C2

ring a bell

ring a bell [idiom]

To sound familiar

آشنا بودن، به نظر آشنا آمدن

مثال: 

The name rings a bell. Isn’t he an English teacher?

Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English

4 ring a bell   informal   if something rings a bell, it reminds you of something, but you cannot remember exactly what it is :  
Her name rings a bell but I can’t remember her face.

Oxford Advanced Learner's Dictionary

ring a ˈbell idiom

(informal) to sound familiar to you, as though you have heard it before

> His name rings a bell but I can't think where we met.

Cambridge Advanced Learner's Dictionary

Cambridge Advanced Learner's Dictionary - 4th Edition
 

ring a bell ( also ring any bells )

C2 to sound familiar:

The name rang a bell but I couldn't remember where I had heard it before.

No, I'm sorry, that description doesn't ring any bells with me.

Merriam-Webster's Advanced Learner's Dictionary

Merriam-Webster's Advanced Learner's Dictionary: 

ring a bell informal : to be familiar
• Yes, that name rings a bell.
• The term didn't ring a bell with me.

turn your back on sb

turn your back on sb [idiom]

To refuse to support someone and leave them without helping

turn your back on sb - به کسی پشت کردن

به کسی پشت کردن

مثال: 

When she needed my help I turned my back on her and left her alone and now I feel very bad.

Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English

turn your back (on somebody/something)
  a) to refuse to help, support, or be involved with someone or something :  
How can you turn your back on your own mother?
In his twenties he turned his back on his Catholic faith.
  b) to turn so that your back is pointing towards someone or something, and you are not looking at them :  
Angrily, she turned her back on him.

Oxford Advanced Learner's Dictionary

turn your back on sb/sth   
1   to move so that you are standing or sitting with your  back  facing sb/sth
 When on stage, try not to turn your back on the audience.   
2   to reject sb/sth that you have previously been connected with
 She turned her back on them when they needed her.
   Some newspapers have turned their backs on discussion and argument.

Oxford Advanced Learner’s Dictionary, 8th edition

Cambridge Advanced Learner's Dictionary

Cambridge Advanced Learner's Dictionary - 4th Edition
 

turn your back on sb

C2 to refuse to help someone:

Surely you won't turn your back on them?

© Cambridge University Press 2013

Collins COBUILD Advanced Learner’s English Dictionary

phrase [VERB inflects, PHRASE noun]

If you turn your back on someone or something, you ignore them, leave them, or reject them.

have something up your sleeve

have something up your sleeve [idiom]

Having a secret plan, idea etc.

have something up your sleeve - رو نکردن

نقشه یا ایده ی پنهانی داشتن

مثال: 

I think Cathy has something in her mind and she is up to something. She has been acting weird all day. She must have something up her sleeves.

Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English

have something up your sleeveinformal to have a secret plan or idea that you are going to use later Don’t worry. He still has a few tricks up his sleeve.

Cambridge Advanced Learner's Dictionary

Cambridge Advanced Learner's Dictionary - 4th Edition
 

have sth up your sleeve informal

C2 to have secret plans or ideas:

If I know Mark he'll have one or two tricks up his sleeve.

© Cambridge University Press 2013

Collins COBUILD Advanced Learner’s English Dictionary

have sth up one's sleeve

phrase

If you have something up your sleeve, you have an idea or plan which you have not toldanyone about. You can also say that someone has an ace, card, or trick up their sleeve.

He wondered what Shearson had up his sleeve.

I'd been doing some quiet investigating in the meantime and had an ace up my sleeve.

Merriam-Webster's Advanced Learner's Dictionary

Merriam-Webster's Advanced Learner's Dictionary: 

up one's sleeve

held secretly in reservehas a few tricks up her sleeve

pull strings

pull strings [idiom]

Using your power or influence in order to benefit someone unfairly

pull strings - پارتی بازی کردن

پارتی بازی کردن

مثال: 

I need that position in the ministry. I think I should ask my dad to pull some strings. I know he knows some people there.

Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English

pull stringsto secretly use your influence with important people in order to get what you want or to help someone else Francis pulled strings to get him out of trouble.

Oxford Advanced Learner's Dictionary

pull strings (for somebody)

pull ˈstrings (for sb) idiom

(NAmE also pull ˈwires) (informal) to use your influence in order to get an advantage for sb

Cambridge Advanced Learner's Dictionary

Cambridge Advanced Learner's Dictionary - 4th Edition
 

pull strings

C2 to secretly use the influence you have over important people in order to get something or to help someone:

I may be able to pull a few strings if you need the document urgently.

© Cambridge University Press 2013

Collins COBUILD Advanced Learner’s English Dictionary

informal

to exercise personal influence, esp secretly or unofficially

Merriam-Webster's Advanced Learner's Dictionary

Merriam-Webster's Advanced Learner's Dictionary: 

pull the strings : to control someone or something often in a secret way
• It turned out that his brother was the person pulling the strings behind the operation.

attainable

attainable [adjective]

possible to achieve

US /əˈteɪ.nə.bəl/ 
UK /əˈteɪ.nə.bəl/ 

دست یافتنی

مثال: 

This level is easily attainable by most students.

Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English

attainable

See main entry: ↑attain

Oxford Advanced Learner's Dictionary

attainable

at·tain·able AW [attainable]   [əˈteɪnəbl]    [əˈteɪnəbl]  adjective
that you can achieve
attainable goals/objectives/targets
This standard is easily attainable by most students.
Opp:  unattainable  
Example Bank:
We believe that this level of performance is fully attainable.
• This level is easily attainable by most students.

• We need to set challenging but attainable targets.

Cambridge Advanced Learner's Dictionary

Cambridge Advanced Learner's Dictionary - 4th Edition
 

attainable / əˈteɪ.nə.bl̩ / adjective formal

C2 possible to achieve:

We must ensure that we do not set ourselves goals that are not attainable.

→  Opposite unattainable

© Cambridge University Press 2013

Collins COBUILD Advanced Learner’s English Dictionary

attainable

[əte͟ɪnəb(ə)l]
 ADJ-GRADED
 Something that is attainable can be achieved.
  It is unrealistic to believe perfection is an attainable goal.
 Syn:
 achievable

Merriam-Webster's Advanced Learner's Dictionary

Merriam-Webster's Advanced Learner's Dictionary: 

- at·tain·able /əˈteɪnəbəl/ adj [more ~; most ~]
• Be sure that the goals you set are attainable. [=achievable]

get your act together

get your act together [idiom]

خود را مرتب کردن به طوری که شخص کارهایش را به صورت منظم و موثر انجام دهد.

get your act together - خود را جمع و جور کردن

خود را جمع و جور کردن

(برای کاری) عزم را جزم کردن

کمر همت بستن

بهتر عمل کردن

مثال: 

You haven’t studied a single page this week and you have an exam next week. If you want to pass you really need to get your act together.

این هفته یک صفحه هم نخوندی و هفته بعد امتحان داری. اگه بخوای قبول بشی باید خودتو جمع و جور کنی.

Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English

get your act together informal to become more organized and behave in a more effective way, especially in order to achieve something :

You need to get your act together if you’re going to find the right house to buy.

Oxford Advanced Learner's Dictionary

get your ˈact together

(informal) to organize yourself and your activities in a more effective way in order to achieve something He needs to get his act together if he's going to pass.

Oxford Advanced Learner's Dictionary 9th edition © Oxford University Press, 2015

Cambridge Advanced Learner's Dictionary

Cambridge Advanced Learner's Dictionary - 4th Edition
 

get your act together informal

C2 to start to organize yourself so that you do things in an effective way:

She's so disorganized - I wish she'd get her act together.

