: with supp

The end of a long, narrow object such as a finger or a pencil is the tip or smallest edge of it, usually the part that is furthest away from you.
He tapped the ends of his fingers together...
She let the long cone of ash hang at the end of her cigarette.
= tip
N-COUNT: usu with supp, oft N of n

If an object ends with or in a particular thing, it has that thing on its tip or point, or as its last part.
It has three pairs of legs, each ending in a large claw.
VERB: V with/in n

A journey, road, or river that ends at a particular place stops there and goes no further.
The road ended at a T-junction...
VERB: V prep/adv, also V

End is used to refer to either of the two extreme points of a scale, or of something that you are considering as a scale.
At the other end of the social scale was the grocer, the village’s only merchant...
The agreement has been criticised by extremist groups on both ends of the political spectrum.
N-COUNT: with supp, oft N of n

The other end is one of two places that are connected because people are communicating with each other by telephone or writing, or are travelling from one place to the other.
When he answered the phone, Ferguson was at the other end...
Make sure to meet them at the other end.
N-COUNT: supp N

If you refer to a particular end of a project or piece of work, you mean a part or aspect of it, for example a part of it that is done by a particular person or in a particular place. (SPOKEN)
You take care of your end, kid, I’ll take care of mine...
N-COUNT: usu sing, usu supp N

An end is the purpose for which something is done or towards which you are working.
The police force is being manipulated for political ends...
Now the government is trying another policy designed to achieve the same end.
N-COUNT: usu supp N

If you say that something ends at a particular point, you mean that it is applied or exists up to that point, and no further.
Helen is also 25 and from Birmingham, but the similarity ends there...
VERB: V adv/prep

You can refer to someone’s death as their end, especially when you are talking about the way that they died or might die. (LITERARY)
Soon after we had spoken to this man he had met a violent end.
N-COUNT: usu sing, usu supp N

If you end by doing something or end in a particular state, you do that thing or get into that state even though you did not originally intend to.
They ended by making themselves miserable...
They’ll probably end back on the streets.
VERB: V by -ing, V adv/prep

If someone ends it all, they kill themselves.
He grew suicidal, thinking up ways to end it all.
PHRASE: V inflects

If you describe something as, for example, the deal to end all deals or the film to end all films, you mean that it is very important or successful, and that compared to it all other deals or films seem second-rate.
It was going to be a party to end all parties.

If something is at an end, it has finished and will not continue.
The recession is definitely at an end.
PHRASE: v-link PHR

If something comes to an end, it stops.
The cold war came to an end.
PHRASE: V inflects

You say at the end of the day when you are talking about what happens after a long series of events or what appears to be the case after you have considered the relevant facts. (INFORMAL)
At the end of the day it’s up to the Germans to decide...
PHRASE: PHR with cl

If you are thrown in at the deep end, you are put in a completely new situation without any help or preparation. If you jump in at the deep end, you go into a completely new situation without any help or preparation. (mainly BRIT)
It’s a superb job. You get thrown in at the deep end and it’s all down to you...
PHRASE: V inflects

You say in the end when you are saying what is the final result of a series of events, or what is your final conclusion after considering all the relevant facts.
I toyed with the idea of calling the police, but in the end I didn’t...
PHRASE: PHR with cl

If you consider something to be an end in itself, you do it because it seems desirable and not because it is likely to lead to something else.
While he had originally traveled in order to study, traveling had become an end in itself.
PHRASE: usu v-link PHR

If you find it difficult to make ends meet, you can only just manage financially because you hardly have enough money for the things you need.
With Betty’s salary they barely made ends meet.
PHRASE: make inflects

No end means a lot. (INFORMAL)
Teachers inform me that Tracey’s behaviour has improved no end.
PHRASE: PHR after v, oft PHR of n

When something happens for hours, days, weeks, or years on end, it happens continuously and without stopping for the amount of time that is mentioned.
He is a wonderful companion and we can talk for hours on end...

Something that is on end is upright, instead of in its normal or natural position, for example lying down, flat, or on its longest side.
PHRASE: PHR after v

To put an end to something means to cause it to stop.
Only a political solution could put an end to the violence.
PHRASE: V inflects, PHR n

If a process or person has reached the end of the road, they are unable to progress any further.
Given the results of the vote, is this the end of the road for the hardliners in Congress?
PHRASE: PHR after v, v-link PHR for n

If you say that something bad is not the end of the world, you are trying to stop yourself or someone else being so upset by it, by suggesting that it is not the worst thing that could happen.
Obviously I’d be disappointed if we don’t make it, but it wouldn’t be the end of the world.
PHRASE: V inflects, oft it v-link PHR if

Merriam-Webster's Advanced Learner's Dictionary

Merriam-Webster's Advanced Learner's Dictionary: 

2end verb ends; end·ed; end·ing
1 a [no obj] : to stop or finish : to no longer continue to happen or exist
• The meeting ended [=concluded] at noon.
• The line of people ended around the corner.
• The road ends at the top of the hill.
• As soon as school ends [=(Brit) breaks up] she'll start her summer job.
• The demonstration ended peacefully.
• The meeting ended on a positive note.
• She started out poor but ended (up) a rich woman.
b [+ obj] : to stop or finish (something) : to cause (something) to no longer continue to happen or exist
• They ended [=concluded] the meeting at noon.
• The allegations could end his career.
• Her speech ended the convention.
• The argument ended their friendship.
• The company claims that its new product will be a/the computer to end all computers. [=a computer that is the ultimate or perfect computer]
• World War I was supposed to be the war to end all wars. : to come to the end of (something)
• She ended her career (as) a rich woman. [=she was rich at the end of her career]
• He ended his life/days (living) in a nursing home. [=he spent the last part of his life in a nursing home]
2 [+ obj] : to be the final part of (something)
• The letters “ing” end the word “going.”
• A wedding scene ends the film.
• A marching band will end the parade.
• Her speech will end the convention.
end in [phrasal verb] end in (something) : to have (something) at the end
• The word ends in a suffix. [=the last part of the word is a suffix]
• The knife ends in a sharp point.
• Their marriage ended in divorce.
• The race ended in a tie.
• The demonstration ended in chaos.
end up [phrasal verb] end up or end up (something) or end up (doing something) : to reach or come to a place, condition, or situation that was not planned or expected
• The book ended up in the trash.
• He didn't want to end up [=wind up] like his father.
• She ended up rich. = She ended up a rich woman.
• He ended up (living) in a nursing home.
• The movie we wanted to see was sold out so we ended up seeing a different one.
end with [phrasal verb]
1 end with (something) : to have (something) at the end
• The film ends with a wedding scene. [=the last part of the film is a wedding scene]
• The convention will end with her speech.
• The parade will end with a marching band.
2 end (something) with (something) : to cause (something) to have (something) at the end
• She will end the convention with her speech. [=the convention will be over after her speech]
• He ended the concert with one of his new songs.
end your life or end it all : to kill yourself : to commit suicide
• He tried to end his life by taking an overdose of pills.
• She thought about ending it all after her baby died.


across [preposition]

On the opposite side of

US /əˈkrɑːs/ 
UK /əˈkrɒs/ 

در آن‌ سوى، در آن‌ طرف‌


The library is just across the road.

Oxford Essential Dictionary


 adverb, preposition

1 from one side to the other side of something:
We walked across the field.
A smile spread across her face.
The river was about twenty metres across.

2 on the other side of something:
There is a bank just across the road.

which word?
Across or over? We can use across or over to mean 'on or to the other side': I ran across the road.I ran over the road. We usually use over to talk about crossing something high: Adam climbed over the wall. With 'room' we usually use across: I walked across the room.

Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English


across S1 W1 /əˈkrɒs $ əˈkrɒːs/ BrE AmE adverb, preposition
[Date: 1200-1300; Language: Anglo-French; Origin: an crois 'in cross']
1. from one side of something to the other:
the first flight across the Atlantic
They ran straight across the road (=without stopping).
We’ll have to swim across.
We’d got halfway across before Philip realized he’d left his money at home.
We gazed across the valley.
2. towards someone or something on the other side of an area:
There’s Brendan. Why don’t you go across and say hello?
across to/at
The referee looked across at his linesman before awarding the penalty.
He walked across to where I was sitting.
3. used to say that something exists or reaches from one side of an area to the other:
a deep crack across the ceiling
the only bridge across the river
Do you think this shirt is too tight across the shoulders?
Someone’s parked right across the entrance to the driveway.
4. on the opposite side of something:
My best friend lives across the road.
He knew that just across the border lay freedom.
across (something) from somebody/something
Across the street from where we’re standing, you can see the old churchyard.
the woman sitting across from me (=opposite me) on the train
5. in every part of a country, organization etc:
a TV series that became popular across five continents
Teachers are expected to teach a range of subjects right across the curriculum.
6. used to show how wide something is
ten feet/five metres etc across
The river is 2 kilometres across.

Oxford Advanced Learner's Dictionary

1. from one side to the other side of sth
He walked across the field.
I drew a line across the page.
A grin spread across her face.

Where's the nearest bridge across the river?

2. on the other side of sth

There's a bank right across the street.

3. on or over a part of the body
He hit him across the face.

It's too tight across the back.

4. in every part of a place, group of people, etc.
Syn:  throughout
Her family is scattered across the country.
This view is common across all sections of the community.  
Word Origin:

[across] Middle English (as an adverb meaning ‘in the form of a cross’): from Old French a croix, en croix ‘in or on a cross’, later regarded as being from a- ‘to, towards’ + cross.

Cambridge Advanced Learner's Dictionary

Cambridge Advanced Learner's Dictionary - 4th Edition

across / əˈkrɒs /   / -ˈkrɑːs / preposition

A2 on the opposite side of:

The library is just across the road.

in every part of a particular place or country:

Voting took place peacefully across most of the country.

© Cambridge University Press 2013

Collins COBUILD Advanced Learner’s English Dictionary


/əkrɒs, AM əkrɔ:s/

Frequency: The word is one of the 700 most common words in English.

Note: In addition to the uses shown below, 'across' is used in phrasal verbs such as ‘come across’, ‘get across’, and ‘put across’.

If someone or something goes across a place or a boundary, they go from one side of it to the other.
She walked across the floor and lay down on the bed...
He watched Karl run across the street to Tommy.
...an expedition across Africa.

Across is also an adverb.
Richard stood up and walked across to the window.
ADV: ADV after v

If something is situated or stretched across something else, it is situated or stretched from one side of it to the other.
...the floating bridge across Lake Washington in Seattle...
He scrawled his name across the bill...

Across is also an adverb.
Trim toenails straight across using nail clippers.
ADV: ADV after v

If something is lying across an object or place, it is resting on it and partly covering it.
She found her clothes lying across the chair...
The wind pushed his hair across his face.
= over

Something that is across something such as a street, river, or area is on the other side of it.
Anyone from the houses across the road could see him...
When I saw you across the room I knew I’d met you before.

Across is also an adverb.
They parked across from the Castro Theatre...
ADV: ADV after v, usu ADV from n

If you look across at a place, person, or thing, you look towards them.
He glanced across at his sleeping wife...
...breathtaking views across to the hills.
ADV: ADV after v, oft ADV prep

You use across to say that a particular expression is shown on someone’s face.
An enormous grin spread across his face...
= over

If someone hits you across the face or head, they hit you on that part.
Graham hit him across the face with the gun.

When something happens across a place or organization, it happens equally everywhere within it.
The film ‘Hook’ opens across America on December 11...

When something happens across a political, religious, or social barrier, it involves people in different groups.
...parties competing across the political spectrum...
across the board: see board

Across is used in measurements to show the width of something.
This hand-decorated plate measures 30cm across...
ADV: amount ADV

Merriam-Webster's Advanced Learner's Dictionary

Merriam-Webster's Advanced Learner's Dictionary: 

1across /əˈkrɑːs/ prep
1 a : from one side to the other side of (something)
• We took a ferry across the river.
• We saw them walking across the street.
• She reached across the table to shake his hand.
• They traveled back and forth across the border.
• Airplanes flew across the sky above us.
• She slapped him right across the face. [=she slapped his face]
b : on the other side of (something)
• He was seated across the table from me.
• Our grandparents live across the street (from us).
• The accident happened just across the state line.
2 : so as to reach or spread over or throughout (something)
• A smile spread across her face.
• Looking out across the ocean, he saw land.
• The sun's light spread across the mountains.
• The disease spread quickly across the country.
3 : in every part of (a country, region, etc.)
• The movie is now showing in theaters across [=throughout] America.
• Newspapers (all) across the world reported the story.
• We could hear the bells all across town.


club [noun] (GROUP)

an organization of people with a common purpose or interest, who meet regularly and take part in shared activities

US /klʌb/ 
UK /klʌb/ 

باشگاه‌، انجمن‌، كانون‌


We had lunch at the golf club

در باشگاه گلف ناهار خوردیم.

Oxford Essential Dictionary


1 a group of people who do something together, or the place where they meet:
I belong to the golf club.

2 (also nightclub) a place where people, especially young people, go and listen to music, dance, etc.

3 a heavy stick with one thick end, used as a weapon

4 a long thin stick that is used for hitting a ball when playinggolf (= a game played on grass in which you hit a small ball into a number of holes) Look at the note at bat.

4 clubs (plural) the group of playing cards (called a suit) that have the shape (below) on them:
the three of clubs

Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English


I. club1 S1 W1 /klʌb/ BrE AmE noun [countable]
[Date: 1100-1200; Language: Old Norse; Origin: klubba 'heavy stick']
a) [also + plural verb British English] an organization for people who share a particular interest or enjoy similar activities, or a group of people who meet together to do something they are interested in
rugby/golf/squash etc club
Our chess club really needs new members.
club for
a club for unemployed young people
It costs £15 to join the club.
She belongs to a local health club.
b) the building or place where the members of a particular club meet or play sport:
We could have dinner at the golf club. ⇨ ↑country club, ↑fan club, ↑youth club
2. PROFESSIONAL SPORT [also + plural verb British English] especially British English a professional organization including the players, managers, and owners of a sports team:
Manchester United Football Club
3. FOR DANCING/MUSIC a place where people go to dance, listen to music, and meet socially:
a jazz club
Shall we go to a club?
I’m not into the club scene at all.
4. TRADITIONAL MEN’S CLUB especially British English
a) an organization, traditionally for men only, which provides a comfortable place for its members to relax, eat, or stay the night:
I always stay at my London club.
b) the building where this organization is based
5. book/record/wine etc club an organization which people join to buy books, records, wine etc cheaply
6. GOLF (also golf club) a long thin metal stick used in golf to hit the ball
7. WEAPON a thick heavy stick used to hit people
a) clubs one of the four ↑suits (=types of cards) in a set of playing cards, which has the design of three round black leaves in a group together
ten/king etc of clubs
the ace of clubs
b) a card from this suit:
You have to play a club.
9. in the club British English old-fashioned if a woman is in the club, she is going to have a baby – used humorously SYN pregnant
10. join the club (also welcome to the club American English) spoken used after someone has described a bad situation that they are in, to tell them that you are in the same situation:
‘He never listens to me.’ ‘Join the club.’
• • •
■ types of club
a football/tennis/golf etc club There’s a football club for the young people in the area.
a sports club Why don’t you join one of the school sports clubs?
a youth club (=for young people) The youth club is on Thursday nights in the village hall.
a social club (=where you meet people and talk) Older people may benefit from joining a social club.
a health club (=where you go to do physical exercise) The hotel has its own health club with saunas, solarium and work-out equipment.
a fan club (=for people who like a particular team, band, person etc) I used to be a member of the Take That fan club.
a country club (=a sports and social club, usually in the countryside) Ted was a member of an exclusive country club.
■ verbs
join a club I decided to join the computer club.
belong to a club Do you belong to any university clubs or societies?
form a club (=start one) It’s always possible to form your own club.
run a club (=organize one) My Dad helps to run the rowing club.
a club welcomes somebody (=is happy to accept new members) The chess club welcomes both beginners and experienced players.
■ club + NOUN
a club member/member of a club There’s a monthly magazine for club members.
club membership Club membership costs £300 per year.
a club chairman/president Reg took over as club chairman three years ago,
a club secretary For further information about membership, contact the club secretary.
a club official (=someone with a position of authority in the club) At this meeting we will elect new club officials.

Oxford Advanced Learner's Dictionary




club [club clubs clubbed clubbing] noun, verb   [klʌb]    [klʌb] 




1. countable + singular or plural verb (especially in compounds) a group of people who meet together regularly, for a particular activity, sport, etc
a golf/tennis, etc. club
a chess/film/movie, etc. club
to join/belong to a club
• The club has/have voted to admit new members.

see also  fan club, youth club

2. countable the building or rooms that a particular club uses
We had lunch at the golf club.
• the club bar

see also  country club, health club

3. countable + singular or plural verb (BrE) a professional sports organization that includes the players, managers, owners and members

• Manchester United Football Club  



4. countable a place where people, especially young people, go and listen to music, dance, etc
a jazz club
• the club scene in Newcastle

see also  clubbing, nightclub, strip club  



5. countable + singular or plural verb (especially in Britain) an organization and a place where people, usually men only, can meet together socially or stay

• He's a member of several London clubs.  



