noun

sun

sun [noun]

The star that the Earth moves around, which provides light and heat for the Earth, or the light or heat that the Earth receives from this star:

US /sʌn/ 
UK /sʌn/ 
Example: 

The sun rises in the east and sets in the west.

Oxford Essential Dictionary

sun

 noun (no plural)

1 the sun

pronunciation
The word sun sounds just like son.

the big round object in the sky that gives us light in the day, and heat:
The sun is shining.

2 light and heat from the sun:
We sat in the sun all morning.

 

Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English

sun

I. sun1 S2 W1 /sʌn/ BrE AmE noun
[Language: Old English; Origin: sunne]
1. the sun/the Sun the large bright object in the sky that gives us light and heat, and around which the Earth moves ⇨ solar:
The sky was blue and the sun was shining.
2. [uncountable] the heat and light that come from the sun ⇨ sunny:
Too much sun is bad for you.
in the sun
We sat in the sun, eating ice cream.
the warmth of the afternoon sun
3. [countable] any star around which ↑planets move
4. everything/anything etc under the sun used to emphasize that you are talking about a large range of things:
You can buy jeans in every colour under the sun.
5. catch the sun British English, get some sun American English if someone catches or gets the sun, they become slightly red or brown because they have been outside in the sun
make hay while the sun shines at ↑hay(2)
• • •
COLLOCATIONS (for Meanings 1 & 2)
■ verbs
the sun shines When I woke, the sun was shining.
the sun beats down/blazes down (=shines with a lot of light and heat) The sun beats down on us as we work.
the sun comes out (=appears when cloud moves away) The rain stopped and the sun came out.
the sun rises/comes up (=appears at the beginning of the day) As the sun rises, the birds take flight.
the sun sets/goes down (=disappears at the end of the day) It is a good place to sit and watch the sun go down.
the sun sinks (=gradually disappears at the end of the day) The sun sank lower and the breeze grew cool.
■ ADJECTIVES/NOUN + sun
the hot/warm sun The hot sun beat down on the men working.
the blazing/burning sun Tourists trudge around in the blazing sun.
a bright sun It was a warm day with a bright sun overhead.
the morning/afternoon/evening sun We ate breakfast outside in the gentle morning sun.
the midday/noonday sun They all sought shade from the blazing midday sun.
the rising/setting sun (=the sun as it appears/disappears) The fields were ablaze with light from the setting sun.
■ phrases
the sun is high/low in the sky They walked until the sun was low in the sky.
■ nouns
the sun’s rays This moisturiser will also protect skin from the sun’s rays.
• • •
THESAURUS
■ in the sky
star a large ball of burning gas in space, which can be seen at night as a point of light in the sky: The dark night sky was clear and full of stars.
planet one of the large objects that goes around the sun, for example the Earth, Saturn, Mercury, or Mars: The planet Uranus was discovered in 1781.
sun the star that gives us light and heat, around which the planets move. There are also many millions of other suns in the universe: The sun came out from behind a cloud. | a dying sun
moon the round object that moves around the Earth every 28 days, or a similar object that goes around another planet: The moon rose in the night sky. | Titan is one of the moons of Saturn.
asteroid a mass of rock that moves around the sun. Most asteroids are found between Jupiter and Mars: the asteroid belt
pulsar a type of star that is far away in space and produces ↑radiation and RADIO WAVES
quasar an object like a star that is far away in space and shines extremely brightly
supernova a very large exploding star
constellation a group of stars that forms a particular pattern and has a name: The constellation of Orion is one of the most easily recognizable patterns of stars in the night sky.
galaxy one of the large groups of stars that make up the universe: Astronomers have detected a galaxy 11 billion light years away.
the universe all space, including all the stars and planets: How many planets in the universe have life?
II. sun2 BrE AmE verb (past tense and past participle sunned, present participle sunning)
sun yourself to sit or lie outside when the sun is shining ⇨ sunbathe:
The beaches were full of families sunning themselves.

Oxford Advanced Learner's Dictionary

sun

sun [sun suns sunned sunning] noun, verb   [sʌn]    [sʌn]

noun
1. the sun, the Sun singular the star that shines in the sky during the day and gives the earth heat and light
the sun's rays
the rising/setting sun
The sun was shining and birds were singing.
• The sun was just setting.