© Cambridge University Press 2013

get the ball rolling

get the ball rolling [idiom]

to cause something to initiate/start

Also: keep/set/start the ball rolling

get the ball rolling

کاری را آغاز کردن، استارت کاری را زدن

مثال: 

Let’s get the ball rolling and tidy up the mess, we have a few hours before the guests arrive.

بیاید شروع کنیم و این ریخت و پاشو جمع کنیم، مهمونا تا چند ساعت دیگه میرسن.

Cambridge Advanced Learner's Dictionary

start / set / get the ball rolling 

to do something that starts an activity, or to start doing something in order to encourage other people to do the same:

I decided to set the ball rolling and got up to dance.

Cambridge Advanced Learner's Dictionary - 4th Edition
© Cambridge University Press 2013

sin

sin [noun]

the offence of breaking, or the breaking of, a religious or moral law

US /sɪn/ 
UK /sɪn/ 

گناه‌، معصيت‌

مثال: 

to commit a sin

گناه‌ كردن‌

Oxford Essential Dictionary

sin

 noun
something that your religion says you should not do, because it is very bad:
Stealing is a sin.

Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English

sin

I. sin1 S2 /sɪn/ BrE AmE noun
[Language: Old English; Origin: synn]
1. [uncountable and countable] an action that is against religious rules and is considered to be an offence against God
sin of
the sin of pride
She needed to confess her sins and ask for forgiveness.
He knew that he had committed a terrible sin.
the seven deadly sins (=seven bad feelings or desires, in the Christian religion)
2. a sin informal something that you think is very wrong
it is a sin (to do something)
There’s so much lovely food here, it would be a sin to waste it.
3. live in sin old-fashioned if two people live in sin, they live together in a sexual relationship without being married
4. as miserable/ugly/guilty as sin especially British English spoken very unhappy, ugly, or guilty:
I saw Margaret this morning looking as miserable as sin.
5. for my sins especially British English spoken an expression used to suggest jokingly that you have to do something as a punishment:
I work at head office now, for my sins.
sinful
cover/hide a multitude of sins at ↑multitude(4), ⇨ ↑cardinal sin, ↑mortal sin, ↑original sin

COLLOCATIONS
■ verbs
commit a sin He has committed a grave sin.
confess your sins He knelt and confessed his sins to God.
forgive sins God has forgiven all my sins.
repent (of) your sins (=be sorry you committed them) I sincerely repent of my sins.
■ phrases
the seven deadly sins (=seven bad feelings or desires, in the Christian religion, for example greed or too much pride)
■ adjectives
a great sin Possibly the greatest sin you can be guilty of is not speaking out against cruelty or injustice when you see it.
a besetting sin literary (=one that you keep committing) Drunkenness was his besetting sin.

Oxford Advanced Learner's Dictionary

sin

 

sin [sin sins sinned sinning] noun, verb, abbreviation   [sɪn]    [sɪn] 

 

noun
1. countable an offence against God or against a religious or moral law
to commit a sin
Confess your sins to God and he will forgive you.
• The Bible says that stealing is a sin.