6. countable an organization that sells books, CDs, etc. cheaply to its members
• a music club

see also  book club  



7. countable a heavy stick with one end thicker than the other, that is used as a weapon

see also  billy club  




8. countable =  golf club  

9. clubs plural, uncountable one of the four sets of cards (called suits) in a pack of cards. The clubs have a black design shaped like three black leaves on a short stem

• the five/queen/ace of clubs

10. countable one card from the suit called clubs
I played a club.
more at join the club at  join  v.  
Word Origin:
n. senses 1 to 6 and v. sense 2 early 17th cent. club
n. senses 7 to 10 and v. sense 1 Middle English Old Norse clubba klumba clump
clubs and societies
Many people in Britain and the US belong to at least one club or society. Club is often used to refer to a group of people who regularly meet together socially or take part in sports. Most young people’s groups are called clubs. A society is usually concerned with a special interest, e.g. birdwatching or local history, and sends newsletters or magazines to its members. National societies, such as the Royal Society for the Protection of Birds, usually have local branches.
Social clubs have a bar where members can sit and talk to each other. Members of the upper class or business people may belong to a gentlemen's club. Most of these are in London and even today only some of them allow women to be members. They are places to relax in, but also to make business contacts and take clients. Freemasonary attracts business and professional men who may join a lodge (= branch) in their home town. Masons are sometimes accused of giving unfair advantages to other Masons in business, etc.
Some clubs combine social events with community service. Members of the Rotary Club, the Round Table, the Kiwanis and the Lions Club are usually professional or business people. In the US these organizations are called service clubs. Some are open only to men. They hold events to raise money for good causes, e.g. to provide scholarships for university students or to raise money for a hospital.
In Britain, working men’s clubs were set up for men doing manual jobs. The clubs offer a range of entertainment, such as comedians or darts matches, as well as a bar. In recent years some clubs have decided to admit women. In the US there are clubs based on ethnic origin, religion or military background. For example, the Knights of Columbus is a club for Roman Catholic men. People who have served in the armed forces join the Veterans of Foreign Wars or the American Legion. The British Legion is a similar organization for former British servicemen.
In Britain, the Women's Institute and the Townswomen’s Guild began with the aim of improving women’s education. Both now organize social and cultural activities.
Nightclubs, often called simply clubs, are places where mainly young people meet to drink and dance. They charge admission fees rather than a subscription. Fees are higher at weekends and in large cities, especially London.
Many sports clubs hold parties and arrange social events, as well as providing facilities for various sports. Golf clubs are often expensive to join, and there is often a long waiting list. Other sports clubs include those for squash, tennis, cricket, bowls, snooker and cycling. Many clubs own their own sports ground and clubhouse with a bar. Most towns also have gyms or fitness clubs. In Britain, sports and social clubs are run by some big companies for their employees and in the US most sports clubs are associated with companies. Softball and basketball teams play against teams from other companies in the same city.
Country clubs are found in green areas near cities all over the US. They offer sports like swimming, golf and tennis, and hold dances and other social events in the restaurants and bars. The oldest and most famous country club was established in Brookline, Massachusetts in 1882.
Many Americans belong to the alumni club of the college or university they attended. Members take part in social activities and raise money for the university.
Some students join Greek societies, societies named with Greek letters, e.g. Alpha Epsilon Pi. Fraternities are for men, and sororities are for women. Most Greek societies are social organizations and their members, who usually come from rich families, live in a fraternity or sorority house. After they leave university, many members continue to be active in the organization. There are also honor societies for outstanding students, which also have Greek letters in their names. Phi Beta Kappa is the most famous of these. Some are for students in a particular subject, for example Psi Chi is for students in psychology. In Britain, schools, colleges and universities have societies for former students, often called old boys’ or old girls’ associations.
In most towns there are local societies for many interests, including singing, drama, film, folk music, archaeology, natural and local history and photography. Local branches of national societies, such as the National Trust in Britain and the Audubon Society in the US, organize events in their area. Only a small proportion of members attend local events, and most people join these societies because they support their aims.
Clubs are an important feature of school life, especially in the US. They include clubs for science, drama and music, as well as language clubs. Outside school, children can join a local youth club, Scouts or Girl Guides, or another youth organization. 
club noun
1. C+sing./pl. v.
He joined the local drama club.
form/set up/belong to/join a/an club/society/association/organization
a/an club/society/association/organization meets
a member of a/an club/society/association/organization
Club, association or society? These words are all used for groups of people who have a shared interest or purpose. Often, but not always, a club relates to leisure interests, a society to academic interests, and an association to professional interests. A club can be quite informal.
2. C (BrE)
a Premier League football club
teamsquadline-up|BrE side
a football/rugby/cricket club/team/squad/side
a/an Irish/French club/team/squad/side
the England/Ireland team/squad/side/line-up
a club/team/side plays/wins/loses (a game/match)
Club, team or side? Club refers to the organization that includes players, owner and manager; team and side usually refer just to the players, often at a particular time
This team is arguably even better than the Welsh side of the seventies.
Example Bank:
She belongs to a book club.
She plays at the local tennis club.
Who runs the tennis club?
a new style of music on the London club scene
members of an exclusive club
one of the top football clubs in the country
Anderson took over as club captain.
Anyone interested in umpiring matches should contact the club chairman.
Athletico Madrid Football Club
Fan club members can get concert tickets at a discount.
He is expected to sign for a Premier League club next season.
I belong to a book club which meets once a month.
I wrote a letter of complaint to the club secretary.
She gives talks at local schools and youth clubs.
Wilkins makes his long awaited debut for his new club.
Idiom: in the club

Derived: club together 

Cambridge Advanced Learner's Dictionary

Cambridge Advanced Learner's Dictionary - 4th Edition

club / klʌb / noun (GROUP)

A2 [ C , + sing/pl verb ] an organization of people with a common purpose or interest, who meet regularly and take part in shared activities:

I've just joined the local golf/squash/tennis club.

Visitors must be accompanied by club members .

B1 [ C , + sing/pl verb ] a team:

The Orioles are an exciting club this year.

Stockport County Football Club

[ C ] a building in which a club meets


club / klʌb / noun [ C ] (DANCE)

B1 a place that people go to in order to dance and drink in the evening:

I went to that new club that's just opened.

→  Synonym nightclub


club / klʌb / noun [ C ] (GOLF)

a long, thin stick used in golf to hit the ball:

a set of golf clubs

See picture club

See picture sports 1


club / klʌb / noun [ C ] (WEAPON)

a heavy stick used as a weapon

See picture club


club / klʌb / noun (CARD)

clubs [ plural or U ] one of the four suits in playing cards, which has one or more black symbols with three round leaves:

the three/King of clubs

[ C ] a playing card from the suit of clubs:

Now you have to play a club if you have one.

See picture club

© Cambridge University Press 2013

Collins COBUILD Advanced Learner’s English Dictionary


 clubs, clubbing, clubbed

 1) N-COUNT A club is an organization of people interested in a particular activity or subject who usually meet on a regular basis.
  ...the Chorlton Conservative Club.
  ...a youth club...
  He was club secretary.
 2) N-COUNT: oft poss N A club is a place where the members of a club meet.
  I stopped in at the club for a drink.
 3) N-COUNT A club is a team which competes in sporting competitions.
  ...the New York Yankees baseball club.
  ...Liverpool football club.
 4) N-COUNT A club is the same as a nightclub.
  It's a big dance hit in the clubs.
  ...the London club scene.
 5) N-COUNT A club is a long, thin, metal stick with a piece of wood or metal at one end that you use to hit the ball in golf.
  ...a six-iron club.
  golf club
 6) N-COUNT A club is a thick heavy stick that can be used as a weapon.
  Men armed with knives and clubs attacked his home.
 7) VERB To club a person or animal means to hit them hard with a thick heavy stick or a similar weapon.
  [V n] Two thugs clubbed him with baseball bats...
  [V n to n] Clubbing baby seals to death for their pelts is wrong.
 8) N-UNCOUNT-COLL Clubs is one of the four suits in a pack of playing cards. Each card in the suit is marked with one or more black symbols: ♣.
  ...the ace of clubs.
  Phrasal Verbs:
  - club together
 A club is a playing card of this suit. The next player discarded a club.


Merriam-Webster's Advanced Learner's Dictionary

Merriam-Webster's Advanced Learner's Dictionary: 

1club /ˈklʌb/ noun, pl clubs
1 [count]
a : a group of people who meet to participate in an activity (such as a sport or hobby)
• an exclusive social/men's club
• Do you belong to any clubs?
• My friends and I formed/started a chess club. [=a group of people who play chess together]
• She's the club president. = She's the president of the club.
- see also fan club, glee club, golf club 2
b : the place where the members of a club meet
• I'll see you at the club.
- see also country club, health club
2 [count] : a sports team or organization
• the president of a major-league baseball club
• He spent five years with the club.
• a ball club
• a boxing/football/hockey club
3 [count] : an organization in which people agree to buy things (such as books or CDs) regularly in order to receive a benefit (such as lower prices)
• Join our movie club now and receive four free DVDs.
- see also book club
4 [count] : a business that provides entertainment (such as music, dancing, or a show) and that usually serves food and alcohol : nightclub
• a dance club
• jazz clubs
• comedy clubs [=clubs in which people perform comedy shows]
• They went club-hopping. [=they went to several different clubs in one night]
- often used before another noun
club owners
club music [=dance music that is played in clubs]
- see also strip club
5 [count] : a special metal stick used for hitting a golf ball : golf club
• I just bought a new set of clubs.
6 [count] : a heavy usually wooden stick that is used as a weapon
• In battle, they used swords and wooden clubs.
- see also billy club
7 a [count] : a playing card that is marked with a black shape that looks like three round leaves
• one heart, two diamonds, and two clubs
- see picture at playing card
b clubs [plural] : the suit in a deck of playing cards that consists of cards marked by a black shape that looks like three round leaves
• the nine of clubs
- compare diamond, heart, spade
8 [count] informal : club sandwich
• She ordered a turkey club with French fries.
in the club Brit informal : pregnant
join the club also welcome to the club informal
- used to say that the problems or feelings someone is having are problems or feelings that you have had yourself
• If you don't understand the rules, join the club: no one else does either!
- often used to suggest that a person's problems or feelings are not unusual and do not deserve much sympathy
• So you think you deserve to be paid more money for your work? Well, join the club. [=lots of people think they deserve more money]
• “My son won't do what I tell him to do.” “Join the club. I can't get my daughter to obey me, either.”


light [adjective] (NOT HEAVY)

Not heavy

US /laɪt/ 
UK /laɪt/ 



The little girl was as light as a feather. 

آن دختر کوچک مثل پر سبک بود. 

آهنگ وترانه: 
Hotel California - Eagles

Oxford Essential Dictionary

adjective (lighter, lightest)

1 full of natural light:
In summer it's light until about ten o'clock.
The room has a lot of windows so it's very light.
 opposite dark

2 with a pale colour:
a light blue shirt
 opposite dark

3 easy to lift or move:
Will you carry this bag for me? It's very light.
 opposite heavy

4 not very much or not very strong:
light rain
I had a light breakfast.

>> lightly adverb:
She touched me lightly on the arm.

Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English

II. light2 S1 W1 BrE AmE adjective (comparative lighter, superlative lightest)
[Word Family: noun: ↑light, ↑lighter, ↑lighting, ↑lightness; adjective: ↑light, ↑lighted, ↑unlit; verb: ↑light, ↑lighten; adverb: ↑lightly, ↑light]
[Language: Old English; Origin: leoht]
1. COLOUR a light colour is pale and not dark:
You look nice in light colours.
light blue/green/grey etc
She had blue eyes and light brown hair.
I wanted a lighter yellow paint for the walls.
2. DAYLIGHT it is/gets light if it is light, there is the natural light of day OPP dark:
We’ll keep on looking while it’s still light.
It was seven o'clock and just starting to get light.
3. ROOMS a room that is light has plenty of light in it, especially from the sun OPP dark:
The kitchen was light and spacious.
The office was a big light room at the back of the house.
NOT HEAVY not very heavy:
You can carry this bag – it’s fairly light.
You should wear light, comfortable shoes.
The truck was quite light and easy to drive.
She was as light as a feather (=very light) to carry. ⇨ ↑lighten, ↑lightweight2
5. NOT GREAT if something is light, there is not very much of it or it is not very great OPP heavy:
Traffic is lighter before 8 a.m.
A light rain began to fall.
She was wearing only light make-up.
people who have suffered only light exposure to radiation
6. CLOTHES light clothes are thin and not very warm:
She took a light sweater in case the evening was cool.
a light summer coat
7. WIND a light wind is blowing without much force OPP strong:
Leaves were blowing about in the light wind.
There was a light easterly breeze.
8. SOUND a light sound is very quiet OPP loud:
There was a light tap at the door.
Her voice was light and pleasant.
9. TOUCH a light touch is gentle and soft:
She gave him a light kiss on the cheek.
He felt a light tap on his shoulder.
10. WORK/EXERCISE light work is not hard or tiring:
I found him some light work to do.
She only has a few light duties around the house.
The doctor has advised me to take regular light exercise.
11. FOOD
a) food or drink that is light either does not have a strong taste or does not make you feel full very quickly, for example because it does not contain very much fat, sugar, or alcohol OPP rich:
We had a light white wine with the fish.
a light, refreshing dessert
a new light cheese spread with virtually no fat
b) a light meal is a small meal OPP big:
I had a light lunch in town.
a delicious light snack
c) food that is light contains a lot of air:
a type of light, sweet bread
Beat the mixture until it is light and fluffy.
12. PUNISHMENT a light punishment is not very severe OPP harsh:
a fairly light sentence
13. a light smoker/drinker/eater etc someone who does not smoke etc very much
14. light sleep/doze a sleep from which you wake up easily:
I fell into a light sleep.
15. a light sleeper someone who wakes up easily if there is any noise etc:
She’s quite a light sleeper.
16. NOT SERIOUS not serious in meaning, style, or manner, and only intended to entertain people:
His speech gradually became lighter in tone.
an evening of light music
It’s a really good book if you want a bit of light reading.
The show looks at some of the lighter moments from the world of politics.
17. light relief something that is pleasant and amusing after something sad or serious:
I’m glad you’ve arrived – we could all do with a little light relief!
18. make light of something to joke about something or treat it as not being very serious, especially when it is important:
She tried to make light of the situation, but I could tell that she was worried.
19. on a lighter note/in a lighter vein used when you are going to say something less sad or serious:
On a lighter note, the concert raised over £300 for school funds.
20. make light work of something to do something or deal with something quickly and easily:
A freezer and microwave oven can make light work of cooking.
21. be light on your feet to be able to move quickly and gracefully:
She’s very agile and light on her feet.
22. a light heart literary someone who has a light heart feels happy and not worried:
I set off for work with a light heart. ⇨ ↑light-hearted
23. SOIL light soil is easy to break into small pieces OPP heavy:
Carrots grow well in light soils.
—lightness noun [uncountable]:
a lightness of touch

Oxford Advanced Learner's Dictionary

adjective (light·er, light·est

1. full of light; having the natural light of day
We'll leave in the morning as soon as it's light.
It gets light at about 5 o'clock.
• It was a light spacious apartment at the top of the building.

Opp:  dark  


2. pale in colour
light blue eyes
Lighter shades suit you best.
• People with pale complexions should avoid wearing light colours.

Opp:  dark  


3. easy to lift or move; not weighing very much
Modern video cameras are light and easy to carry.
Carry this bag— it's the lightest.
He's lost a lot of weight— he's three kilos lighter than he was.
The little girl was as light as a feather.
• The aluminium body is 12% lighter than if built with steel.

Opp:  heavy

4. usually before noun of less than average or usual weight
light summer clothes
• Only light vehicles are allowed over the old bridge.

Opp:  heavy

5. used with a unit of weight to say that sth weighs less than it should do

• The delivery of potatoes was several kilos light.  


6. usually before noun gentle or delicate; not using much force
She felt a light tap on her shoulder.
the sound of quick light footsteps
You only need to apply light pressure.
As a boxer, he was always light on his feet (= quick and elegant in the way he moved).

Opp:  heavy  


7. usually before noun easy to do; not making you tired
After his accident he was moved to lighter work.
• some light housework

• You are probably well enough to take a little light exercise.  


8. not great in amount, degree, etc
light traffic
The forecast is for light showers.
light winds
• Trading on the stock exchange was light today.

Opp:  heavy  


9. not severe

• He was convicted of assaulting a police officer but he got off with a light sentence.

10. entertaining rather than serious and not needing much mental effort
light reading for the beach
• a concert of light classical music

• We were just making light conversation.

11. not serious
She kept her tone light.
This programme looks at the lighter side of politics.
We all needed a little light relief at the end of a long day (= something amusing or entertaining that comes after sth serious or boring).
The job does have its lighter moments.
• Let's talk about lighter things, shall we?

On a lighter note, we end the news today with a story about a duck called Quackers.  


12. usually before noun free from worry; cheerful

• I left the island with a light heart.  


13. (of a meal) small in quantity
a light supper/snack.
• I just want something light for lunch.