• A pale wintry sun shone through the clouds.

2. (usually the sun) singular, uncountable the light and heat from the sun
Syn:  sunshine
the warmth of the afternoon sun
This room gets the sun in the mornings.
We sat in the sun.
The sun was blazing hot.
Too much sun ages the skin.
We did our best to keep out of the sun.
They've booked a holiday in the sun (= in a place where it is warm and the sun shines a lot).
Her face had obviously caught the sun (= become red or brown) on holiday.
I was driving westwards and I had the sun in my eyes (= the sun was shining in my eyes).

see also  sunny

3. countable (technical) any star around which planets move
more at make hay while the sun shines at  hay, a place in the sun at  place  n.  
Word Origin:
Old English sunne, of Germanic origin; related to Dutch zon and German Sonne, from an Indo-European root shared by Greek hēlios and Latin sol.  
Collocations:
The weather
Good weather
be bathed in/bask in/be blessed with/enjoy bright/brilliant/glorious sunshine
the sun shines/warms sth/beats down (on sth)
the sunshine breaks/streams through sth
fluffy/wispy clouds drift across the sky
a gentle/light/stiff/cool/warm/sea breeze blows in/comes in off the sea
the snow crunches beneath/under sb's feet/boots
Bad weather
thick/dark/storm clouds form/gather/roll in/cover the sky/block out the sun
the sky darkens/turns black
a fine mist hangs in the air
a dense/heavy/thick fog rolls in
the rain falls/comes down (in buckets/sheets)/pours down
snow falls/comes down/covers sth
the wind blows/whistles/howls/picks up/whips through sth/sweeps across sth
strong/gale-force winds blow/gust (up to 80 mph)
a storm is approaching/is moving inland/hits/strikes/rages
thunder rolls/rumbles/sounds
(forked/sheet) lightning strikes/hits/flashes
a (blinding/snow) blizzard hits/strikes/blows/rages
a tornado touches down/hits/strikes/destroys sth/rips through sth
forecast/expect/predict rain/snow/a category-four hurricane
(NAmE) pour (down)/ (BrE) pour (down) with rain
get caught in/seek shelter from/escape the rain
be covered/shrouded in mist/a blanket of fog
be in for/brave/shelter from a/the storm
hear rolling/distant thunder
be battered/buffeted by strong winds
(BrE) be blowing a gale
battle against/brave the elements
The weather improves
the sun breaks through the clouds
the sky clears/brightens (up)/lightens (up)
the clouds part/clear
the rain stops/lets up/holds off
the wind dies down
the storm passes
the mist/fog lifts/clears  
Example Bank:
Don't sit in the sun too long.
He was enjoying the feel of the sun on his back.
It was getting cooler as the sun sank below the horizon.
Just then, a watery sun broke through the clouds.
On children, use a cream with a high sun protection factor.
The clouds darkened, obliterating the sun.
The distant mountains glowed in the light of the setting sun.
The evening sun slanted through the window.
The helmets were glinting in the sun.
The north side of the garden never gets any sun.
The setting sun cast long shadows over the landscape.
The sun caught her dazzling copper hair.
The sun climbed higher in the sky.
The sun glinted on the blades.
The sun moved slowly westward.
The sun reflected off the water.
The sun rises in the east.
The sun sets in the west.
The sun struck the steep blue slates of the roof.
The sun warmed his face.
The sun was up now, and strong.
The sun went in and it started to rain.
The wintry sun was already low in the sky.
There is nothing new under the sun.
They call Norway the land of the midnight sun.
This plant likes a dryish soil in full sun.
Try to avoid prolonged exposure to the sun.
Venus orbits the Sun in just under one Earth year.
We did our best to keep out of the sun.
We had discussions about everything under the sun.
We went out into the sun.
We were lying by the pool, soaking up the afternoon sun.
We've booked a holiday in the sun.
You've caught the sun.
an afternoon of lazing under the warm sun
with the sun in her eyes
wrinkles caused by sun damage
Her face had obviously caught the sun.
They're having a winter break in the sun.
• We sat in the warmth of the afternoon sun.