see also  mortal sin, original sin

2. uncountable the act of breaking a religious or moral law

• a life of sin

3. countable, usually singular (informal) an action that people strongly disapprove of
It's a sin to waste taxpayers' money like that.
see also  sinful, sinner 
more at cover/hide a multitude of sins at  multitude, live in sin at  live1  
Word Origin:
v. and n. Old English synn (noun), syngian (verb); probably related to Latin sons, sont- ‘guilty’.  
Collocations:
Religion
Being religious
believe in God/Christ/Allah/free will/predestination/heaven and hell/an afterlife/reincarnation
be/become a believer/an atheist/an agnostic/a Christian/Muslim/Hindu/Buddhist, etc.
convert to/practise/ (especially US) practice a religion/Buddhism/Catholicism/Christianity/Islam/Judaism, etc.
go to church/(NAmE) temple (= the synagogue)
go to the local church/mosque/synagogue/gurdwara
belong to a church/a religious community
join/enter the church/a convent/a monastery/a religious sect/the clergy/the priesthood
praise/worship/obey/serve/glorify God
Celebrations and ritual
attend/hold/conduct/lead a service
perform a ceremony/a rite/a ritual/a baptism/the Hajj/a mitzvah
carry out/perform a sacred/burial/funeral/fertility/purification rite
go on/make a pilgrimage
celebrate Christmas/Easter/Eid/Ramadan/Hanukkah/Passover/Diwali
observe/break the Sabbath/a fast/Ramadan
deliver/preach/hear a sermon
lead/address the congregation
say/recite a prayer/blessing
Religious texts and ideas
preach/proclaim/spread the word of God/the Gospel/the message of Islam
study/follow the dharma/the teachings of Buddha
read/study/understand/interpret scripture/the Bible/the Koran/the gospel/the Torah
be based on/derive from divine revelation
commit/consider sth heresy/sacrilege
Religious belief and experience
seek/find/gain enlightenment/wisdom
strengthen/lose your faith
keep/practise/practice/abandon the faith
save/purify/lose your soul
obey/follow/keep/break/violate a commandment/Islamic law/Jewish law
be/accept/do God's will
receive/experience divine grace
achieve/attain enlightenment/salvation/nirvana
undergo a conversion/rebirth/reincarnation
hear/answer a prayer
commit/confess/forgive a sin
do/perform penance 
Example Bank:
Even politicians are not immune from the sins of the flesh.
It's considered a sin to be disrespectful to your parents.
Our sons will pay for the sins of their fathers.
Sin against others is seen as a sin against God.
The besetting sin of 18th-century urban Britain was drunkenness.
They had confessed their sins and done their penance.
They would have to expiate their sins through suffering.
We believe in the forgiveness of sins.
We have repented for past sins. Now it's time to move on.
sin taxes on cigarettes and alcohol
the Christian doctrine of original sin
Believers are called on to turn away from sin and embrace a life of prayer.
Father, I have committed a sin.
He was pursuing an active life of sin when he felt the Lord speaking to him.
• It's a sin to waste taxpayers' money like that.

Idioms: something for your sins  ugly as sin 

Cambridge Advanced Learner's Dictionary

Cambridge Advanced Learner's Dictionary - 4th Edition
 

sin / sɪn / noun [ C or U ]

C2 the offence of breaking, or the breaking of, a religious or moral law:

to commit/confess a sin

He thinks a lot about sin.

[ + to infinitive ] informal I think it 's a sin (= is morally wrong) to waste food, when so many people in the world are hungry.

humorous For my sins (= as if it were a punishment) , I'm organizing the office party this year.

 

sinless / -ləs / adjective

© Cambridge University Press 2013

Collins COBUILD Advanced Learner’s English Dictionary

sin

[sɪ̱n]
 sins, sinning, sinned
 1) N-VAR Sin or a sin is an action or type of behaviour which is believed to break the laws of God.
 → See also cardinal sin, mortal sin
  The Vatican's teaching on abortion is clear: it is a sin...
  Was it the sin of pride to have believed too much in themselves?
 2) VERB If you sin, you do something that is believed to break the laws of God.
  [V against n] The Spanish Inquisition charged him with sinning against God and man...
  You have sinned and unless you repent your ways you will surely roast in hell.
  Derived words:
  sinner [sɪ̱nə(r)] plural N-COUNT I was shown that I am a sinner, that I needed to repent of my sins.
 3) N-COUNT A sin is any action or behaviour that people disapprove of or consider morally wrong.
  ...the sin of arrogant hard-heartedness...
  The ultimate sin was not infidelity, but public mention which led to scandal.
 4) PHRASE: V inflects If you say that a man and a woman are living in sin, you mean that they are living together as a couple although they are not married. [OLD-FASHIONED]
 a multitude of sinssee multitude
  She was living in sin with her boyfriend.