Opp:  heavy

14. not containing much fat or not having a strong flavour and therefore easy for the stomach to digest
• Stick to a light diet.

see also  lite

15. containing a lot of air

• This pastry is so light.  


16. low in alcohol

• a light beer

17. (IndE) (of tea or coffee) containing a lot of water
Syn:  weak
I don't like my coffee too light.
• I think I'll have a light tea.

Opp:  strong  


18. only before noun a person in a light sleep is easy to wake
She drifted into a light sleep.
I've always been a light sleeper.
Opp:  deep
see also  lightly 
more at many hands make light work at  hand  n.  
Word Origin:
n. and v. adj. senses 1 to 2 Old English lēoht līht līhtan Germanic Dutch licht German Licht Indo-European Greek leukos ‘white’ Latin lux ‘light’
adj. senses 3 to 17 Old English lēocht līht lēohte Germanic Dutch licht German leicht Indo-European lung
light adj.
Light colours suit you best.
palesoftpastelneutral|usually approving cool
Opp: dark
a light/pale/soft/pastel/neutral/cool colour/shade
light/pale/soft/pastel/cool blue/green
light/pale/soft/pastel pink
light/soft/pale yellow/brown/red
Light or pale? Both words can be used to describe colours. Pale is also used to describe a kind of light that contains a lot of white and is not bright:
a pale light/glow/sky
 ¤ a light light/glow/sky
The forecast is for light showers.
Opp: heavy
(a) light/gentle breeze/wind/rain
light/gentle work/exercise
light/mild punishment
Light, gentle or mild? Light is used especially to describe weather, work, exercise and punishments. Gentle is used especially to describe weather, temperature, work and exercise. Mild is used especially to describe weather, diseases, drugs, criticism and punishment.  
Example Bank:
As soon as it grew light, we got up and dressed.
It stays light for so long on these summer evenings.
It was almost light outside.
It was barely light yet.
It was not light enough to see things clearly.
It was starting to get light.
The bottle felt strangely light between my fingers.
The punishment can be remarkably light.
The sky turned light once more.
The tent is light enough for backpacking and touring.
The traffic is usually fairly light in the afternoons.
The whole house was beautifully light and airy.
Trading volume remains light.
We'll set out as soon as it's completely light.
a deliciously light alternative to cake
wearing only very light clothes
Do you need some light reading for the beach?
He was convicted of assaulting a police officer but he got off with a light sentence.
He's got light blue eyes.
It gets light at about 5 o'clock.
People with pale complexions should avoid wearing light colours.
We'll leave in the morning as soon as it's light.
a pale light/glow/sky
light reading/fiction/entertainment/comedy/music/opera
• pale/light blue/green/yellow/orange/red/pink/purple/grey/brown

• pale/light colours/shades/tones

Cambridge Advanced Learner's Dictionary

Cambridge Advanced Learner's Dictionary - 4th Edition

light / laɪt / adjective (NOT HEAVY)

A2 not heavy:

Here, take this bag - it's quite light.

He's a few pounds lighter than he used to be.

How do you get your cakes so wonderfully light, Felicity?

He has a very light (= gentle) touch , which is what is required in massage.

She's very light on her feet (= she moves gracefully) .

A2 describes clothes that are made of thin material that allows you to be cool:

a light summer dress

light / laɪt / adjective (BRIGHT)

B1 lit by the natural light of the day:

The big windows make the room feel wonderfully light and airy.

It gets light very early these summer mornings.

Summer is coming and the evenings are getting lighter (= getting dark later) .

light / laɪt / adjective (PALE)

A1 (of colours) pale:

light blue/green

→  Opposite dark

light / laɪt / adjective (NOT SERIOUS)

entertaining and easily understood, but not serious and not intended to make you think:

I want some light reading for the summer holidays - a romance or something.

A lively argument between the two main speakers provided a bit of light relief (= something enjoyable or amusing) in an otherwise dull conference.

make light of sth C2 to behave as if a situation, especially a problem, is not serious or important:

It is easy to make light of other people's problems.

light / laɪt / adjective (NOT MUCH)

B1 not great in strength or amount:

A light wind was blowing.

The traffic was quite light so we got through London quickly.

It's only light rain - you don't need an umbrella.

light eater/drinker/smoker

someone who eats/drinks/smokes only a little

light sleeper

someone who is easily woken up by noise, etc.

light / laɪt / adjective (MEAL/DRINK)

A light meal is small and easy to digest:

I don't eat much for lunch - just a light snack.

describes alcoholic drinks that are not strong in flavour:

It's described on the label as 'light, fruity wine'.


light / laɪt / adjective (NOT SEVERE)

needing only a very small amount of effort:

light exercise, such as walking

a bit of light housework

A light sentence in prison is a short one:

He got off with a fairly light sentence because it was his first conviction.

make light work of sth/doing sth to do something quickly and easily:

Heather made light work of painting the walls.

You made light work of that chocolate cake (= you ate it quickly) !

© Cambridge University Press 2013

Collins COBUILD Advanced Learner’s English Dictionary



(lights, lighting, lit, lighted, lighter, lightest)
Frequency: The word is one of the 1500 most common words in English.
Note: The form 'lit' is the usual past tense and past participle, but the form 'lighted' is also used.
Please look at category 19 to see if the expression you are looking for is shown under another headword.
Light is the brightness that lets you see things. Light comes from sources such as the sun, moon, lamps, and fire.
Cracks of light filtered through the shutters...
It was difficult to see in the dim light.
...ultraviolet light.
N-UNCOUNT: also the N
A light is something such as an electric lamp which produces light.
The janitor comes round to turn the lights out...
...street lights.
You can use lights to refer to a set of traffic lights.
...the heavy city traffic with its endless delays at lights and crossings.
If a place or object is lit by something, it has light shining on it.
It was dark and a giant moon lit the road so brightly you could see the landscape clearly...
The room was lit by only the one light...
The low sun lit the fortress walls with yellow light.
VERB: V n, V n, V n with n
If it is light, the sun is providing light at the beginning or end of the day.
It was still light when we arrived at Lalong Creek...
...light summer evenings.
If a room or building is light, it has a lot of natural light in it, for example because it has large windows.
It is a light room with tall windows...
= bright
The dark green spare bedroom is in total contrast to the lightness of the large main bedroom.
N-UNCOUNT: usu with supp
If you light something such as a cigarette or fire, or if it lights, it starts burning.
Stephen hunched down to light a cigarette...
If the charcoal does fail to light, use a special liquid spray and light it with a long taper.
...a lighted candle.
VERB: V n, V, V-ed
If someone asks you for a light, they want a match or cigarette lighter so they can start smoking. (INFORMAL)
Have you got a light anybody?
If something is presented in a particular light, it is presented so that you think about it in a particular way or so that it appears to be of a particular nature.
He has worked hard in recent months to portray New York in a better light.
N-COUNT: with supp
see also lighterlightingbright lightsnight lightpilot lightred light
If something comes to light or is brought to light, it becomes obvious or is made known to a lot of people.
The truth is unlikely to be brought to light by the promised enquiry.
PHRASE: V inflects
If light dawns on you, you begin to understand something after a period of not being able to understand it.
At last the light dawned. He was going to marry Phylis!
PHRASE: V inflects
If someone in authority gives you a green light, they give you permission to do something.
The food industry was given a green light to extend the use of these chemicals...
PHRASE: PHR after v, v-link PHR
If something is possible in the light of particular information, it is only possible because you have this information.
In the light of this information it is now possible to identify a number of key issues.
If someone sees the light, they finally realize something or change their attitude or way of behaving to a better one.
I saw the light and ditched him.
PHRASE: V inflects
If you set light to something, you make it start burning. (mainly BRIT; in AM, use set fire to)
They had poured fuel through the door of the flat and had then set light to it.
PHRASE: V inflects: PHR n
To shed light on, throw light on, or cast light on something means to make it easier to understand, because more information is known about it.
A new approach offers an answer, and may shed light on an even bigger question.
= clarify
PHRASE: V inflects, PHR n
When you talk about the light at the end of the tunnel, you are referring to the end of the difficult or unpleasant situation that you are in at the moment.
All I can do is tell her to hold on, that there’s light at the end of the tunnel.
all sweetness and light: see sweetness



(lighter, lightest)
Frequency: The word is one of the 3000 most common words in English.
Something that is light does not weigh very much, or weighs less than you would expect it to.
Modern tennis rackets are now apparently 20 per cent lighter.
...weight training with light weights...
Try to wear light, loose clothes.
The toughness, lightness, strength, and elasticity of whalebone gave it a wide variety of uses.
N-UNCOUNT: usu with supp
Something that is light is not very great in amount, degree, or intensity.
It’s a Sunday like any other with the usual light traffic in the city...
...a light breeze.
Put the onions in the pan and cook until lightly browned.
ADV: usu ADV -ed, also ADV after v
Light equipment and machines are small and easily moved, especially because they are not heavy.
...a convoy of light armoured vehicles...
They used light machine guns and AK forty-sevens.
Something that is light is very pale in colour.
The walls are light in colour and covered in paper...
He is light haired with gray eyes.

Light is also a combining form.
We know he has a light green van.
...a light blue box.
A light sleep is one that is easily disturbed and in which you are often aware of the things around you. If you are a light sleeper, you are easily woken when you are asleep.
She had drifted into a light sleep...
She was usually a light sleeper.
He was dozing lightly in his chair.
ADV: ADV after v
A light sound, for example someone’s voice, is pleasantly quiet.
The voice was sweet and light.
A light meal consists of a small amount of food, or of food that is easy to digest.
...a light, healthy lunch.
She found it impossible to eat lightly.
ADV: ADV after v
Light work does not involve much physical effort.
He was on the training field for some light work yesterday.
ADJ: usu ADJ n
If you describe the result of an action or a punishment as light, you mean that it is less serious or severe than you expected.
She confessed her astonishment at her light sentence when her father visited her at the jail.
= lenient
One of the accused got off lightly in exchange for pleading guilty to withholding information from Congress.
ADV: ADV after v
Movements and actions that are light are graceful or gentle and are done with very little force or effort.
Use a light touch when applying cream or make-up...
There was a light knock at the door.
= gentle
He kissed her lightly on the mouth...
Knead the dough very lightly.
ADV: ADV with v
She danced with a grace and lightness that were breathtaking.
see also lighter



(lighter, lightest)
Frequency: The word is one of the 3000 most common words in English.
Please look at category 5 to see if the expression you are looking for is shown under another headword.
If you describe things such as books, music, and films as light, you mean that they entertain you without making you think very deeply.
...light classical music.
...a light entertainment programme.
ADJ: usu ADJ n
If you say something in a light way, you sound as if you think that something is not important or serious.
Talk to him in a friendly, light way about the relationship...
Let’s finish on a lighter note.
ADJ: usu ADJ n
‘Once a detective, always a detective,’ he said lightly.
ADV: ADV after v
‘I’m not an authority on them,’ Jessica said with forced lightness.
If you say that something is not a light matter, you mean that it should be treated or considered as being important and serious.
It can be no light matter for the Home Office that so many young prisoners should have wanted to kill or injure themselves.
ADJ: usu with brd-neg
His allegations cannot be lightly dismissed.
ADV: ADV with v
If you make light of something, you treat it as though it is not serious or important, when in fact it is.
Roberts attempted to make light of his discomfort.
= play down
PHRASE: V inflects

Merriam-Webster's Advanced Learner's Dictionary

Merriam-Webster's Advanced Learner's Dictionary: 

4light adj lighter; -est
1 a : not heavy : having little weight or less than usual weight
• This suitcase is light enough for a child to carry.
• The truck was carrying a light load.
• “How heavy is it?” “Not very: it's actually quite light.”
• It's very light in weight. = It's of very light weight.
• This box is lighter than I thought it would be.
• She would like to be a few pounds lighter. = She would like to be lighter by a few pounds. [=she would like to weigh less than she does by a few pounds]
• Aluminum is a light metal.
• lifting light weights
• This box is as light as a feather. [=very light]
b : small in size and weight
• He has a light build.
2 a : less in amount or degree than usual
• Only a light turnout is expected for the election.
• Traffic was light this morning.
• I have only a light course load this semester.
• The stock market was slightly up today in light trading.
light rain/snow
• She was wearing light makeup.
light perfume
b : not strong or violent : moderate
• a light breeze
c : not great or large
• The storm caused only light [=slight] damage. [=the storm did not cause much damage]
light competition
• Casualties have so far been light.
d : not difficult to accept or bear
• a light responsibility : not harsh or severe
light punishment
• He was given a surprisingly light sentence for his crimes.
e : slight or minor in degree or effect
• She has a light cold.
light discipline
• These shrubs require only a little light pruning.
- opposite heavy
3 : not involving a lot of physical effort
light lifting
• doing a little light housework
light exercise/exertion
• a light practice session
• It's a big job, but many hands make light work. [=if many people work on it, it will be easier to do]
- opposite heavy
4 : not loud or forceful
light footsteps
• a light tread
• a light touch
• just a light tap on the ball/shoulder
- opposite heavy
5 : not important or serious : intended mainly for entertainment
• doing some light reading
- opposite heavy
6 : not dense and thick
• He has a light beard.
• a light growth of timber
• an animal's light summer coat
light fog/smoke
light soil
- opposite heavy
7 : made with thin cloth and not very warm
• a light coat/blanket
- opposite heavy
8 a : eating, drinking, or using a small amount of something
• He's a light eater/smoker/drinker/user.
light alcohol consumption
b : producing a small amount of something
• a shrub that is a light bloomer [=a shrub that does not produce many flowers]
c : not done often or in large amounts
light smoking
- opposite heavy
9 a : not having a large amount of food : not making your stomach feel full
• We ate a light lunch.
• a light snack
b : made with fewer calories or with less of some ingredient than usual
light beer
c : not rich, dense, or thick
light cream
light syrup
- opposite heavy
10 a : designed to carry a small load or few passengers
• a light truck
• a refueling point for light aircraft
b : not as large and powerful as other weapons, machines, etc.
light artillery
light machinery
c of a group of soldiers : having fewer and smaller weapons and less armor than other groups but able to move quickly
light infantry/cavalry
light on : having or using a small amount of (something)
• a essay that is light on facts but heavy on speculation
• She asked him to go light on the mustard. [=to not use a large amount of mustard]
light on your feet : capable of moving in a quick and graceful way
• He's very light on his feet for such a big person.
light sleeper : someone who wakes up easily
• She's a very light sleeper. The slightest noise will wake her.
make light of : to treat (something, such as a problem) in a joking way : to not be serious about (something important)
• I don't mean to make light of this very serious issue.
• He made light of his recent losses—but you could tell he was worried about them.

- compare 2light


stand [verb]

To be in a vertical state or to put into a vertical state, especially (of a person or animal) by making the legs straight

US /stænd/ 
UK /stænd/ 



Julie stood under the tree.

جولى‌ زير درخت‌ ايستاده‌ بود.‏

Oxford Essential Dictionary

 verb (stands, standing, stood /, has stood)

1 to be on your feet:
She was standing by the door.
Stand still while I take your photograph.

2 (also stand up) to get up on your feet:
The teacher asked us all to stand up.

3 to be in a place:
The castle stands on a hill.

4 to put something somewhere:
I stood the ladder against the wall.

can't stand somebody or something to hate somebody or something:
I can't stand this music.

stand by

1 to watch but not do anything:
How can you stand by while those boys kick the cat?