Idioms: under the sun  with the sun 

Cambridge Advanced Learner's Dictionary

Cambridge Advanced Learner's Dictionary - 4th Edition
 

sun / sʌn / noun [ S or U ]

A1 the star that the Earth moves around, which provides light and heat for the Earth, or the light or heat that the Earth receives from this star:

The sun rises in the east and sets in the west.

The sun's rays are at their most powerful at midday.

I think I've had a bit too much sun today - I've got a headache.

Shall we go and sit out in the sun?

We thought we'd go out for a walk while the sun was shining .

© Cambridge University Press 2013

Collins COBUILD Advanced Learner’s English Dictionary

sun

[sʌ̱n]
 ♦♦
 suns, sunning, sunned

 1) N-SING: usu the N The sun is the ball of fire in the sky that the Earth goes round, and that gives us heat and light.
  The sun was now high in the southern sky...
  The sun came out, briefly.
  ...the sun's rays...
  The sun was shining.
 2) N-UNCOUNT: usu the N You refer to the light and heat that reach us from the sun as the sun.
  Dena took them into the courtyard to sit in the sun...
  They were trying to soak up some sun.
 3) VERB: usu cont If you are sunning yourself, you are sitting or lying in a place where the sun is shining on you.
  [V pron-refl] She was last seen sunning herself in a riverside park.
  Syn:
  sunbathing
 4) N-COUNT A sun is any star which has planets going around it.
 5) PHRASE: PHR after v Everything under the sun means a very great number of things. Anything under the sun means anything at all.
 a place in the sunsee place
  We sat there for hours talking about everything under the sun...
  The fashion-conscious will go for anything under the sun!

Merriam-Webster's Advanced Learner's Dictionary

Merriam-Webster's Advanced Learner's Dictionary: 

1sun /ˈsʌn/ noun, pl suns
1 a the sun also the Sun : the star that the Earth moves around and that gives the Earth heat and light
• The rain has stopped and the sun is shining.
The sun rises in the east and sets in the west.
the rising/setting sun
• the warmth of the sun's rays
b [count] : any star that has planets which move around it
• They dream of traveling to distant suns.
2 [noncount] : the heat or light produced by the sun : sunshine or sunlight
• The plant needs full sun. [=it should not be in the shade]
• Try to keep out of the sun.
• The cat lay basking in the sun.
• I couldn't see because the sun was in my eyes. [=the bright light of the sun was shining directly in my eyes]
• We went to the beach to get/catch some sun. [=to spend time in the sunlight]
in the sun
✦If someone or something has a day/moment/time, etc., in the sun, that person or thing is popular or gets a lot of attention during a period of time.
• Organic foods are having their moment in the sun.
• The singer is still waiting for his day in the sun.
make hay (while the sun shines)
- see hay
place in the sun : a very good, successful, or desirable position
• After years of struggling as an unknown actor, he has finally found his/a place in the sun.
under the sun : in the world - used to emphasize the large number of things that are being mentioned
• There is nothing under the sun [=nothing at all] that we cannot do.
• We talked about everything under the sun.
• She called me every name under the sun.

gray matter

grey matter [noun]

A person's intelligence

US /ˈɡreɪ ˌmæt̬.ɚ/ 
UK /ˈɡreɪ ˌmæt.ər/ 
Example: 

It's not the sort of movie that stimulates the old grey matter much

Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English

gray matter

ˈgrey ˌmatter BrE AmE British English, gray matter American English noun [uncountable]
informal your intelligence, or your brain

Oxford Advanced Learner's Dictionary

grey matter

ˈgrey matter [grey matter]       (especially BrE) (NAmE usually ˈgray matter) noun uncountable (informal)
a person's intelligence

This should exercise the old grey matter.

Cambridge Advanced Learner's Dictionary

Cambridge Advanced Learner's Dictionary - 4th Edition
 

ˈ grey ˌ matter informal ( US usually ˈ gray ˌ matter ) noun [ U ]

a person's intelligence:

It's not the sort of movie that stimulates the old grey matter much.

