to order, limit, or rule something, or someone's actions or behaviour
کنترل کردن، اداره کردن
You're going to have to learn to control your temper.
verb (controls, controlling, controlled )
to make people or things do what you want:
He can't control his dog.
This switch controls the heating.
verb: ↑control; adverb: uncontrollably]
1. MAKE SOMEBODY/SOMETHING DO WHAT YOU WANT [uncountable] the ability or power to make someone or something do what you want or make something happen in the way you want:
The disease robs you of muscle control.
Babies are born with very little control over their movements.
Artists like to have some control over where their works are hung in a gallery.
She’s a good teacher who has control of her class.
Students are encouraged to take control of their own learning, rather than just depending on the teacher.
Excessive drinking can make you lose control of your own life.
‘Do you need any help?’ ‘No. It’s under control, thanks.’
Dogs are allowed on the trails if they are kept under control.
The car spun out of control and hit a tree.
Flight delays do occur, for reasons that are outside our control.
2. POWER [uncountable] the power to make the decisions about how a country, place, company etc is organized or what it does:
The press was freed from political control.
Jordan asked for editorial control of the project.
in control (of something)
Anti-government forces are still in control of the area.
By the end of the year, the rebels had control over the northern territories.
The Johnson family has effective control of the company, owning almost 60% of the shares.
China gained control of the island in 1683.
His son is being trained to take control of the family business.
The Democrats lost control of Congress in the last election.
under the control of somebody
The college was under the control of a group of trustees.
The whole of this area came under Soviet control after World War II.
The Conservatives are hoping to regain control of the city council.
3. WAY OF LIMITING SOMETHING [uncountable and countable] an action, method, or law that limits the amount or growth of something, especially something that is dangerous:
the control of inflation
The authorities imposed strict controls on the movement of cattle.
an agreement on arms control (=control of the amount of weapons a country has)
Firefighters had the blaze under control by 9:44 p.m.
Shea used diet and exercise to bring her weight under control.
The Federal Reserve Bank raised interest rates to keep inflation under control.
rent/price/wage etc controls
Rent controls ensured that no one paid too much for housing.
tight/rigid controls (=strict controls)
the introduction of tighter controls on immigration
Police used fire hoses and dogs for crowd control.
4. ABILITY TO STAY CALM [uncountable] the ability to remain calm even when you feel very angry, upset, or excited:
There were sudden tears in his eyes and he paused, fighting for control.
Davidson lost control of himself and started yelling.
Small children can’t be expected to have the same self-control (=ability to control their emotions and behaviour) as an adult.
Her voice is under control, but she is almost shaking with anger.
I felt calm and in control.
5. MACHINE/VEHICLE [countable] the thing that you press or turn to make a machine, vehicle, television etc work:
the TV remote control
the volume control on the radio
a car with manual controls
at the controls (=controlling a vehicle or aircraft)
Belton, at the controls, made a perfect landing.
6. PEOPLE WHO ORGANIZE AN ACTIVITY [singular, uncountable] the people who direct an activity or who check that something is done correctly, the place where this is done, or the process of doing it:
Please stop at passport control.
computers used for stock control
7. SCIENTIFIC TEST [countable]
a) a person, group etc against which you compare another person or group that is very similar, in order to see if a particular quality is caused by something or happens by chance
control group/population/sample etc
A control group of non-smoking women was compared to four groups of women smokers.
b) a thing that you already know the result for that is used in a scientific test, in order to show that your method is working correctly ⇨ ↑controlled experiment
8. COMPUTER [singular] (also control key) a particular button on a computer that allows you to do certain operations:
Press control and F2 to exit.