2 to be ready to do something:
Stand by until I call you!

stand by somebody to help somebody when they need it:
Julie's parents stood by her when she was in trouble.

stand for something to be a short way of saying or writing something:
USA stands for 'the United States of America'.

stand out to be easy to see:
Joe stands out in a crowd because of his red hair.

stand up for somebody or something to say that somebody or something is right; to support somebody or something:
Everyone else said I was wrong, but my sister stood up for me.

stand up to somebody to argue or fight with a more powerful person who is attacking you

Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English


I. stand1 S1 W1 /stænd/ BrE AmE verb (past tense and past participle stood /stʊd/)
[Word Family: adjective: ↑standing, ↑outstanding, ↑upstanding; noun: ↑stand, ↑standing; verb: ↑stand; adverb: ↑outstandingly]
[Language: Old English; Origin: standan]
1. BE ON FEET (also be standing up) [intransitive] to support yourself on your feet or be in an upright position:
It looks like we’ll have to stand – there are no seats left.
She stood in the doorway.
Stand still (=do not move) and listen to me.
Don’t just stand there (=stand and not do anything) – help me!
stand on tiptoe/stand on your toes (=support yourself on your toes)
If he stood on tiptoe, he could reach the shelf.
stand (somewhere) doing something
They just stood there laughing.
We stood watching the rain fall.
2. RISE (also stand up) [intransitive] to rise to an upright position:
Smiling, she stood and closed the blinds.
3. STEP [intransitive always + adverb/preposition]
a) to step a short distance
stand back/aside
She stood back to let him in.
stand clear of something British English (=step away from something in order to be safe)
Stand clear of the doors, please.
b) British English to accidentally step on or in something
stand on/in
Don’t stand in that puddle!
4. IN A PARTICULAR POSITION [intransitive, transitive usually + adverb/preposition] to be upright in a particular position, or to put something or someone somewhere in an upright position:
A lamp stood on the table.
Near the railway station stood a hotel.
Some remains of the original house still stand.
stand something on/in etc something
Can you stand that pole in the corner for now?
I closed the lid and stood the case against the wall.
stand somebody (up) on something
Stand Molly up on a chair so she can see.
5. IN A STATE/CONDITION [linking verb] to be or stay in a particular state or condition:
The kitchen door stood open so she went in.
stand empty/idle (=not being used)
scores of derelict houses standing empty
I’m not too thrilled with the way things stand (=the state that the situation is in) at the moment.
The evidence, as it stands (=as it is now), cannot be conclusive.
where/how do things stand? (=used to ask what is happening in a situation)
Where do things stand in terms of the budget?
I will know within the next month or two how I stand (=what my situation is).
stand united/divided (=agree or disagree completely)
He urged the whole community to stand united and to reject terrorism.
stand prepared/ready to do something (=be prepared to do something whenever it is necessary)
We should stand ready to do what is necessary to guarantee the peace.
countries that have stood together (=stayed united) in times of crisis
stand in awe of somebody (=admire them, be afraid of them, or both)
6. NOT LIKE can’t stand spoken used to say that you do not like someone or something at all, or that you think that something is extremely unpleasant SYN can’t bear:
I can’t stand bad manners.
I know he can’t stand the sight of me.
can’t stand (somebody/something) doing something
Lily can’t stand working in an office.
I can’t stand people smoking around me when I’m eating.
can’t stand to do something
She can’t stand to hear them arguing.
7. ACCEPT A SITUATION [transitive usually in questions and negatives] to be able to accept or deal well with a difficult situation SYN tolerate
can/could stand something
I couldn’t stand the thought of leaving Danielle.
I’ve had about as much as I can stand of your arguing!
I don’t know if I can stand the waiting any longer.
can stand somebody doing something
How can you stand Marty coming home late all the time?
She’s a strong woman who stands no nonsense from anyone.
8. BE GOOD ENOUGH [transitive] to be good or strong enough to last a long time or to experience a particular situation without being harmed, damaged etc:
Linen can stand very high temperatures.
His poetry will stand the test of time (=stay popular).
9. stand to do something to be likely to do or have something
stand to gain/lose/win/make
What do firms think they stand to gain by merging?
After the oil spill, thousands of fishermen stand to lose their livelihoods.
10. NOT MOVE [intransitive] to stay in a particular place without moving ⇨ standstill:
The car’s been standing in the garage for weeks.
The mixture was left to stand at room temperature for 15 minutes.
The train was already standing at the platform.
11. HEIGHT [linking verb] formal to be a particular height:
The trophy stands five feet high.
John stood six feet tall.
12. LEVEL/AMOUNT [linking verb] to be at a particular level or amount
stand at
His former workforce of 1,300 now stands at 220.
Illiteracy rates are still thought to stand above 50 percent.
13. RANK/POSITION [intransitive always + adverb/preposition] to have a particular rank or position when compared with similar things or people SYN rank:
The president stands high in the public opinion polls.
How do their sales stand in relation to those of similar firms?
His book could stand alongside the best.
14. ELECTION [intransitive] British English to try to become elected to a council, parliament etc SYN run American English
stand for
She announced her intention to stand for parliament.
15. DECISION/OFFER [intransitive not in progressive] if a decision, offer etc stands, it continues to exist, be correct, or be ↑valid:
Despite protests, the official decision stood.
My offer of help still stands.
16. if you can’t stand the heat, get out of the kitchen used to tell someone that they should leave a job or situation if they cannot deal with its difficulties
17. somebody/something could stand something used to say very directly that it would be a good idea for someone to do something or for something to happen:
His smile exposed teeth that could stand a good scrubbing.
somebody could stand to do something
My doctor told me I could stand to lose a few pounds.
18. I stand corrected spoken formal used to admit that your opinion or something that you just said was wrong
19. where somebody stands someone’s opinion about something
where somebody stands on
We still do not know where he stands on the matter.
You must decide where you stand.
20. from where I stand spoken according to what I know or feel:
I knew from where I stood that the stocks were practically worthless.
21. know where you stand (with somebody) to know how someone feels about you, or what you are allowed to do in a particular situation:
At least we know where we stand with Steven now.
I’d like to know where I stand.
It helps to know where you stand legally.
22. stand to attention British English, stand at attention American English if soldiers stand to attention, they stand very straight and stiff to show respect
23. stand on your head/hands to support yourself on your head or hands, with your feet in the air
24. stand in line American English to wait in a line of people until it is your turn to do something SYN queue British English:
Customers stood in line for 20 minutes at the cash register.
25. stand firm/stand fast
a) to refuse to be forced to move backwards:
She stood firm, blocking the entrance.
b) to refuse to change your opinions, intentions, or behaviour:
The government continued to stand firm and no concessions were made.
stand firm/stand fast on/against
He stands firm on his convictions.
26. stand pat American English to refuse to change a decision, plan etc
stand pat on
Harry’s standing pat on his decision to fire Janice.
27. stand alone
a) to continue to do something alone, without help from anyone else:
Some of the Pacific islands are too small to stand alone as independent states.
b) to be much better than anything or anyone else:
For sheer entertainment value, Kelly stood alone.
28. stand still to not change or progress at all, even though time has passed:
No industry can stand still.
Time seems to have stood still in this lovely hotel.
29. stand a chance/hope (of doing something) to be likely to be able to do something or to succeed:
You’ll stand a better chance of getting a job with a degree.
Maybe their relationship had never really stood a chance.
30. stand in sb’s way (also stand in the way) to prevent someone from doing something:
I always encouraged Brian. I didn’t want to stand in his way.
You can’t stand in the way of progress!
31. stand on your own (two) feet to be able to do what you need to do, earn your own money, etc without help from others:
She’s never learned to stand on her own feet.
32. it stands to reason (that) used to say that something should be completely clear to anyone who is sensible:
It stands to reason that you cannot find the right person to do a job unless you know exactly what that job is.
33. stand or fall by/on something to depend on something for success:
The case against him will stand or fall on its own merits.
34. LIQUID [intransitive] a liquid that stands does not flow or is not made to move:
standing pools of marsh water
35. stand guard (over somebody/something) to watch someone or something so that they do not do anything wrong or so that nothing bad happens to them:
Soldiers stand guard on street corners.
You must stand guard over him at all times.
36. stand bail British English to promise to pay money if someone does not return to a court of law to be judged
37. stand trial to be brought to a court of law to have your case examined and judged
stand trial for/on
Gresham will stand trial for murder.
The accused was ordered to stand trial on a number of charges.
38. stand accused (of something)
a) to be the person in a court of law who is being judged for a crime:
The former president stands accused of lying to the nation’s parliament.
b) if you stand accused of doing something bad or wrong, other people say that you have done it:
The radio station stands accused of racism.
39. stand tall
a) to stand with your back straight and your head raised:
Stand tall with your feet comfortably apart.
b) American English to be proud and feel ready to deal with anything:
We will stand tall and fight for issues of concern to our community.
40. somebody can do something standing on their head informal used to say that someone is able to do something easily:
This is basic stuff. I can do it standing on my head.
41. be stood on its head if something is stood on its head, it becomes the opposite of what it was before:
One area of the business which has been stood on its head is internal communications.
42. not stand on ceremony British English to not worry about the formal rules of polite behaviour:
Come on, Mal. Don’t stand on ceremony here at home.
43. stand somebody a drink/meal etc British English to pay for something as a gift to someone:
Come on, Jack. I’ll stand you a drink if you like.
make sb’s hair stand on end at ↑hair(8), ⇨ leave somebody/something standing at ↑leave1(15), ⇨ not have a leg to stand on at ↑leg1(7), ⇨ stand/serve/hold somebody in good stead at ↑stead(2), ⇨ stand your ground at ↑ground1(7)
• • •
stand to be on your feet in an upright position: There were no seats, so we had to stand. | When we entered, Stephen was standing by his desk.
be on your feet to be standing, especially for a long time: If you have young kids, you’re on your feet all day. | I’d been on my feet since 7 o'clock and I needed to sit down. | The crowd were all on their feet clapping and calling for more.
get up to stand after you have been sitting or lying down: He got up and turned off the TV. | Mum fell in her flat and was unable to get up.
stand up to stand after you have been sitting, or to be in a standing position: I stood up when she came in and shook her hand. | It’s generally better to do this exercise standing up.
get to your feet written to stand up, especially slowly or when it is difficult for you: My attorney got slowly to his feet, breathing heavily.
rise formal to stand after you have been sitting, especially at a formal event: As the bride entered the cathedral, the congregation rose. | Audience members rose to their feet, cheering and clapping.
stand against somebody/something phrasal verb
to oppose a person, organization, plan, decision etc:
She hadn’t the strength to stand against her aunt’s demands.
There are only a hundred of them standing against an army of 42,000 troops.
stand around phrasal verb
to stand somewhere and not do anything:
We stood around saying goodbye for a while.
stand by phrasal verb
1. to not do anything to help someone or prevent something from happening ⇨ bystander:
I’m not going to stand by and see her hurt.
2. stand by something to keep a promise, agreement etc, or to say that something is still true:
I stand by what I said earlier.
He stood by his convictions.
3. stand by somebody to stay loyal to someone and support them, especially in a difficult situation:
His wife stood by him during his years in prison.
4. to be ready to do something if necessary ⇨ standby:
Rescue crews were standing by in case of a breakdown.
stand by for
Stand by for our Christmas competition.
stand by to do something
Police stood by to arrest any violent fans.
stand down phrasal verb British English
1. to agree to leave your position or to stop trying to be elected, so that someone else can have a chance SYN step down American English
stand down as
He was obliged to stand down as a parliamentary candidate.
2. to leave the ↑witness box in a court of law
3. stand (somebody) down if a soldier stands down or is stood down, he stops working for the day
stand for something phrasal verb
1. if a letter or symbol stands for something, it represents a word or idea, especially as a short form:
What does ATM stand for?
2. to support a particular set of ideas, values, or principles:
It’s hard to tell what the party stands for these days.
3. not stand for something British English to not allow something to continue to happen or someone to do something:
She’s been lying about me, and I won’t stand for it.
stand in phrasal verb
to temporarily do someone else’s job or take their place ⇨ stand-in
stand in for
Would you mind standing in for me for a while?
stand out phrasal verb
1. to be very easy to see or notice:
The outlines of rooftops and chimneys stood out against the pale sky.
She always stood out in a crowd.
I am sure illnesses stand out in all childhood memories.
2. to be much better than other similar people or things ⇨ standout
stand out as
That day still stands out as the greatest day in my life.
stand out from/among/above
Three of the cars we tested stood out among the rest.
3. to rise up from a surface:
The veins stood out on his throat and temples.
stand out against something phrasal verb British English
to be strongly opposed to an idea, plan etc:
We must stand out against bigotry.
stand over somebody phrasal verb
to stand very close behind someone and watch as they work to make sure they do nothing wrong:
I can’t concentrate with him standing over me like that.
stand to phrasal verb British English
to order a soldier to move into a position so that they are ready for action, or to move into this position
stand somebody to
The men have been stood to.
stand up phrasal verb
1. to be on your feet, or to rise to your feet ⇨ stand-up:
I’ve been standing up all day.
Stand up straight and don’t slouch!
Jim stood up stiffly.
2. [always + adverb/preposition] to stay healthy or in good condition in a difficult environment or after a lot of hard use
stand up to
Most of the plants stood up well to the heat.
3. to be proved to be true, correct, useful etc when tested
stand up to/under
The memoirs stand up well to cross-checking with other records.
Without a witness, the charges will never stand up in court (=be successfully proved in a court of law).
4. stand somebody up informal to not meet someone who you have arranged to meet:
I was supposed to go to a concert with Kyle on Friday, but he stood me up.
5. stand up and be counted to make it very clear what you think about something when this is dangerous or might cause trouble for you
stand up for somebody/something phrasal verb
to support or defend a person or idea when they are being attacked:
It’s time we stood up for our rights.
Silvia is capable of standing up for herself.
stand up to somebody/something phrasal verb
to refuse to accept unfair treatment from a person or organization:
He’ll respect you more if you stand up to him.
Cliff couldn’t stand up to bullying.

Oxford Advanced Learner's Dictionary


stand [stand stands stood standing] verb, noun   [stænd]    [stænd] 


verb (stood, stood   [stʊd]  ;   [stʊd]  )


1. intransitive to be on your feet; to be in a vertical position
She was too weak to stand.
a bird standing on one leg
Don't just stand there — do something!
I was standing only a few feet away.
We all stood around in the corridor waiting.
to stand on your head/hands (= to be upside down, balancing on your head/hands)
After the earthquake, only a few houses were left standing.

+ adj. Stand still while I take your photo.

2. intransitive to get up onto your feet from another position
• Everyone stood when the President came in.

~ up We stood up in order to get a better view.  


3. transitive ~ sth/sb + adv./prep. to put sth/sb in a vertical position somewhere
• Stand the ladder up against the wall.

• I stood the little girl on a chair so that she could see.  


4. intransitive + adv./prep. to be in a particular place
• The castle stands on the site of an ancient battlefield.

• An old oak tree once stood here.

5. intransitive (+ adj.) to be in a particular condition or situation
The house stood empty for a long time.
‘You're wrong about the date— it was 1988.’ ‘ I stand corrected (= accept that I was wrong).’
You never know where you stand with her— one minute she's friendly, the next she'll hardly speak to you.

As things stand, there is little chance of a quick settlement of the dispute.  


6. intransitive + noun (not used in the progressive tenses) to be a particular height

• The tower stands 30 metres high.

7. intransitive ~ at sth to be at a particular level, amount, height, etc
• Interest rates stand at 3%.

• The world record then stood at 6.59 metres.  


8. intransitive + adv./prep. to be in a particular place, especially while waiting to go somewhere

• The train standing at platform 3 is for London, Victoria.  


9. intransitive to remain still, without moving or being moved
• Mix the batter and let it stand for twenty minutes.

• standing pools of rainwater  


10. intransitive if an offer, a decision, etc. made earlier stands, it is still valid
• My offer still stands.

• The world record stood for 20 years.  


11. intransitive ~ to do sth to be in a situation where you are likely to do sth

• You stand to make a lot from this deal.  


12. intransitive ~ (on sth) to have a particular attitude or opinion about sth or towards sb

Where do you stand on private education?  


13. transitive, no passive (not used in the progressive tenses) used especially in negative sentences and questions to emphasize that you do not like sb/sth
Syn:  bear
~ sb/sth I can't stand his brother.
I can't stand the sight of blood.
I can't stand it when you do that.
~ doing sth She couldn't stand being kept waiting.
~ sb/sth doing sth I can't stand people interrupting all the time.

• How do you stand him being here all the time?  


14. transitive ~ sth used especially with can/could to say that sb/sth can survive sth or can tolerate  sth without being hurt or damaged
• His heart won't stand the strain much longer.

• Modern plastics can stand very high and very low temperatures.  


15. transitive, no passive to buy a drink or meal for sb
~ sth He stood drinks all round.

~ sb sth She was kind enough to stand us a meal.  


16. (especially BrE) (NAmE usually run) intransitive ~ (for/as sth) to be a candidate in an election
He stood for parliament (= tried to get elected as an MP).

• She stood unsuccessfully as a candidate in the local elections.