 

Merriam-Webster's Advanced Learner's Dictionary

Merriam-Webster's Advanced Learner's Dictionary: 

1sin /ˈsɪn/ noun, pl sins
1 : an action that is considered to be wrong according to religious or moral law

[count]

• He committed the sin of stealing.
• Murder is a sin.
• I confessed my sins.

[noncount]

• We are not free from sin.
• a world of sin
- see also cardinal sin, deadly sin, mortal sin, original sin, venial sin
2 [count] : an action that is considered to be bad - usually singular
• It's a sin to waste food.
- see also besetting sin
(as) guilty/miserable/ugly as sin informal : very guilty/miserable/ugly
• Even though he was acquitted, most people think he is guilty as sin.
• That house is as ugly as sin.
for your sins chiefly Brit humorous
- used to say that you are doing something unpleasant, difficult, etc., as a form of punishment
For my sins, I was made chairman of the board.
live in sin
- see 1live

not be cut out for sth

not be cut out for sth [idiom]

not to be the right kind of person for something

Usage: 
not be cut out for sth - برای این کار درست نشده است

برای انجام کاری مناسب نبودن

مثال: 

I loved karate and I took some course but I wasn’t good at that. It seems I wasn’t cut for karate.

کاراته رو خیلی دوست داشتم و در کلاسش شرکت کردم ولی خوب کار نمیکردم. مثل اینکه برای این کار ساخته نشده بودم.

Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English

be cut out for something ( also be cut out to be something ) [ usually in questions and negatives ] to have the qualities that you need for a particular job or activity :

In the end, I decided I wasn’t cut out for the army.

Are you sure you’re really cut out to be a teacher?

Oxford Advanced Learner's Dictionary

be ˌcut ˈout for sth | be ˌcut ˈout to be sth ( informal ) to have the qualities and abilities needed for sth

He's not cut out for teaching.

He's not cut out to be a teacher.

Cambridge Advanced Learner's Dictionary

Cambridge Advanced Learner's Dictionary - 4th Edition
 

not be cut out for sth

C2 to not be the right type of person for something:

I'm not cut out for an office job.

© Cambridge University Press 2013

catastrophe

catastrophe [noun]

a sudden event that causes very great trouble or destruction

US /kəˈtæs.trə.fi/ 
UK /kəˈtæs.trə.fi/ 

(در نمايش‌ به‌ ويژه‌ در تراژدى) صحنه‌ى نهايى‌ و سرنوشت‌ ساز (كه‌ در آن‌ قهرمان‌ كشته‌ مى‌شود يا گره‌ كارها گشوده‌ مى‌گردد)، شور اوج‌، دژآشوب‌

مثال: 

Losing his job was a great catastrophe to him.

از دست‌ دادن‌ شغل‌ براى او سانحه‌ى بزرگى‌ بود.‏

Oxford Essential Dictionary

catastrophe

 noun
a sudden disaster that causes great suffering or damage:
major catastrophes such as floods and earthquakes

 

Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English

catastrophe

catastrophe /kəˈtæstrəfi/ BrE AmE noun
[Date: 1500-1600; Language: Greek; Origin: katastrephein 'to turn upside down', from kata- ( ⇨ ↑cataclysm) + strephein 'to turn']
1. [uncountable and countable] a terrible event in which there is a lot of destruction, suffering, or death SYN disaster
environmental/nuclear/economic etc catastrophe
The Black Sea is facing ecological catastrophe as a result of pollution.
prevent/avert a catastrophe
Sudan requires food immediately to avert a humanitarian catastrophe.
2. [countable] an event which is very bad for the people involved SYN disaster
catastrophe for
If the contract is cancelled, it’ll be a catastrophe for everyone concerned.
—catastrophic /ˌkætəˈstrɒfɪk◂ $ -ˈstrɑː-/ adjective:
a catastrophic fall in the price of rice
The failure of the talks could have catastrophic consequences.
—catastrophically /-kli/ adverb