⇨ ↑birth control, ↑quality control, ↑remote control
II. control2 S2 W1 BrE AmE verb (past tense and past participle controlled, present participle controlling) [transitive]
[Word Family: adjective: controlling, ↑controllable ≠ ↑uncontrollable, ↑controlled ≠ ↑uncontrolled; noun: ↑control, ↑controller; verb: ↑control; adverb: uncontrollably]
[Date: 1400-1500; Language: Anglo-French; Origin: contreroller 'to keep a copy of an official document in rolled-up form', from Medieval Latin contrarotulare, from contrarotulus 'copy of a roll', from Latin contra- ( ⇨ ↑contra-) + rotulus 'roll']
1. POWER to have the power to make the decisions about how a country, place, company etc is organized or what it does:
The Democrats continued to control the Senate until last year.
a huge company controlling half the world’s coffee trade
Labour-/Republican-/Democrat- etc controlled
2. LIMIT to limit the amount or growth of something, especially something that is dangerous:
a chemical used to control weeds
an economic plan to control inflation
Development in areas of outstanding natural beauty is strictly controlled.
Strict measures were taken to control the spread of foot and mouth disease.
3. MAKE SOMEBODY/SOMETHING DO WHAT YOU WANT to make someone or something do what you want, or make something happen in the way that you want:
Police had to be called in to control the crowds.
a skilled rider controlling a spirited horse
4. EMOTION if you control your emotions, your voice, your expression etc, you succeed in behaving calmly and sensibly, even though you feel angry, upset, or excited:
Sarah took a deep breath, trying to control her anger.
He controlled the urge to laugh.
Newman controlled himself with an effort.
5. MACHINE/PROCESS/SYSTEM to make a machine, process, or system work in a particular way:
a radio-controlled toy car
A thermostat controls the temperature in the building.
control how/what/which etc
The valves in the heart control how quickly the blood is pumped around the body.
6. CHECK SOMETHING to make sure that something is done correctly SYN check, monitor:
The company strictly controls the quality of its products.
• • •
▪ control to have power over a country, place, company etc, and decide what happens there: The Democrats controlled the US Congress. | Government forces now control the city.
▪ run to make the important everyday decisions concerning a company, organization, country etc, so that it can continue to operate: He runs a software company in New York. | The parents want to run the school themselves. | The government is unfit to run the country. | The charity runs a medical clinic in one of the poorest parts of the city.
▪ be in charge of somebody/something to have control over something, or responsibility for a group of people: She is in charge of training new employees. | I left him in charge of the children while I was out.
▪ manage to be in charge of a company, especially one that someone else owns: In 1963, she opened a furniture store, and her son has managed it since 1985.
▪ be in power if a group or leader is in power, they have political control of a country: Abe resigned after less than a year in power. | It was the first time a democratically elected government had been in power.
▪ rule if a leader or political group rules a country, they have political control of that country: President Assad ruled the country for almost 30 years. | The same party has ruled Japan for many years.
▪ supervise to be in charge of a group of workers or students and make sure that they do their work properly: Professor Braude supervised the research team. | He’s supervising the building work.
1. ~ sb/sth to have power over a person, company, country, etc. so that you are able to decide what they must do or how it is run
• By the age of 21 he controlled the company.
• The whole territory is now controlled by the army.
• Can't you control your children?
• a multi-national company based in Britain but controlled from South Africa
2. to limit sth or make it happen in a particular way
• ~ sth government attempts to control immigration
• Many biological processes are controlled by hormones.
• Try to control your breathing.
• ~ what/how, etc… Parents should control what their kids watch on television.
3. ~ sth to stop sth from spreading or getting worse
• Firefighters are still trying to control the blaze.
• She was given drugs to control the pain.
4. ~ sth to make sth, such as a machine or system, work in the way that you want it to
• This knob controls the volume.
• The traffic lights are controlled by a central computer.
5. to manage to make yourself remain calm, even though you are upset or angry
• ~ yourself I was so furious I couldn't control myself and I hit him.
• ~ sth He was finding it difficult to control his feelings.
late Middle English (as a verb in the sense ‘check or verify accounts’, especially by referring to a duplicate register): from Anglo-Norman French contreroller ‘keep a copy of a roll of accounts’, from medieval Latin contrarotulare, from contrarotulus ‘copy of a roll’, from contra- ‘against’ + rotulus ‘a roll’. The noun is perhaps via French contrôle.