Rem: Idioms containing stand are at the entries for the nouns and adjectives in the idioms, for example stand on ceremony is at ceremony.
Word Origin:
Old English standan (verb), stand (noun), of Germanic origin, from an Indo-European root shared by Latin stare and Greek histanai, also by the noun stead.  
stand verb
1. I
She was too weak to stand.
stand upget upbe on your feetpick yourself up|written get to your feet|formal rise
Opp: sit, Opp: sit down
Stand, stand up or get up? Stand can mean both ‘to be in’ or ‘to get into a standing position’. Get up is the most frequent way of saying ‘get into a standing position’, and this can be from a sitting, kneeling or lying position. Stand up is used especially to tell sb or a group of people to do this.
2. T, no passive (not used in the progressive tenses; used with can/could in negative sentences and questions)
She couldn't stand being kept waiting.
beartake|especially written tolerate|especially spoken put up with sb/sth|formal endure
(can't/not) stand/bear/endure doing sth
(can't/not) stand/bear/put up with sb/sth doing sth
stand/bear/put up with/endure pain
not stand/take/tolerate any nonsense
Stand or bear? Bear is slightly stronger and more formal than stand. Stand is used with can/could in negative statements and questions, but not in positive statements:
She bore it with her usual patience.
 ¤ She stood it with her usual patience.
3. can't stand T, no passive (not used in the progressive tenses) (especially spoken)
I can't stand his wife.
can't bearhateloathedetest|formal abhor
I can't stand/can't bear/hate/loathe/detest doing sth
I can't stand/can't bear/hate it when…
I really can't stand/can't bear/hate/detest sb/sth
4. T (not used in the progressive tenses; used especially with can/could)
His heart can't stand the strain.
tolerateresiststand up to sth|formal withstand
stand/tolerate/resist/withstand high temperatures/heat
stand/tolerate/withstand (harsh, dry, etc.) conditions
stand/withstand pressure/strain/weight  
dislike can't stand despise can't bear loathe detest
These words all mean to have a strong feeling of dislike for sb/sth.
hateto have a strong feeling of dislike for sb/sth. Although hate is generally a very strong verb, it is also commonly used in spoken or informal English to talk about people or things that you dislike in a less important way, for example a particular type of food: He hates violence in any form. I've always hated cabbage.
dislike(rather formal) to not like sb/sth. Dislike is a rather formal word; it is less formal, and more usual, to say that you don't like sb/sth, especially in spoken English: I don't like it when you phone me so late at night.
can't stand(rather informal) used to emphasize that you really do not like sb/sth: I can't stand his brother. She couldn't stand being kept waiting.
despiseto dislike and have no respect for sb/sth: He despised himself for being so cowardly.
can't bearused to say that you dislike sth so much that you cannot accept or deal with it: I can't bear having cats in the house.
can't stand or can't bear?
In many cases you can use either word, but can't bear is slightly stronger and slightly more formal than can't stand.
loatheto hate sb/sth very much: They loathe each other.
Loathe is generally an even stronger verb than hate, but it can also be used more informally to talk about less important things, meaning ‘really don't like’: Whether you love or loathe their music, you can't deny their talent.
detest(rather formal) to hate sb/sth very much: They absolutely detest each other.
I hate/dislike/can't stand/can't bear/loathe/detest doing sth.
I hate/can't bear to do sth.
I hate/dislike/can't stand/can't bear it when…
I really hate/dislike/can't stand/despise/can't bear/detest sb/sth
I absolutely hate/can't stand/loathe/detest sb/sth 
get up stand up rise get to your feet be on your feet
These words all mean to be in an upright position with your weight on your feet, or to put yourself in this position.
standto be in an upright position with your weight on your feet: She was too weak to stand. Stand still when I'm talking to you!
Stand is usually used with an adverb or prepositional phrase to show where or how sb stands, but sometimes another phrase or clause is used to show what sb does while they are standing: We stood talking for a few minutes. He stood and looked out to sea.
get upto get into a standing position from a sitting, kneeling or lying position: Please don't get up!
stand upto be in a standing position; to stand after sitting: Stand up straight! Everyone would stand up when the teacher entered the classroom.
stand, get up or stand up?
Stand usually means ‘to be in a standing position’ but can also mean ‘to get into a standing position’. Stand up can be used with either of these meanings, but its use is more restricted: it is used especially when sb tells sb or a group of people to stand. Get up is the most frequent way of saying ‘get into a standing position’, and this can be from a sitting, kneeling or lying position; if you stand up, this is nearly always after sitting, especially on a chair. If you want to tell sb politely that they do not need to move from their chair, use get up: Please don't stand up!
rise(formal) to get into a standing position from a sitting, kneeling or lying position: Would you all rise, please, to welcome our visiting speaker.
get to your feetto stand up after sitting, kneeling or lying: I helped her to get to her feet.
be on your feetto be standing up: I've been on my feet all day.  
Example Bank:
After the earthquake only a few houses were left standing.
Don't just stand there— do something.
He felt so weak he could hardly stand.
He is standing for Oxford East in the election.
He stood awkwardly in the doorway, not sure what to say.
Her parents stood proudly at her side.
I can't stand that man!
I don't know how you can stand the heat.
I stood there staring at him.
I tried to stand up and found myself in agony.
She stood on tiptoe to reach the shelf.
She stood rooted to the spot, too afraid to move or speak.
She stood unsuccessfully as a candidate in the local elections.
Stand still while I take your photo.
Surely the world cannot stand idly by and let this country go through the agony of war yet again?
The roof was so low I could not stand upright.
Two candidates will be standing against her.
You'll look taller if you stand up straight.
Books stood in piles in the corner.
Everyone stood when the president entered the room.
He could stand the pain no more.
He stood and looked out to sea.
He was standing on a chair, trying to change a light bulb.
His heart won't stand the strain much longer.
How can you stand it here?
How could she have stood such treatment for so long?
I can't stand his brother.
I can't stand it when you do that.
I can't stand people interrupting all the time!
I can't stand the sight of blood.
I'm not sure if the bookcase can stand any more weight.
She couldn't stand being kept waiting.
She stood by the window, gazing out.
Stand still when I'm talking to you!
The kids were standing around chatting.
There were several people standing at the counter.
• We stood talking for a few minutes.

Derived: stand aside  stand back  stand between somebody and something  stand by  stand by somebody  stand by something  stand down  stand for something  stand in  stand out  stand over somebody  stand somebody up  stand up  stand up for somebody  stand up to somebody  stand up to something 

Cambridge Advanced Learner's Dictionary

Cambridge Advanced Learner's Dictionary - 4th Edition

stand / stænd / verb [ I or T ] ( stood , stood ) (VERTICAL)


A2 to be in a vertical state or to put into a vertical state, especially (of a person or animal) by making the legs straight:

Granny says if she stands (up) for a long time her ankles hurt.

As a sign of politeness you should stand (up) when she comes in.

Stand still and be quiet!

After the earthquake not a single building was left standing in the village.

Stand the bottles on the table over there.

stand / stænd / verb ( stood , stood ) (STATE)

C1 [ I , L only + adj ] to be in, cause to be in, or get into a particular state or situation:

How do you think your chances stand (= are) of being offered the job?

The national debt stands at 55 billion dollars.

The house stood empty for years.

Martina is currently standing second in the world listings.

[ + to infinitive ] Our firm stands to lose (= will lose) a lot of money if the deal is unsuccessful.

We really can't allow the current situation to stand (= to exist in its current form) .

Newton's laws of mechanics stood (= were thought to be completely true) for over two hundred years.

Leave the mixture to stand (= do not touch it) for 15 minutes before use.

It would be difficult for her to stand much lower/higher in my opinion (= for me to have a worse/better opinion of her) after the way she behaved at the party.

She's very blunt, but at least you know where you stand with her (= you know what she thinks and how she is likely to behave) .

formal You stand accused of murder, how do you plead?

stand trial C2 to be put on trial in a law court:

Two other men are to stand trial next month for their part in the bombing.


stand / stænd / verb ( stood , stood ) (PLACE)

B2 [ I or T , usually + adv/prep ] to be in, cause to be in, or put into a particular place:

The room was empty except for a wardrobe standing in one corner.

Stand the paintings against the wall while we decide where to hang them.

The photograph shows the happy couple standing beside a banana tree.

[ I usually + adv/prep ] Vehicles that are standing are waiting:

The train now standing at platform 8 is the 15.17 for Cardiff.

stand / stænd / verb [ T usually in negatives ] ( stood , stood ) (ACCEPT)

B1 to successfully accept or bear something that is unpleasant or difficult:

I can't stand her voice.

Our tent won't stand another storm like the last one.

[ + -ing verb ] I can't stand hear ing her cry.

stand / stænd / verb [ I ] ( stood , stood ) UK ( mainly US run ) (POLITICS)

C2 to compete, especially in an election, for an official position:

The president has announced she does not intend to stand for re-election.


stand / stænd / verb ( stood , stood )

stand a chance C2 to have a chance of success:

She stands a good chance of passing her exam if she works hard.


stand / stænd / verb [ L only + noun ] ( stood , stood ) (HEIGHT)

to be a stated height:

Even without his shoes he stood over two metres tall.

stand / stænd / verb [ T + two objects ] ( stood , stood ) (BUY)

to buy something, especially a meal or a drink, for someone:

I couldn't get to the bank, so could you stand me lunch?

stand / stænd / verb [ I usually + adv/prep ] ( stood , stood ) (OPINION)

C2 to have as an opinion:

How/Where does he stand on foreign policy issues?

© Cambridge University Press 2013

Collins COBUILD Advanced Learner’s English Dictionary


(stands, standing, stood)

Frequency: The word is one of the 700 most common words in English.

When you are standing, your body is upright, your legs are straight, and your weight is supported by your feet.
She was standing beside my bed staring down at me...
They told me to stand still and not to turn round...
Overcrowding is so bad that prisoners have to sleep in shifts, while others have to stand.
VERB: V prep, V adj, V

Stand up means the same as stand.
We waited, standing up, for an hour.

When someone who is sitting stands, they change their position so that they are upright and on their feet.
Becker stood and shook hands with Ben.

Stand up means the same as stand.
When I walked in, they all stood up and started clapping.

If you stand aside or stand back, you move a short distance sideways or backwards, so that you are standing in a different place.
I stood aside to let her pass me...
The policemen stood back. Could it be a bomb?
VERB: V adv/prep, V adv/prep

If something such as a building or a piece of furniture stands somewhere, it is in that position, and is upright. (WRITTEN)
The house stands alone on top of a small hill...
VERB: V prep/adv

You can say that a building is standing when it remains after other buildings around it have fallen down or been destroyed.
There are very few buildings left standing.

If you stand something somewhere, you put it there in an upright position.
Stand the plant in the open in a sunny, sheltered place.
= place
VERB: V n prep/adv

If you leave food or a mixture of something to stand, you leave it without disturbing it for some time.
The salad improves if made in advance and left to stand.

If you take or make a stand, you do something or say something in order to make it clear what your attitude to a particular thing is.
He felt the need to make a stand against racism in South Africa...
They must take a stand and cast their votes...
N-COUNT: usu sing, oft N against/on n

If you ask someone where or how they stand on a particular issue, you are asking them what their attitude or view is.
The amendment will force senators to show where they stand on the issue of sexual harassment...
So far, the bishop hasn’t said where he stands.
VERB: where V on n, where V

If you do not know where you stand with someone, you do not know exactly what their attitude to you is.
No-one knows where they stand with him; he is utterly unpredictable...
VERB: where V with n

You can use stand instead of ‘be’ when you are describing the present state or condition of something or someone.
The alliance stands ready to do what is necessary...
The peace plan as it stands violates basic human rights.
V-LINK: V adj, V

If a decision, law, or offer stands, it still exists and has not been changed or cancelled.
Although exceptions could be made, the rule still stands...

If something that can be measured stands at a particular level, it is at that level.
The inflation rate now stands at 3.6 per cent...
VERB: V at amount

You can describe how tall or high someone or something is by saying that they stand a particular height.
She stood five feet five inches tall and weighed 120 pounds...
She stood tall and aloof.
VERB: V amount adj, V adj

If something can stand a situation or a test, it is good enough or strong enough to experience it without being damaged, harmed, or shown to be inadequate.
These are the first machines that can stand the wear and tear of continuously crushing glass...

If you cannot stand something, you cannot bear it or tolerate it.
I can’t stand any more. I’m going to run away...
How does he stand the pain?
VERB: V n/-ing, V n/-ing

If you cannot stand someone or something, you dislike them very strongly. (INFORMAL)
He can’t stand me smoking.
= bear
VERB: V n/-ing

If you stand to gain something, you are likely to gain it. If you stand to lose something, you are likely to lose it.
The management group would stand to gain millions of dollars if the company were sold...
VERB: V to-inf

If you stand in an election, you are a candidate in it. (BRIT; in AM, use run)
He has not yet announced whether he will stand in the election...
VERB: V in n

A stand is a small shop or stall, outdoors or in a large public building.
She bought a hot dog from a stand on a street corner.
= stall
N-COUNT: oft n N
see also newsstand

A stand at a sports ground is a large structure where people sit or stand to watch what is happening. (BRIT)

In American English, stands is used with same meaning.
The people in the stands at Candlestick Park are standing and cheering with all their might.

A stand is an object or piece of furniture that is designed for supporting or holding a particular kind of thing.
The teapot came with a stand to catch the drips.

A stand is an area where taxis or buses can wait to pick up passengers.
Luckily there was a taxi stand nearby.
N-COUNT: usu n N

In a law court, the stand is the place where a witness stands to answer questions.
When the father took the stand today, he contradicted his son’s testimony...
N-SING: the N

see also standing

If you say it stands to reason that something is true or likely to happen, you mean that it is obvious.
It stands to reason that if you are considerate and friendly to people you will get a lot more back...
PHRASE: V inflects, usu it PHR that

If you stand in the way of something or stand in a person’s way, you prevent that thing from happening or prevent that person from doing something.
The British government would not stand in the way of such a proposal...
PHRASE: V inflects

Merriam-Webster's Advanced Learner's Dictionary

Merriam-Webster's Advanced Learner's Dictionary: 