THESAURUS
disaster a sudden event such as an accident, or a natural event such as a flood or storm, which causes great damage or suffering: 200 people died in the train disaster. | The earthquake was the worst natural disaster to hit India for over 50 years.
catastrophe a terrible event in which there is a lot of destruction, damage, suffering, or death over a wide area of the world: A large comet hitting the earth would be a catastrophe. | We don’t want another nuclear catastrophe like Chernobyl. | Scientists say that the oil spill is an ecological catastrophe.
tragedy a very sad event, that shocks people because it involves death: It was a tragedy that he died so young. | the AIDS tragedy in Africa
debacle an event or situation that is a complete failure and is very embarrassing: The opening ceremony turned into a debacle. | The team is hoping to do better this game, after last week’s debacle against the Chicago Bears.
 

Oxford Advanced Learner's Dictionary

catastrophe

 

ca·tas·trophe [catastrophe catastrophes]   [kəˈtæstrəfi]    [kəˈtæstrəfi]  noun
1. a sudden event that causes many people to suffer
Syn:  disaster

• Early warnings of rising water levels prevented another major catastrophe.

2. an event that causes one person or a group of people personal suffering, or that makes difficulties
The attempt to expand the business was a catastrophe for the firm.
We've had a few catastrophes with the food for the party.
Derived Words: catastrophic  catastrophically  
Word Origin:
mid 16th cent. (in the sense ‘denouement’): from Latin catastropha, from Greek katastrophē ‘overturning, sudden turn’, from kata- ‘down’ + strophē ‘turning’ (from strephein ‘to turn’).  
Example Bank:
The country is on the brink of a humanitarian catastrophe.
These policies could lead the country to environmental catastrophe.
We had a few catastrophes with the food for the party.
moves to avert a national catastrophe
• It wouldn't be a catastrophe if he didn't turn up.

• The verdict of this hearing is a personal and professional catastrophe for her.

Cambridge Advanced Learner's Dictionary

Cambridge Advanced Learner's Dictionary - 4th Edition
 

catastrophe / kəˈtæs.trə.fi / noun [ C ]

C2 a sudden event that causes very great trouble or destruction:

They were warned of the ecological catastrophe to come.

a bad situation:

The emigration of scientists is a catastrophe for the country.

 

catastrophic / ˌkæt.əˈstrɒf.ɪk /   / ˌkæt̬.əˈstrɑː.fɪk / adjective

An unchecked increase in the use of fossil fuels could have catastrophic results for the planet.

© Cambridge University Press 2013

Collins COBUILD Advanced Learner’s English Dictionary

catastrophe

[kətæ̱strəfi]
 catastrophes
 N-COUNT
 A catastrophe is an unexpected event that causes great suffering or damage.
  From all points of view, war would be a catastrophe...
  If the world is to avoid environmental catastrophe, advanced economies must undergo a profound transition.
 Syn:
 disaster

 

Merriam-Webster's Advanced Learner's Dictionary

Merriam-Webster's Advanced Learner's Dictionary: 

catastrophe

ca·tas·tro·phe /kəˈtæstrəfi/ noun, pl -phes : a terrible disaster

[count]

• The oil spill was an environmental catastrophe.
• Experts fear a humanitarian catastrophe if food isn't delivered to the refugees soon.
• a global/nuclear/economic catastrophe

[noncount]

• an area on the brink of catastrophe
- cat·a·stroph·ic /ˌkætəˈstrɑːfɪk/ adj [more ~; most ~]
• The effect of the war on the economy was catastrophic.
• a catastrophic drought
- cat·a·stroph·i·cal·ly /ˌkætəˈstrɑːfɪkli/ adv
• The dam failed catastrophically, flooding the entire valley.

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