• By the age of 25 he controlled the company.
run • • manage • • be in charge • • direct • • be responsible for sb/sth • • administer • • command •
control/run/manage a/an company/business/organization
control/run/manage/direct/be responsible for/administer a project
control/run/manage/be in charge of/direct/be responsible for operations
• Can't you control your dog?
manage • • handle •
control/manage a child
be easy/difficult to control/manage/handle
control/manage/handle sb/sth properly
• new measures to control immigration
limit • • restrict • • curb • • check • • keep/hold sth in check • • rein sth in • |especially BrE cap • |written contain • • suppress •
control/limit/restrict/curb/check/rein in/cap spending
keep/hold spending in check
control/limit/curb/check/contain the spread of sth
control/limit/restrict the size/number/extent/amount of sth
• She was given drugs to control the pain.
overcome • • bring/get/keep sth under control • • get over sth • |informal beat • |written conquer •
control/overcome/get over/beat/conquer a problem
control/overcome/get over/conquer a fear
control a fire /bring a fire under control
• The lights are controlled by a computer.
operate • • run • |especially spoken work • |formal manipulate •
control/operate/run/work a machine
control/operate/run a/an engine/motor
Control, operate or run? A person operates or runs a machine; machines are often controlled by the controls, such as a computer, knob or lever.
• She struggled to control her temper.
restrain • • hold sth back • • suppress • • repress • • stifle • • curb • |written contain • • check •
control/restrain/hold back/suppress/repress/contain/check your anger
control/restrain/suppress/repress/stifle/curb/check an impulse
control/curb/contain your temper
• Conditions in the greenhouse are carefully controlled.
• Expenditure within the company is tightly controlled.
• The shutters can be electronically controlled.
• You can easily control the speed of the fan.
• Can't you control your children?
• Each school is controlled by a Board of Governors.
• Government forces have proved incapable of controlling the rebels.
• He had an emergency operation in which surgeons attempted to control the bleeding.
• He was finding it hard to control his feelings.
• His diabetes can be controlled by diet.
• I was so furious I couldn't control myself and I hit him.
• It is a multi-national company based in Britain but controlled from South Africa.
• Mounted police had been called to control the crowds.
• She was struggling to control her temper.
• Symptoms can be controlled in most patients.
• The National Bank is directly controlled by the government.
• The clerk could scarcely control his excitement.
• The clubs were found guilty of failing to control their fans.
• The government has announced new measures to control immigration
• This government has failed to control inflation.
• Time out is an effective way of controlling aggressive behaviour.
control / kənˈtrəʊl / / -ˈtroʊl / verb [ T ] ( -ll- )
B1 to order, limit, or rule something, or someone's actions or behaviour:
If you can't control your dog, put it on a lead!
You're going to have to learn to control your temper.
The temperature is controlled by a thermostat.
The laws controlling drugs are very strict in this country.
The government is trying to control spending.
controls, controlling, controlled
1) N-UNCOUNT: oft N of/over n Control of an organization, place, or system is the power to make all the important decisions about the way that it is run.
The restructuring involves Mr Ronson giving up control of the company...
The first aim of his government would be to establish control over the republic's territory.
PHRASE: usu v-link PHR, usu PHR of n If you are in control of something, you have the power to make all the important decisions about the way it is run.
Nobody knows who is in control of the club...
In the West, people feel more in control of their own lives.
PHRASE: PHR after v, v-link PHR If something is under your control, you have the power to make all the important decisions about the way that it is run.
All the newspapers were taken under government control.
2) N-UNCOUNT: oft N of/over n If you have control of something or someone, you are able to make them do what you want them to do.
He lost control of his car...
Some teachers have more control over pupils than their parents have.
3) N-UNCOUNT If you show control, you prevent yourself behaving in an angry or emotional way.
He had a terrible temper, and sometimes he would completely lose control...
He was working hard to keep control of himself.
4) VERB The people who control an organization or place have the power to take all the important decisions about the way that it is run.
[V n] He now controls the largest retail development empire in southern California...
[V n] Almost all of the countries in Latin America were controlled by dictators...