1stand /ˈstænd/ verb stands; stood /ˈstʊd/; stand·ing
1 [no obj]
a : to be in an upright position with all of your weight on your feet
• She was standing near the window.
• He was standing next to me.
• All of the seats on the bus were taken so we had to stand.
• Don't just stand there (doing nothing)—do something!
• He can stand using a cane.
• You're standing on my foot. [=you're standing with your foot on top of my foot]
• He was standing in a puddle of water.
• The deer stood still, listening for danger.
• The soldiers stood (up) straight.
• We had to stand in line for over an hour.
• People were just standing around [=standing without doing anything], waiting to get inside the theater.
b : to move onto your feet from a sitting or low position
• Please stand [=(more formally) rise] for the national anthem.
- often + up
• He stood up to greet her.
• She was crouching down to look at something, but she stood up when she saw me.
2 a [no obj] : to be in an upright position
• Two bowling pins were left standing.
• A shovel and rake stood in the corner.
• The house she grew up in is no longer standing. [=the house has been destroyed or knocked down; the house no longer exists]
b [+ obj] : to put (something or someone) in an upright position
• She stood the ladder against the house.
- often + up
• He stood the boy up on a chair.
• Could you stand the picture frame back up?
3 [no obj]
a always followed by an adverb or preposition : to be in a particular place or position
• A clock stood on the mantelpiece.
• The mansion stands on a hill.
• A row of trees stands between the two houses.
- often used figuratively
• A single putt stands between her and the title. [=if she makes the putt, she will win the title]
• Go ahead and leave. I won't stand in your way. [=I won't try to stop you]
• We won't let anyone or anything stand in the way of our happiness. [=prevent us from being happy]
b : to remain in a place or position without moving or being moved
• The plane stood on the runway ready for takeoff.
• The machine stood idle.
• rainwater standing in stagnant pools
• Add the water and let the mixture stand for three minutes.
4 not used in progressive tenses [no obj] : to be a specified height
• He stands six feet two (inches tall).
• The tower stands over 1,000 feet high.
5 [no obj] : to be in a particular state or situation
• Where do we stand financially? [=what is our financial condition?]
• She stands accused of murder. [=she has been accused of murder]
6 [no obj] : to have a particular belief or opinion about something
• Where do you stand on the death penalty? Do you think it should be used or not?
• We still don't know where he stands on this issue.
• They stand divided [=they disagree] on this issue.
• She stands for/against the new regulations. [=she supports/opposes the new regulations]
• We ask you to stand (with us) in support of this proposal. [=we ask you to support this proposal]
From where I stand, I think we have to do it.
7 always followed by an adverb or preposition [no obj] : to have a particular rank or position within a group
• The team still stands [=ranks] first in the division.
• She is currently standing in second place.
• (chiefly Brit) He stands high/low with the voters. [=the voters have a good/bad opinion of him]
8 [no obj] : to continue to be at a specified number or amount - often + at
• Interest rates stand at 13 percent.
• The home run record stands at 73.
9 [no obj] : to not be changed : to remain valid or effective
• The decision still stands.
• The record she set seems likely to stand for many years.
10 [no obj] : to exist at the present time
• You must take or leave our offer as it stands.
• That is how the situation stands at present.
As things stand, we will not be able to meet your deadline.
11 [no obj] : to be in a position in which you are likely to gain or lose something - followed by to + verb
• We stand to make a sizable profit from the sale.
• They stand to lose their home if they can't find a way to pay their bills.
12 [+ obj]
a : to be willing or able to accept (something or someone unpleasant) without complaint - usually used with can, can't, cannot, could, and couldn't
Can you stand [=tolerate, put up with] waiting a few more minutes? = Can you stand to wait a few more minutes?
• How can you stand her friends?
• He couldn't stand [=bear, endure] the pain.
• I can only stand so much of your nonsense.
• His behavior was more than I could stand.
• I couldn't stand the thought/idea of having to move again.
- used to say that someone strongly dislikes a person or thing
• I can't stand him. [=I hate him]
• She can't stand cooking. = She can't stand to cook.
• They can't stand being apart.
• I can't stand it when people behave like that!
13 [+ obj] : to not be harmed by (something) : withstand
• I need a frying pan that can stand being placed in the oven.
• These plants can stand [=endure] very cold temperatures.
• His plays have stood the test of time. [=his plays are still read by many people today]
14 [+ obj]
- used to say that someone or something should have or do something or would be helped by something; usually used after could
• You look like you could stand some sleep. [=you look very tired; you look like you need some sleep]
• He could stand losing a few pounds. = He could stand to lose a few pounds.
• That bush could stand to be trimmed. [=that bush needs to be trimmed]
15 [no obj] Brit : to be a candidate in an election for a particular office - often + for
• He is standing [=(US) running] for a seat in Parliament.
16 [+ obj] Brit informal : to pay for (a meal or drink)
• I'll stand a meal for you. = I'll stand you a meal.
• He stood drinks for the table.
(as) sure as I'm standing here US informal
- used to say that you believe that something is certainly true, will happen, etc.
• They may claim that this was a surprise to them, but as sure as I'm standing here, they planned it all along.
I stand corrected
- see 2correct
make your hair stand on end
- see hair
not have a leg to stand on
- see 1leg
stand a chance
- see 1chance
stand alone
1 : to be in a position or situation in which you are not helped or supported by others
• She stood alone in her opposition to the proposal.
- used to say that someone or something is better than all others
• For great sound quality, this system stands alone.
stand aside [phrasal verb]
1 : move to the left or right with one or a few small steps
• Please stand aside and let me pass.
2 : to allow something to happen : to not try to stop someone from doing something
• I'm not going to stand aside [=stand by] and watch you ruin your life.
stand back [phrasal verb]
1 : to take a few steps backwards
• The paramedics told the crowd to stand back.
2 : to stop doing something or being actively involved in something for a time so that you can think about it and make decisions in a calm and reasonable way
• It's time to stand back [=step back] and take a long hard look at your problems.
stand behind [phrasal verb] stand behind (someone or something) : to support (someone or something)
• I'll stand behind you no matter what you decide to do.
• I'll stand behind your decision 100 percent.
stand by [phrasal verb]
1 : to stand or be present without taking any action while something is happening
• A group of students stood by and watched the boys fight.
• How can you stand by and do nothing?
2 : to be ready or available for use
• An ambulance was standing by in case anyone got seriously injured.
• Operators are standing by (to take your calls).
- see also standby
3 stand by (something)
a : to support or defend (something)
• He said that he was standing by what he said earlier.
• I stand by my actions and have no regrets.
b : to act in the way that is required by (something, such as belief or promise)
• She stood by her promise.
4 stand by (someone) : to remain loyal to (someone) : to continue to support (someone)
• They promised to stand by each other until the end.
• She stood by her husband throughout the trial.
stand down [phrasal verb] Brit
1 : to leave the witness stand in a court of law
• The judge thanked the witness and allowed her to stand down.
2 : to leave a job or official position
• He stood down [=stepped down] (from his office) as Lord Mayor.
• She stood down in favour of a more popular candidate.
stand firm : to refuse to change your decision, position, etc.
• The judge stood firm in her ruling.
stand for [phrasal verb] stand for (something)
1 : to have (a specified meaning)
• “FYI” stands for “for your information.”
• The sign @ stands for “at.”
• The color white often stands for [=represents] innocence and purity.
2 : to support (something)
• The political party has always stood for reform.
3 : to allow (something) to continue to happen - usually used in negative statements
• I will not stand for [=put up with] any more of this nonsense.
- see also 1stand 15 (above)
stand guard/watch : to stand in a position and guard or watch someone or something in order to look for possible danger, threats, etc.
• A soldier stood guard by the door.
stand in [phrasal verb] : to take the place of (someone who is away for a time)
• He can't be here today, so he asked me to stand in. [=fill in]
- often + for
• He asked me to stand in for him while he was away.
- see also stand-in
stand on ceremony
- see ceremony
stand on your head/hands : to be in a position in which your legs and feet are straight up in the air and your weight is supported by your head or hands
• She can stand on her head/hands. [=she can do a headstand/handstand]
stand on your own two feet
- see 1foot
stand or fall
- used to say that the future or success of someone or something depends on another person or thing
• We (will) stand or fall by their decision. [=their decision will control what happens to us]
• Our company will stand or fall on our ability to make better products than our competitors. [=our success or failure depends on our ability to make better products than our competitors]
stand out [phrasal verb]
1 : to be easily seen or noticed
• His bright tie made him stand out (in the crowd).
• The trees' red leaves stood out against the gray sky.
2 : to be better or more important than the other people or things in a group in a way that is easily seen or noticed
• As a student, she stood out above/from the rest.
• Only one contestant really stands out [=sticks out] in my mind.
• Two facts stand out from her testimony.
• His performance really stood out.
3 : to stick out from a surface
• The hat made her ears stand out.
- see also standout
stand out like a sore thumb
- see 1sore
stand pat
- see 3pat
stand someone/something in good stead
- see stead
stand tall : to stand with your body very straight - often used figuratively in U.S. English
• We can stand tall and take pride in what we've accomplished.
• Despite the criticism, he has continued to stand tall.
stand to reason
- see 1reason
stand trial : to be on trial in a court of law
• He is standing trial for the murder of his wife.
stand up [phrasal verb]
1 : to remain valid or acceptable when tested or examined
• We need evidence that will stand up in court.
2 stand (someone) up informal : to fail to meet or keep an appointment with (someone)
• You stood me up yesterday.
• I got stood up by my date.
3 stand up for (someone or something) : to defend (someone or something) against attack or criticism
• He stood up for his friend.
• You have to stand up for yourself.
• They were standing up for their rights.
4 stand up to (someone) : to refuse to accept bad treatment from (someone)
• She finally stood up to the girl who had been teasing her at school.
5 stand up to (something) : to remain in good condition despite (something)
• These boots have stood up to [=withstood] a lot of abuse.
6 stand up and be counted : to make your opinions or beliefs publicly known especially when such action may cause trouble
• It's time for everyone who cares about this issue to stand up and be counted.
- see also 1stand 1b, 2b (above), stand-up
stand your ground


chat [verb]

To talk to someone in a friendly informal way

US /tʃæt/ 
UK /tʃæt/ 

چت کردن، گپ‌ زدن‌


We were just ​walking along, chatting.

ما قدم می زدیم و گپ می زدیم.

Oxford Essential Dictionary

 verb (chats, chatting, chatted)
to talk in a friendly, informal way to somebody:
We chatted on the phone for a few minutes.

Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English

II. chat2 BrE AmE verb (past tense and past participle chatted, present participle chatting) [intransitive]
[Date: 1400-1500; Origin: chatter]
1. (also chat away) especially British English to talk in a friendly informal way, especially about things that are not important:
John and I sat up until the early hours chatting.
chat with/to
Mary was there, chatting to her mother.
chat about
Susie chatted away about her social life.
2. to communicate with several people in a chat room on the Internet
chat somebody ↔ up phrasal verb
British English informal to talk to someone in a way that shows you are sexually attracted to them:
I spent the evening chatting up Liz.

Oxford Advanced Learner's Dictionary


chat [chat chats chatted chatting] verb, noun   [tʃæt]    [tʃæt] 

verb (-tt-)
1. intransitive to talk in a friendly informal way to sb
~ (to/with sb) My kids spend hours chatting on the phone to their friends.
~ away (to/with sb) Within minutes of being introduced they were chatting away like old friends.

~ about sth/sb What were you chatting about?

2. intransitive ~ (away) (to/with sb) | ~ (about sth/sb) to exchange messages with other people on the Internet, especially in a chat room
He's been on the computer all morning, chatting with his friends.
Word Origin:
Middle English: shortening of chatter.  
chat verb I
We spent hours chatting on the phone.
chattertalkspeak|sometimes disapproving gossip
chat/chatter/talk/speak to sb/gossip about sth
chat/chatter/talk/speak/gossip to/with sb
chat/chatter/gossip away  
Example Bank:
George was in the kitchen chatting to some friends.
I spent a happy half-hour chatting with a friend.
I've been chatting online with my best friend.
They chatted away to each other.
We chatted briefly about the weather.
• You will have a chance to circulate and chat informally.

Derived: chat somebody up 

Cambridge Advanced Learner's Dictionary

Cambridge Advanced Learner's Dictionary - 4th Edition

chat / tʃæt / verb [ I ] ( -tt- )

A2 to talk to someone in a friendly informal way:

She spends hours on the phone chatting to her friends.

We were just chatting about what we did last weekend.

Whenever I walk in, I always find the two of them chatting away (= talking eagerly) .

A2 to take part in a discussion with someone on the internet

© Cambridge University Press 2013

Collins COBUILD Advanced Learner’s English Dictionary


(chats, chatting, chatted)

Frequency: The word is one of the 3000 most common words in English.

When people chat, they talk to each other in an informal and friendly way.
The women were chatting...
I was chatting to him the other day...
We chatted about old times.

V-RECIP: pl-n V, V to/with n, V about n

Chat is also a noun.
I had a chat with John.


Merriam-Webster's Advanced Learner's Dictionary

Merriam-Webster's Advanced Learner's Dictionary: 

1chat /ˈʧæt/ verb chats; chat·ted; chat·ting [no obj]
1 : to talk with someone in a casual way
• We chatted about our plans for the summer.
• called him up to chat
2 : to talk over the Internet by sending messages back and forth in a chat room
• She stayed up all night chatting with her friends online.
chat up [phrasal verb] chat (someone) up or chat up (someone) informal : to talk informally with (someone, such as someone you are attracted to)
• He tried to chat up a girl at the dance.


tourist [noun]

Someone who visits a place for pleasure and interest, usually while they are on holiday

US /ˈtʊr.ɪst/ 
UK /ˈtʊə.rɪst/ 

جهانگرد، توریست


Tourist agency

آژانس‌ جهانگردى

Oxford Essential Dictionary


a person who visits a place on holiday

Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English


tourist W3 /ˈtʊərəst, ˈtʊərɪst $ ˈtʊr-/ BrE AmE noun [countable]
someone who is visiting a place for pleasure on holiday:
Cambridge is always full of tourists in the summer.
The Statue of Liberty is a major tourist attraction.
What effect will this have on the local tourist industry?
tourist centre/destination/resort etc
Durham, with its cathedral and castle, is a popular tourist centre.
• • •
■ adjectives
foreign tourists Millions of foreign tourists visit the capital every year.
an American/Japanese etc tourist She saw a crowd of Japanese tourists, cameras at the ready, wandering down the path.
■ verbs
tourists visit a place About six million tourists visit the country each year.
tourists flock to a place (=visit it in large numbers) Tourists have flocked to the area ever since the TV series was filmed there.
attract/draw tourists They hope to change the image of the city and attract more tourists.
■ tourist + NOUN
a tourist attraction (=an interesting place for tourists to see or an enjoyable activity for them to do) Yellowstone National Park is a major tourist attraction.
a tourist destination/centre/spot Egypt became a popular tourist destination in the nineteenth century.
the tourist industry The tourist industry is booming, with more visitors this year than ever before.
the tourist season (=the period in a year when large numbers of tourists visit a place) Even in the tourist season the beaches don’t get packed.
■ phrases
a group/party of tourists The guide was talking to a party of tourists.
• • •
tourist someone who is visiting a place for pleasure on holiday: The hotel is very popular with tourists. | a major tourist destination
traveller British English, traveler American English someone who travels somewhere: a weary traveller returning home after a long journey | The building’s luxurious interior will appeal to business travellers. | The strike will affect air travellers. | Paul Theroux, the American traveller, once went from London to India by train.
visitor someone who comes to visit a particular country, area, museum etc: Times Square attracts more than 30 million visitors annually.
holiday-maker British English, vacationer American English someone who is on holiday somewhere: The beach was packed with holiday-makers. | 75 percent of Alamo's rentals are to vacationers.
sightseer a tourist who is visiting a famous or interesting place: Crowds of sightseers come to London every year.
backpacker someone who is travelling for pleasure, staying in cheap accommodation and carrying a ↑backpack: a cheap hotel which is used mainly by backpackers

Oxford Advanced Learner's Dictionary


tour·ist [tourist tourists]   [ˈtʊərɪst]    [ˈtɔːrɪst]    [ˈtʊrɪst]  noun
1. a person who is travelling or visiting a place for pleasure
busloads of foreign tourists
a popular tourist attraction/destination/resort
the tourist industry/sector

Further information is available from the local tourist office.

2. (BrE) a member of a sports team that is playing a series of official games in a foreign country 
Travel and tourism
have/take (BrE) a holiday/(NAmE) a vacation/a break/a day off/(BrE) a gap year
go on/be on holiday/vacation/leave/honeymoon/safari/a trip/a tour/a cruise/a pilgrimage
go backpacking/camping/hitchhiking/sightseeing
plan a trip/a holiday/a vacation/your itinerary
book accommodation/a hotel room/a flight/tickets
have/make/cancel a reservation/(especially BrE) booking
rent a villa/(both BrE) a holiday home/a holiday cottage
(especially BrE) hire/ (especially NAmE) rent a car/bicycle/moped
stay in a hotel/a bed and breakfast/a youth hostel/a villa/(both BrE) a holiday home/a caravan
cost/charge $100 a/per night for a single/double/twin/standard/(BrE) en suite room
check into/out of a hotel/a motel/your room
pack/unpack your suitcase/bags
call/order room service
cancel/cut short a trip/holiday/vacation
Foreign travel
apply for/get/renew a/your passport
take out/buy/get travel insurance
catch/miss your plane/train/ferry/connecting flight
fly (in)/travel in business/economy class
make/have a brief/two-day/twelve-hour stopover/(NAmE also) layover in Hong Kong
experience/cause/lead to delays
check (in)/collect/get/lose (your) (especially BrE) luggage/(especially NAmE) baggage
be charged for/pay excess baggage
board/get on/leave/get off the aircraft/plane/ship/ferry
taxi down/leave/approach/hit/overshoot the runway
experience/hit/encounter severe turbulence
suffer from/recover from/get over your jet lag/travel sickness
The tourist industry
attract/draw/bring tourists/visitors
encourage/promote/hurt tourism
promote/develop ecotourism
build/develop/visit a tourist/holiday/(especially BrE) seaside/beach/ski resort
work for/be operated by a major hotel chain
be served by/compete with low-cost/(especially NAmE) low-fare/budget airlines
book sth through/make a booking through/use a travel agent
contact/check with your travel agent/tour operator
book/be on/go on a package deal/holiday/tour
buy/bring back (tacky/overpriced) souvenirs 
Example Bank:
I bought a tourist guide to Paris.
Pompeii is one of Italy's prime tourist attractions.
Recently Edinburgh has become a popular tourist centre.
She works as a tourist guide.
The Story of the Loch Ness Monster has attracted many tourists to the area.
The city has unrealized tourist potential.
The festival is accompanied by a huge influx of tourists.
The high level of crime is frightening away tourists.
The theme park is the region's most popular tourist facility.
The town is off the usual tourist route.
Their economy is dependent on tourist dollars.
the exploitation of women by sex tourists
the local tourist information office
the part of town most frequented by tourists
the reduction in tourist traffic due to the violence
A busload of tourists arrived at the village.
A tourist bus crashed on a remote mountain road last night.
He entered the country on a tourist visa.
It was the beginning of the tourist season.
Local people rely on the tourist industry for employment.
Local roads cannot cope with the increase in tourist traffic.
She was guiding a group of tourists around the castle.
The Taj Mahal is one of the most important tourist sights in India.
The coastline of Vietnam has massive tourist potential.
The number of tourists visiting London is rising again.
The temple is a major tourist attraction.
The town is a popular tourist destination.
There is a tourist information centre by the car park.
There is little accommodation available for tourists.
Tourists flock to the ruins, causing further erosion.
We have a large influx of tourists in the summer.
We travelled on minor roads and tracks, away from the tourist trail.
We visited all the usual tourist spots.

Western tourists rarely visit the area.

Cambridge Advanced Learner's Dictionary

Cambridge Advanced Learner's Dictionary - 4th Edition

tourist / ˈtʊə.rɪst / / ˈtɔː- /   / ˈtʊr.ɪst / noun [ C ]

A2 someone who visits a place for pleasure and interest, usually while they are on holiday:

Millions of tourists visit Rome every year.

Hordes (= very large groups) of tourists flock to the Mediterranean each year.

Disneyworld is one of Florida's major tourist attractions .

The island is very busy during the tourist season .

UK a member of a sports team who is travelling from place to place in a foreign country, playing games:

The West Indies easily defeated the tourists.

© Cambridge University Press 2013

Collins COBUILD Advanced Learner’s English Dictionary



Frequency: The word is one of the 3000 most common words in English.

A tourist is a person who is visiting a place for pleasure and interest, especially when they are on holiday.
...foreign tourists...
Blackpool is the top tourist attraction in England.

N-COUNT: oft N n

Merriam-Webster's Advanced Learner's Dictionary

Merriam-Webster's Advanced Learner's Dictionary: 


tour·ist /ˈturɪst/ noun, pl -ists [count]
1 : a person who travels to a place for pleasure
• The museums attract a lot of tourists.
• In the summer the town is filled with tourists.
2 Brit : a member of a sports team that is playing a series of official games in a foreign country
• The tourists defeated the home side.
- tourist adj always used before a noun
• The museum is a big tourist attraction/destination.
• She has a job in the tourist industry.


twice [adverb,predeterminer]

Two times

US /twaɪs/ 
UK /twaɪs/ 


دو بار، دو دفعه


I have been to Japan twice.

من دوبار به ژاپن رفته ام.

Oxford Essential Dictionary


two times:
I have been to Japan twice.
He ate twice as much as I did.

Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English


twice S2 W2 /twaɪs/ BrE AmE adverb, predeterminer
[Language: Old English; Origin: twiga]
1. two times:
He was questioned by police twice yesterday.
twice a day/week/year etc (=two times in the same day, week etc)
Letters were delivered twice a week only.
None of our dinner menus are exactly the same twice over.
2. two times more, bigger, better etc than something else
twice as many/much (as something)
They employ 90 people, twice as many as last year.
twice as high/big/large etc (as something)
Interest rates are twice as high as those of our competitors.
twice the size/number/rate/amount etc
an area twice the size of Britain
once bitten, twice shy at ↑once1(19), ⇨ once or twice at ↑once1(12), ⇨ think twice at ↑think1(8)
• • •
pair two things of the same type that you use together. Also used about two people who do something together or who you often see together: a pair of shoes | a pair of socks | Winners will receive a pair of tickets for the show. | The pair were arrested six days after the killing. | They're a funny pair! | The British pair will be playing in the final on Saturday.
a couple (of something) two things of the same type, or a very small number of things: There were a couple of empty seats at the table. | Do you have any stamps? I just need a couple.
couple noun [countable] two people who are married or having a sexual relationship: a married couple | The couple met at university.
twins noun [plural] two children who were born on the same day to the same mother: The twins look very alike. | identical twins
duo noun [countable] two people who perform together or who are often seen together: a comedy duo
duet noun [countable] a piece of music written for two people to play: They played a duet by Brahms.
twice two times adverb: The group meets twice a week. | She sneezed twice.

Oxford Advanced Learner's Dictionary


twice   [twaɪs]    [twaɪs]  adverb
1. two times; on two occasions
I don't know him well; I've only met him twice.
They go there twice a week/month/year.

• a twice-monthly/yearly newsletter

2. double in quantity, rate, etc
an area twice the size of Wales
Cats sleep twice as much as people.
At 56 he's twice her age.
Charges have risen at twice the rate of inflation.
more at lightning never strikes (in the same place) twice at  lightning  n., once bitten, twice shyonce or twice at  once  adv., think twice about sth at  think  v.
Idiom: twice over  
Word Origin:

[twice] late Old English twiges, from the base of two  + -s (later respelled -ce to denote the unvoiced sound); compare with once.

Cambridge Advanced Learner's Dictionary

Cambridge Advanced Learner's Dictionary - 4th Edition

twice / twaɪs / predeterminer , adverb

A2 two times:

I've already asked him twice.

The post comes twice daily (= two times every day) .

There are twice as many houses in this area as there used to be.

The state is at least twice as big as England.

He's twice her size (= much bigger than she is) .

© Cambridge University Press 2013

Collins COBUILD Advanced Learner’s English Dictionary



Frequency: The word is one of the 700 most common words in English.

If something happens twice, there are two actions or events of the same kind.
He visited me twice that fall and called me on the telephone often...
Thoroughly brush teeth and gums twice daily...
ADV: ADV with v, ADV adv, ADV n

You use twice in expressions such as twice a day and twice a week to indicate that two events or actions of the same kind happen in each day or week.
I phoned twice a day, leaving messages with his wife...
ADV: ADV a n

If one thing is, for example, twice as big or old as another, the first thing is two times as big or old as the second. People sometimes say that one thing is twice as good or hard as another when they want to emphasize that the first thing is much better or harder than the second.
The figure of seventy-million pounds was twice as big as expected.
ADV: ADV as adj/adv

Twice is also a predeterminer.
Unemployment in Northern Ireland is twice the national average...

If you think twice about doing something, you consider it again and decide not to do it, or decide to do it differently.
She’d better shut her mouth and from now on think twice before saying stupid things.
PHRASE: V inflects

once or twice: see once
twice over: see over

Merriam-Webster's Advanced Learner's Dictionary

Merriam-Webster's Advanced Learner's Dictionary: 


twice /ˈtwaɪs/ adv
1 : two times : on two occasions
• I only wore it twice.
• I called you twice.
• He has rehearsals twice a month.
• He twice lost to younger opponents.
• We visited them twice in 10 years.
• The dictionary has been twice updated since 1993.
• I've been there at least twice.
• We've eaten at that restaurant once or twice. [=one or two times]
• We go to Europe twice a year. [=two times every year]
• The mail is delivered twice a day. [=two times every day]
2 : doubled in amount or degree
• The new house is twice [=two times] as large as our old one.
• He must be twice her age.
• The population is twice that of Canada.
• The new one costs about twice as much.
• He could earn twice his present salary at the new job.
Twice two is four. [=two times two is/equals four]
think twice
- see 1think



The cause of an event or situation or something that provides an excuse or explanation

US /ˈriː.zən/ 
UK /ˈriː.zən/ 



I'd like to know the reason why you're so late. 

میخواهم دلیل دیر کردنت را بدونم.

آهنگ وترانه: 
You Are The Reason - Chris De Burgh

Oxford Essential Dictionary


a cause or an explanation for why you do something or why something happens:
The reason I didn't come to the party was that I was ill.
Is there any reason why you were late?
She gave no reasons for her decision.

Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English


I. reason1 S1 W1 /ˈriːzən/ BrE AmE noun
[Word Family: noun: ↑reason, ↑reasoning, ↑reasonableness; adjective: ↑reasonable ≠ ↑unreasonable, ↑reasoned; verb: ↑reason; adverb: ↑reasonably ≠ ↑unreasonably]
[Date: 1200-1300; Language: Old French; Origin: raison, from Latin ratio; ⇨ ↑ratio]
1. CAUSE [countable] why something happens, or why someone does something
reason for
People give different reasons for wanting to change jobs.
reason why
We’d like to know the reason why she didn’t accept the job.
reason (that)
The reason I called was to ask about the plans for Saturday.
reason behind
He explained the reasons behind the decision.
for reasons of something
The bridge is closed for reasons of safety.
reason to do something
This work gives me a reason to live.
there is no reason to do something
There is no reason whatsoever to doubt her story.
by reason of something formal (=because of something)
a person disqualified by reason of age
► Do not say ‘the reason of’ something. Say the reason for something. Do not say ‘the reason because’ something happens. Say the reason why/that something happens.
2. GOOD OR FAIR [uncountable] a fact that makes it right or fair for someone to do something
(no) reason to do something
There is no reason to panic.
She has reason to feel guilty.
We have reason to believe that the goods were stolen.
I know I’m late, but that’s no reason to shout at me.
Under the circumstances, we had every reason (=had very good reasons) to be suspicious.
with (good) reason (=based on something sensible)
Natalie was alarmed by the news, and with reason.
3. all the more reason why/to do something spoken used to say that what has just been mentioned is an additional reason for doing what you have suggested:
But surely that’s all the more reason to act quickly.
4. GOOD JUDGMENT [uncountable] sensible judgment and understanding SYN sense:
There’s reason in what he says.
They’re not prepared to listen to reason (=be persuaded by someone’s sensible advice).
There’s no way of making my grandfather see reason (=accept advice and make a sensible decision).
5. within reason within sensible limits:
You can go anywhere you want, within reason.
6. go/be beyond (all) reason to be more than is acceptable or reasonable:
Their demands go beyond all reason.
7. ABILITY TO THINK [uncountable] the ability to think, understand, and form judgments that are based on facts:
the human power of reason
lose your reason old-fashioned (=become mentally ill)
8. no reason spoken used when someone asks you why you are doing something and you do not want to tell them:
‘Why d’you want to go that way?‘ ’Oh, no reason.'
no rhyme or reason at ↑rhyme1(4), ⇨ it stands to reason at ↑stand1(32)
• • •
■ verbs
have a reason We had many reasons to celebrate.
give a reason No reason was given for the change.
think of a reason/see a reason I see no reason why it shouldn’t work. | I can’t think of any reason why she would want to leave.
explain the reasons for something Explain the reasons for your choice.
■ adjectives
a good reason There is usually a good reason why the price is so cheap.
the main reason The main reason for the decline in the railways is lack of investment.
a major reason (also a big reason informal) His personality was a major reason for his success. | A big reason for the decrease in smoking is the ban on cigarette advertising.
the real reason What do you think was the real reason for their decision?
a valid/legitimate reason (=a good and acceptable reason) An employer can’t fire someone without a valid reason.
a compelling reason (=a very good reason for doing something) There are compelling reasons to believe that this is true.
a simple reason (=one that is easy to understand) I hate mobile phones, for the simple reason that it is now impossible to get away from them.
a logical reason People don’t always have logical reasons for the things they do.
the only reason The only reason he’s coming tonight is that I said you’d be here.
■ phrases
for legal/political/medical etc reasons The boy cannot be named for legal reasons.
for security reasons The road will be closed for security reasons.
for personal reasons He resigned for personal reasons.
for sentimental reasons (=because you like someone or something very much) I wanted to keep the picture for sentimental reasons.
for obvious reasons This arrangement must be kept secret, for obvious reasons.
for no apparent reason (=for no obvious reason) He tried to kill me for no apparent reason.
for some reason (or other) (also for some unknown reason) (=for a reason that you do not know) For some reason she felt like crying. | For some unknown reason, the curtains were always drawn.
for reasons best known to somebody (=used when you do not understand someone’s behaviour) For reasons best known to herself, she decided to sell the house.
have your reasons (=have a secret reason for doing something) ‘Why did he marry her?’ ‘He must have had his reasons.’
• • •
reason why something happens, or why someone does something: What was the reason for the delay? | I don’t know the reason why he left his last job.
explanation a set of reasons that helps you to understand why something happens, especially when it seems difficult to understand: There are various possible explanations for climate change. | Is there any explanation for his behavior?
motive a reason that makes someone decide to do something – often used about crimes: Police say that there is no obvious motive for the attack.
justification a good reason for doing something that seems wrong: There is never any justification for torture or abuse. | They try to use the situation in the Middle East as a justification for killing innocent civilians. | There’s no justification for this type of behaviour.
grounds a reason that makes it right or fair to do something, especially according to legal, official, or moral rules: The court will decide if she has grounds for divorce. | They claim the war is justified on moral grounds (=because of moral reasons).
basis the main ideas or reasons on which something is based: The doctor makes his decisions purely on the basis of clinical observation. | What do you think is the basis for this advice?
rationale /ˌræʃəˈnɑːl $ -ˈnæl/ formal a set of reasons that are used to explain why someone does something in a particular way: the rationale behind the government’s economic reforms | This chapter explains the nature of yearly plans, and provides a rationale for their use.
■ a reason that does not seem believable
excuse a reason that you give to explain why you have done something bad, or not done something that you should have done – especially one that is not completely true: She said she couldn’t come because she had to work late, but it was just an excuse. | a feeble excuse (=one that is hard to believe)
pretext especially written an untrue reason that you give for doing or not doing something, in order to hide the real reason: He would often find some pretext to go out in the evening alone. | They used this as a pretext for taking military action.

Oxford Advanced Learner's Dictionary


rea·son [reason reasons reasoned reasoning] noun, verb   [ˈriːzn]    [ˈriːzn]

1. countable a cause or an explanation for sth that has happened or that sb has done
~ (why…) I'd like to know the reason why you're so late.
Give me one good reason why I should help you.
~ (that…) We aren't going for the simple reason that we can't afford it.
~ (for sth) She gave no reasons for her decision.
~ (for doing sth) I have no particular reason for doubting him.
He said no but he didn't give a reason.
For some reason (= one that I don't know or don't understand) we all have to come in early tomorrow.
The man attacked me for no apparent reason.
She resigned for personal reasons.
For reasons of security the door is always kept locked.
He wants to keep them all in his office for reasons best known to himself.
people who, for whatever reason, are unable to support themselves
‘Why do you want to know?’ ‘ No reason (= I do not want to say why).
‘Why did she do that?’ ‘She must have her reasons (= secret reasons which she does not want to tell).

(formal) He was excused by reason of (= because of) his age.

2. uncountable a fact that makes it right or fair to do sth
~ (to do sth) They have reason to believe that he is lying.
We have every reason (= have very good reasons) to feel optimistic.
You have no reason to accuse him of laziness.
~ (why…) There is no reason why we should agree to this.
~ (for sth/for doing sth) This result gives us all the more reason for optimism.

• She complained, with reason (= rightly), that she had been underpaid.

3. uncountable the power of the mind to think in a logical way, to understand and have opinions, etc
Only human beings are capable of reason (= of thinking in a logical way, etc.).
to lose your reason (= become mentally ill)

• the conflict between faith and reason

4. uncountable what is possible, practical or right
I can't get her to listen to reason.
Why can't they see reason?
to be open to reason (= to be willing to accept sensible advice)
He's looking for a job and he's willing to do anything within reason.
more at there's no rhyme or reason to/for sthwithout rhyme or reason at  rhyme  n.  
Word Origin:
Middle English: from Old French reisun (noun), raisoner (verb), from a variant of Latin ratio(n-), from the verb reri ‘consider’.  
reason noun
1. C, U
I'd like to know the reason why you're so late.
(a/an) reason/explanation/motive/need/cause/grounds/basis/argument/case/excuse/justification/pretext for sth
the reason/motive behind sth
the reason/grounds/basis/argument/excuse/justification/pretext that…
(a) good/valid reason/explanation/motive/cause/grounds/argument/case/excuse/justification
give/offer (sb) a/an reason/explanation/excuse/justification/pretext
2. U
I can't get her to listen to reason.
the reason/logic/rationality in sth
see/defy reason/(the) logic 
Language Bank:
Ways of saying ‘For this reason…’
Today's children eat more junk food and get less exercise than previous generations of children. It is not surprising, therefore , that rates of childhood obesity are on the increase.
Children who grow up on a diet of junk food find it difficult to change this habit later in life. It is essential, therefore , that parents encourage healthy eating from an early age.
Children who grow up on a diet of junk food find it difficult to change this habit later in life. For this reason , / This is why it is essential that children eat healthily from an early age.
Eating habits formed in childhood tend to continue into adult life. Thus , the best way to prevent heart disease among adults is to encourage healthy eating from an early age.
Eating habits formed in childhood tend to continue into adult life, hence the importance of encouraging healthy eating from an early age.
Language Banks at because of, cause, consequently, emphasis, vital  
explanation grounds basis excuse motive justification pretext
These are all words for a cause or an explanation for sth that has happened or that sb has done.
reasona cause or an explanation for sth that has happened or that sb has done; a fact that makes it right or fair to do sth: He said no but he didn't give a reason.
explanationa statement, fact or situation that tells you why sth has happened; a reason given for sth: The most likely explanation is that his plane was delayed. She left the room abruptly without explanation.
grounds(rather formal) a good or true reason for saying, doing or believing sth: You have no grounds for complaint.
basis(rather formal) the reason why people take a particular action: On what basis will this decision be made?
excusea reason, either true or invented, that you give to explain or defend your behaviour; a good reason that you give for doing sth that you want to do for other reasons: Late again! What's your excuse this time? It gave me an excuse to take the car.
motivea reason that explains sb's behaviour: There seemed to be no motive for the murder.
justification(rather formal) a good reason why sth exists or is done: I can see no possible justification for any further tax increases.
grounds or justification?
Justification is used to talk about finding or understanding reasons for actions, or trying to explain why it is a good idea to do sth. It is often used with words like little, no, some, every, without, and not any. Grounds is used more for talking about reasons that already exist, or that have already been decided, for example by law: moral/economic grounds.
pretext(rather formal) a false reason that you give for doing sth, usually sth bad, in order to hide the real reason: He left the party early on the pretext of having to work.
(a/an) reason/explanation/grounds/basis/excuse/motive/justification/pretext for sth
the reason/motive behind sth
on the grounds/basis/pretext of/that…
(a) good/valid reason/explanation/grounds/excuse/motive/justification 
Example Bank:
For reasons of security, you are requested to keep your baggage with you at all times.
For some odd reason, he found it really funny.
For some unexplained reason the pilot jettisoned all his fuel shortly after take-off.
For unknown reasons, the ship sank in the middle of the ocean.
He got angry for no reason.
He married her for all the wrong reasons.
He saw many reasons to be hopeful.
He seems to have lost all sense and reason.
He was attacked for no apparent reason.
He was beyond all reason.
He was found not guilty by reason of insanity.
I can think of several reasons why this might happen.
I don't know why he did that, but I'm sure he had his reasons.
I don't see any reason why you can't come with us.
I have no reason to believe that she was lying to me.
I know you're angry with me, and you have every reason to be.
I tried to persuade her, but she just wouldn't listen to reason.
I was never good at playing the trumpet for the simple reason that I never practised.
I'll lend you the money you need— within reason, of course!
If he's unwell, that's all the more reason to go and see him.
In the letter she carefully set out her reasons for leaving.
Isolation and loneliness are common reasons for depression.
It stands to reason that she wouldn't want them to find out about her personal problems.
It stands to reason= it is logical that she wouldn't want them to find out about her personal problems.
It's difficult to pinpoint the reasons for her success.
People buy things for all sorts of reasons.
She did not tell him the real reason for her change of heart.
She was always the voice of reason, persuading him not to buy things they couldn't afford.
Sometimes he does things that defy reason.
Surely there is no earthly reason why you wouldn't want to come with us?
The company's stated reason for firing him was misconduct.
The only reason I didn't become a professional golfer was because of my family commitments.
The reasons for her decision soon became clear.
The residents hope that an appeal to reason will end the rioting.
The residents hope that an appeal to reason= asking the rioters to be reasonable will end the rioting.
The underlying reasons for these differences will be explored in depth in the next chapter.
There are obvious reasons against such a move.
There is ample reason to be optimistic about the economy.
There is an assumption that a state will protect its citizens. That is the very reason for the existence of states.
There's no rhyme or reason to the new opening hours.
There's no rhyme or reason= logic to the new opening hours.
There's one big reason why this won't work: cost.
They complained about the food, and with good reason.
They didn't give any reason for the delay.
This article lists the most common reasons why people pay too much tax.
Tom's problem was that he lacked confidence; Ed failed for precisely the opposite reason.
We are trying to uncover the reasons behind her decision.
We possess the human faculty of reason.
We see no reason why this band shouldn't be a huge success.
You don't have any reason to complain.
You have little reason to be pleased with yourself.
You're asking me to help, and that's the exact reason I came.
dismissal for reasons unconnected with misconduct
people who, for whatever reason, are unable to support themselves
persons in need of care by reason of old age
procedures carried out for reasons of national security
‘Why did she do that?’ ‘She must have her reasons’.
For reasons of security the door is always kept locked.
For some reason we all have to come in early tomorrow.
He said no but he didn't give a reason.
He wants to keep them all in his office for reasons best known to himself.
I can't get her to listen to reason.
I'd like to know the reason why you're so late.
I'm willing to do anything — within reason — to get my case heard.
It stands to reason that people leave if you don't pay them enough.
She complained, with reason, that she had been underpaid.
She resigned for personal reasons.
We aren't going for the simple reason that we can't afford it.
Why can't they see reason?
Idiom: it stands to reason

Derived: reason something out  reason with somebody 

Cambridge Advanced Learner's Dictionary

Cambridge Advanced Learner's Dictionary - 4th Edition

reason / ˈriː.z ə n / noun (EXPLANATION)

A2 [ C or U ] the cause of an event or situation or something that provides an excuse or explanation:

The reason for the disaster was engine failure, not human error.