[V-ing] Minebea ended up selling its controlling interest in both firms.
-controlled COMB in ADJ AGA Gas is Swedish-controlled. ...the state-controlled media.
5) VERB To control a piece of equipment, process, or system means to make it work in the way that you want it to work.
[V n] ...a computerised system to control the gates...
[V n] Scientists would soon be able to manipulate human genes to control the ageing process.
[V-ed] ...the controlled production of energy from sugar by a cell.
-controlled COMB in ADJ ...computer-controlled traffic lights.
6) VERB When a government controls prices, wages, or the activity of a particular group, it uses its power to restrict them.
[V n] The federal government tried to control rising health-care costs.
[V n] ...measures to control illegal mining.
N-UNCOUNT: with supp
Control is also a noun. Control of inflation remains the government's absolute priority.
7) VERB If you control yourself, or if you control your feelings, voice, or expression, you make yourself behave calmly even though you are feeling angry, excited, or upset.
[V pron-refl] Jo was advised to learn to control herself...
[V n] I just couldn't control my temper.
controlled ADJ-GRADED Her manner was quiet and very controlled.
8) VERB To control something dangerous means to prevent it from becoming worse or from spreading.
[V n] ...the need to control environmental pollution...
[V n] One of the biggest tasks will be to control the spread of malaria.
9) N-COUNT A control is a device such as a switch or lever which you use in order to operate a machine or other piece of equipment.
I practised operating the controls.
...the control box.
PHRASE If someone is at the controls of a machine or other piece of equipment, they are operating it.
He died of a heart attack while at the controls of the plane.
10) N-VAR Controls are the methods that a government uses to restrict increases, for example in prices, wages, or weapons.
Critics question whether price controls would do any good...
Their talks are expected to focus on arms control...
They have very strict gun control in Sweden.
11) N-VAR: n N The word control is used to refer to a place where your documents or luggage are officially checked when you enter a foreign country.
He went straight through Passport Control without incident.
...an agreement to abolish border controls.
12) → See also air traffic control, birth control, quality control, remote control, stock control
13) PHRASE: usu v PHR, v-link PHR If something is out of control, no-one has any power over it.
The fire is burning out of control...
I'm dealing with customers all the time who have let their debts get out of control.
14) PHRASE: v-link PHR, PHR after v If something harmful is under control, it is being dealt with successfully and is unlikely to cause any more harm.
The situation is under control...
If the current violence is to be brought under control, the government needs to act.
1con·trol /kənˈtroʊl/ verb -trols; -trolled; -trol·ling [+ obj]
1 : to direct the behavior of (a person or animal) : to cause (a person or animal) to do what you want
• The parents could not control their child.
• The police controlled the crowd.
• The small boy could not control the big dog.
2 : to have power over (something)
• Her family controls the business.
• One country controls the whole island.
• The rebel army now controls nearly half the country.
3 a : to direct the actions or function of (something) : to cause (something) to act or function in a certain way
• The lights on stage are controlled by this computer.
• She struggled to control the cart as it rolled before her down the steep, bumpy road.
b : to set or adjust the amount, degree, or rate of (something)
• He controlled the volume by turning the radio's knob.
• A thermostat controls the room's temperature.
• The dam controls the flow of the river.
4 : to limit the amount or growth of (something)
• The farmer used insecticides to control the pests.
• The state allowed hunting in the area to control the deer population.
• The government made new laws to control pollution.
• The firefighters worked all night to control the fire.
5 a : to keep (emotions, desires, etc.) from becoming too strong or from being shown
• Please control your temper. [=keep yourself calm]
• He tried hard to control his laughter. [=to avoid laughing]
• I was hungry, but I controlled my appetite [=I resisted the desire to eat] and waited for dinner.
b : to keep or make (yourself) calm especially when you are angry, upset, or excited
• He couldn't control himself any longer.
- con·trol·la·ble /kənˈtroʊləbəl/ adj [more ~; most ~]
• The temperature of the room is controllable.
• The lighter drill was more controllable than the heavier one.