[ + question word ] The reason wh y grass is green was a mystery to the little boy.

[ + (that) ] The reason (that) I'm ringing is to ask a favour.

not standard The reason I walked out was because I was bored.

[ + to infinitive ] The police have (every good) reason to believe that he is guilty.

She was furious, and with reason (= with good cause) .

For some reason/ For reasons best known to him self (= for reasons no one else knows about) he's decided to leave his job.

by reason of formal because of:

He's always asked to these occasions by reason of his position.

Word partners for reason noun

give / have a reason • a compelling / good / major / obvious reason • the main / real / simple reason • the reason for sth • the reason why • for reasons of sth • the reason behind sth

© Cambridge University Press 2013

Collins COBUILD Advanced Learner’s English Dictionary


(reasons, reasoning, reasoned)

Frequency: The word is one of the 700 most common words in English.

The reason for something is a fact or situation which explains why it happens or what causes it to happen.
There is a reason for every important thing that happens...
Who would have a reason to want to kill her?
N-COUNT: usu with supp, oft N for n, N to-inf

If you say that you have reason to believe something or to have a particular emotion, you mean that you have evidence for your belief or there is a definite cause of your feeling.
They had reason to believe there could be trouble...
He had every reason to be upset...
N-UNCOUNT: usu N to-inf

The ability that people have to think and to make sensible judgments can be referred to as reason.
...a conflict between emotion and reason...

If you reason that something is true, you decide that it is true after thinking carefully about all the facts.
I reasoned that changing my diet would lower my cholesterol level...
‘Listen,’ I reasoned, ‘it doesn’t take a genius to figure out what Adam’s up to.’
VERB: V that, V with quote
see also reasoned, reasoning

If one thing happens by reason of another, it happens because of it. (FORMAL)
The boss retains enormous influence by reason of his position...

If you try to make someone listen to reason, you try to persuade them to listen to sensible arguments and be influenced by them.
The company’s top executives had refused to listen to reason.
PHRASE: V inflects

If you say that something happened or was done for no reason, for no good reason, or for no reason at all, you mean that there was no obvious reason why it happened or was done.
The guards, he said, would punch them for no reason...
For no reason at all the two men started to laugh.
PHRASE: PHR with cl

If a person or thing is someone’s reason for living or their reason for being, they are the most important thing in that person’s life.
Chloe is my reason for living.
PHRASE: usu poss PHR

If you say that something happened or is true for some reason, you mean that you know it happened or is true, but you do not know why.
For some inexplicable reason she was attracted to Patrick.
PHRASE: PHR with cl [vagueness]

If you say that you will do anything within reason, you mean that you will do anything that is fair or reasonable and not too extreme.
I will take any job that comes along, within reason...
PHRASE: PHR with cl, n PHR

rhyme or reason: see rhyme
to see reason: see see
it stands to reason: see stand

Merriam-Webster's Advanced Learner's Dictionary

Merriam-Webster's Advanced Learner's Dictionary: 

1rea·son /ˈriːzn̩/ noun, pl -sons
1 [count] : a statement or fact that explains why something is the way it is, why someone does, thinks, or says something, or why someone behaves a certain way
• I gave a reason for my absence.
• Is there a reason for your strange behavior?
• There is a reason why they don't want to come.
• I can't give you the report for the simple reason that it isn't yet finished.
• She explained her reasons for deciding to change jobs.
• He wanted to know the reason for their decision.
• “Why don't you want to go to the party?” “No (particular) reason. I just feel like staying home tonight.”
• Give me one good reason why I should believe you.
• For obvious reasons, we can't do that yet.
• For reasons of space, some of the charts and graphs have been omitted from the article.
• She resigned for personal reasons.
• He is always late, for some/whatever reason. [=he is always late, and no one knows why]
• He tends to get upset for no reason.
• She did things for no good reason. [=there was no acceptable explanation for her actions]
2 [noncount] : a fact, condition, or situation that makes it proper or appropriate to do something, feel something, etc.
• There is no reason [=cause] to panic.
• There's no reason for you to feel that way.
• I had sufficient/adequate/enough reason [=justification] to leave.
• He saw no reason to pursue the issue any further.
• They want to try something different, and that's reason enough for the change.
• He was found not guilty by reason of insanity. [=not guilty because he was insane when he committed the crime]
• We have (every) reason to believe he is lying.
• The company fired him with/without reason. [=there was/wasn't a good reason for the company to fire him]
• She decided, with reason, to find somewhere else to live.
• Poor work conditions are all the more reason to find another job.
3 [noncount] : the power of the mind to think and understand in a logical way
• Human beings possess the power of reason.
• (old-fashioned) He lost his reason. [=he became insane]
4 [noncount] : ideas and opinions that are fair, sensible, and appropriate
• I can't get him to listen to (the voice of) reason. = I can't get him to see reason.
• He is not open to reason. [=he is not listening to logical or sensible thinking]
rhyme or reason
- see 1rhyme
stand to reason : to be sensible or understandable
• If her friends don't want to go, it stands to reason [=it makes sense] that she won't want to go either.
within reason : within reasonable or sensible limits
• You can do anything you want, within reason.
• The price is within reason.


lovely [adjective] (ENJOYABLE)

Pleasant or enjoyable

US /ˈlʌv.li/ 
UK /ˈlʌv.li/ 

دوست داشتنی


Hotel california is such a lovely place and lovely face.

هتل کالیفرنیا جای دوست داشتنی با نمایی بسیار زیبا است. 

آهنگ وترانه: 
Hotel California - Eagles

Oxford Essential Dictionary


 adjective (lovelier, loveliest)
beautiful or very nice:
That's a lovely dress.
We had a lovely holiday.
It's lovely to see you again.

Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English


lovely S1 W3 /ˈlʌvli/ BrE AmE adjective (comparative lovelier, superlative loveliest)
[Word Family: adjective: ↑lovable ≠ UNLOVABLE, ↑loveless, ↑lovely, ↑loving, ↑unloved; noun: ↑love, ↑lover, loveliness., ↑lovey; verb: ↑love; adverb: ↑lovingly]
1. especially British English beautiful or attractive:
She had a lovely face.
What a lovely house!
You look lovely in that dress.
He was a lovely little boy.
What a lovely day!
2. spoken especially British English very pleasant, enjoyable, or good:
Thank you for a lovely evening.
That was a lovely cup of tea.
3. informal especially British English friendly and pleasant:
Richard’s a lovely person.
4. British English spoken used to say that something is not at all enjoyable or good:
‘The cat threw up all over the carpet!’ ‘Lovely!’
You’ve made a lovely mess in here.
5. lovely and warm/fresh/clean etc British English spoken used to emphasize how good something is:
This bread’s lovely and fresh.
6. British English spoken used to show that you are pleased with something:
Push it right across. That’s it, lovely.

Oxford Advanced Learner's Dictionary


love·ly [lovely lovelies] adjective, noun   [ˈlʌvli]    [ˈlʌvli] 

adjective (love·lier, love·li·est) You can also use more lovely and most lovely. (especially BrE)
1. beautiful; attractive
lovely countryside/eyes/flowers
She looked particularly lovely that night.

• He has a lovely voice.

2. (informal) very enjoyable and pleasant; wonderful
‘Can I get you anything?’ ‘A cup of tea would be lovely.’
What a lovely surprise!
How lovely to see you!
Isn't it a lovely day?
We've had a lovely time.
It's a lovely old farm.
• It's been lovely having you here.

(ironic) You've got yourself into a lovely mess, haven't you?

3. (informal) (of a person) very kind, generous and friendly
Her mother was a lovely woman.  Very lovely is not very common and is only used about the physical appearance of a person or thing.  
Word Origin:
Old English luflic (see love, -ly).  
lovely adj.
1. (especially BrE)
We walked through lovely countryside.
Opp: horrible
a/an lovely/beautiful/attractive/pretty/picturesque/charming place/town/village
a/an lovely/beautiful/attractive/scenic/picturesque/charming/exquisite setting/view
lovely/beautiful/attractive/picturesque countryside/scenery/surroundings
Lovely or beautiful? Something that is lovely always has a warm quality that appeals not only to the eyes but also to the heart; beautiful things often have this quality, but they do not have to:
The designs were pure, austere and coldly beautiful.
 ¤ The designs were pure, austere and coldly lovely.
2. (especially BrE)
She was looking lovely.
beautifulprettyattractivegood-lookingstriking|informal gorgeousstunning|especially AmE, informal cute
Opp: horrible, Opp: ugly
a/an lovely/beautiful/pretty/attractive/good-looking/striking/gorgeous/stunning/cute girl/woman
a/an lovely/beautiful/pretty/attractive/good-looking/striking/cute face
a/an lovely/beautiful/attractive/gorgeous/cute body
3. (especially BrE, especially spoken)
We had a lovely day.
wonderfuldelightfulenjoyable|BrE, especially spoken marvellous|AmE, especially spoken marvelous|literary delicious
Opp: horrible
a lovely/wonderful/delightful/marvellous/delicious feeling/sensation
(a) lovely/wonderful/delightful/marvellous experience/time/place/scenery/weather
It's lovely/wonderful/marvellous to be/feel/find/know/have/see…
Lovely, wonderful or delightful? Lovely is the most frequent in British, spoken English. In American English wonderful is the most frequent, both written and spoken. Delightful is used mostly to talk about times, events and places.
4. (especially BrE, especially spoken)
Her mother's a lovely woman.
wonderfulcharmingpleasantfriendlykindlovablecharismaticengaging|especially BrE likeable|especially AmE likable|especially spoken nicesweet
Opp: horrible
a lovely/wonderful/charming/pleasant/friendly/kind/lovable/charismatic/engaging/likeable/nice/sweet man
a lovely/wonderful/charming/pleasant/friendly/kind/lovable/engaging/likeable/nice/sweet person
a lovely/wonderful/charming/pleasant/friendly/kind/engaging/kind/nice/sweet woman  
pretty handsome attractive lovely good-looking gorgeous
These words all describe people who are pleasant to look at.
beautiful(especially of a woman or girl) very pleasant to look at: She looked stunningly beautiful that night.
pretty(especially of a girl or woman) pleasant to look at: She's got a very pretty face.
Pretty is used most often to talk about girls. When it is used to talk about a woman, it usually suggests that she is like a girl, with small, delicate features.
handsome(of a man) pleasant to look at; (of a woman) pleasant to look at, with large strong features rather than small delicate ones: He was described as ‘ tall, dark and handsome ’.
attractive(of a person) pleasant to look at, especially in a sexual way: She's a very attractive woman.
lovely(of a person) beautiful; very attractive: She looked particularly lovely that night.
When you describe sb as lovely, you are usually showing that you also have a strong feeling of affection for them.
good-looking(of a person) pleasant to look at, often in a sexual way: She arrived with a very good-looking man.
gorgeous(informal) (of a person) extremely attractive, especially in a sexual way: You look gorgeous!
attractive or good-looking?
If you describe sb as attractive you often also mean that they have a pleasant personality as well as being pleasant to look at; good-looking just describes sb's physical appearance.
a(n) beautiful/pretty/handsome/attractive/lovely/good-looking/gorgeous girl/woman
a(n) beautiful/handsome/attractive/good-looking/gorgeous boy/man
a(n) beautiful/pretty/handsome/attractive/lovely/good-looking face  
lovely delightful
These words all describe an experience, feeling or sight that gives you great pleasure.
wonderfulthat you enjoy very much; that gives you great pleasure; extremely good: We had a wonderful time last night. The weather was absolutely wonderful.
lovely(rather informal, especially BrE) that you enjoy very much; that gives you great pleasure; very attractive: What a lovely day! (= the weather is very good) It's been lovely having you here.
delightfulthat gives you great pleasure; very attractive: a delightful little fishing village
wonderful, lovely or delightful?
All these words can describe times, events, places, sights, feelings and the weather. Wonderful can also describe a chance or ability. Lovely is the most frequent in spoken British English, but in North American English wonderful is the most frequent, both spoken and written. Delightful is used especially to talk about times, events and places.
wonderful/lovely/delightful weather/views/scenery
It's wonderful/lovely to be/feel/find/have/know/see…
It would be wonderful/lovely/delightful if…
It's wonderful/lovely that…
That sounds wonderful/lovely/delightful.
really/quite/absolutely wonderful/lovely/delightful 
Example Bank:
She looked really lovely in the blue dress.
She's got an absolutely lovely face.
The cool water felt lovely after being in the hot sun.
Your idea of a day on the beach sounds lovely.
a hauntingly lovely melody
It was a lovely evening— calm and still.
It's a lovely old farmhouse.
It's been lovely having you here.
It's lovely and warm in here.
We had a lovely day.
We travelled through some lovely countryside.
You've got lovely eyes.
You've got yourself into a lovely mess, haven't you?
• a lovely cool drink

Idiom: lovely and warm/cold/quiet

Cambridge Advanced Learner's Dictionary

Cambridge Advanced Learner's Dictionary - 4th Edition

lovely / ˈlʌv.li / adjective mainly UK (ENJOYABLE)

A2 pleasant or enjoyable:

a lovely meal/evening

We had a lovely time with them.


loveliness / -nəs / noun [ U ]

She was a vision of loveliness in her wedding dress.


lovely / ˈlʌv.li / adjective mainly UK (BEAUTIFUL)

A2 beautiful:

She has lovely eyes.

You look lovely in that dress.

Thank you for the lovely present.


loveliness / -nəs / noun [ U ]

She was a vision of loveliness in her wedding dress.

lovely / ˈlʌv.li / adjective (KIND)

describes a person who is kind, friendly, and pleasant to be with:

He's a lovely bloke.


loveliness / -nəs / noun [ U ]

She was a vision of loveliness in her wedding dress.

© Cambridge University Press 2013

Collins COBUILD Advanced Learner’s English Dictionary


(lovelier, loveliest)

Frequency: The word is one of the 3000 most common words in English.

If you describe someone or something as lovely, you mean that they are very beautiful and therefore pleasing to look at or listen to. (mainly BRIT)
You look lovely, Marcia...
He had a lovely voice...
It was just one of those lovely old English gardens.
= beautiful
You are a vision of loveliness.
= beauty

If you describe something as lovely, you mean that it gives you pleasure. (mainly BRIT mainly SPOKEN)
Mary! How lovely to see you!...
It’s a lovely day...
What a lovely surprise!
= marvellous, wonderful

If you describe someone as lovely, you mean that they are friendly, kind, or generous. (mainly BRIT)
Laura is a lovely young woman...
She’s a lovely child.
= delightful

Merriam-Webster's Advanced Learner's Dictionary

Merriam-Webster's Advanced Learner's Dictionary: 

1love·ly /ˈlʌvli/ adj love·li·er; -est
1 : attractive or beautiful especially in a graceful way
• She was wearing a lovely dress.
• She looks simply lovely in that dress! = That dress looks simply lovely on her!
• a lovely bouquet of flowers
• The song has a lovely melody. synonyms seebeautiful
2 : very good or likable
• He's a lovely man. [=he's a very good man]
3 : very pleasing : fine
• The hotel has a lovely view.
• We enjoyed a lovely dinner.
• a singer with a lovely voice
• Their children have lovely manners.
• How lovely of you to come!
• It was lovely to have you here!
• (Brit) Isn't the coffee lovely and hot! [=the coffee is pleasingly hot]
- love·li·ness noun [noncount]
• the loveliness of the view


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