© Cambridge University Press 2013

Merriam-Webster's Advanced Learner's Dictionary

Merriam-Webster's Advanced Learner's Dictionary: 

gray matter

gray matter noun [noncount] : the tissue that makes up the brain - often used figuratively to refer to a person's intelligence
• His books are enjoyable, but they don't do much to challenge the reader's gray matter. [=intelligence]

 

wet blanket

wet blanket [noun]

Someone who spoils other people’s enjoyment by taking a dim view of what they do or by not joining everyone else

US /ˌwet ˈblæŋ.kɪt/ 
UK /ˌwet ˈblæŋ.kɪt/ 
wet blanket - ضد حال
Example: 

I don’t like inviting Tina to my party, she’s such a wet blanket. She will ruin our mood by her deep sighs and gloomy remarks.

Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English

wet blanket

ˌwet ˈblanket / $ ˈ. ˌ../ BrE AmE noun [countable]
informal someone who seems to want to spoil other people’s fun, for example by refusing to join them in something enjoyable that they are doing

Oxford Advanced Learner's Dictionary

wet blanket

ˌwet ˈblanket [wet blanket]       noun (informal, disapproving)

a person who is not enthusiastic about anything and who stops other people from enjoying themselves

Cambridge Advanced Learner's Dictionary

Cambridge Advanced Learner's Dictionary - 4th Edition
 

ˌ wet ˈ blanket noun [ C usually singular ] disapproving

a person who says or does something that stops other people enjoying themselves

© Cambridge University Press 2013

Collins COBUILD Advanced Learner’s English Dictionary

wet blanket

 wet blankets
 N-COUNT (disapproval)
 If you say that someone is a wet blanket, you are criticizing them because they refuse to join other people in an enjoyable activity or because they want to stop other people enjoying themselves. [INFORMAL]

Merriam-Webster's Advanced Learner's Dictionary

Merriam-Webster's Advanced Learner's Dictionary: 

wet blanket

wet blanket noun, pl ~ -kets [count] informal : a person who makes it difficult for other people to enjoy themselves by complaining, by showing no enthusiasm, etc.

 

botanic garden

botanic garden [noun]

A garden, usually open to the public, where a wide range of plants are grown for scientific and educational purposes

US /bəˌtæn.ɪk ˈɡɑːr.dən/ 
UK /bəˌtæn.ɪk ˈɡɑː.dən/ 

Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English

botanical garden

boˌtanical ˈgarden BrE AmE noun [countable]
a large public garden where many different types of flowers and plants are grown for scientific study
 

Oxford Advanced Learner's Dictionary

botanical garden

boˌtanical ˈgarden [botanical garden]       (also boˌtanic ˈgarden) noun usually plural

a park where plants, trees and flowers are grown for scientific study

Cambridge Advanced Learner's Dictionary

Cambridge Advanced Learner's Dictionary - 4th Edition
 

bo ˌ tanic ˈ garden noun [ C often plural ] ( also bo ˌ tanical ˈ garden )

a garden, usually open to the public, where a wide range of plants are grown for scientific and educational purposes

© Cambridge University Press 2013

Merriam-Webster's Advanced Learner's Dictionary

Merriam-Webster's Advanced Learner's Dictionary: 

botanical garden

botanical garden noun, pl ~ -dens [count] : a large usually public garden where plants are grown in order to be studied - called also bo·tan·ic garden, /bəˈtænɪk-/

air quotes

air quotes [noun]

Imaginary quotation marks that you make in the air with your fingers, to show that you are using a word or phrase in an unusual way or repeating exactly what someone has said

US /ˈer ˌkwoʊts/ 
UK /ˈeə ˌkwəʊts/ 

Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English

air quote noun [countable usually plural]    

a movement that someone makes in the air with their fingers to show that what they are saying should be in quotation marks, and that it should not be taken as their real opinion or their usual way of speaking

Cambridge Advanced Learner's Dictionary

Cambridge Advanced Learner's Dictionary - 4th Edition
 

ˈ air ˌ quotes noun [ plural ]

imaginary quotation marks that you make in the air with your fingers, to show that you are using a word or phrase in an unusual way or repeating exactly what someone has said

© Cambridge University Press 2013

Merriam-Webster's Advanced Learner's Dictionary

Merriam-Webster's Advanced Learner's Dictionary: 

air quotes

 plural noun

Definition of air quotes

a gesture made by raising and flexing the index and middle fingers of both hands that is used to call attention to a spoken word or expression

pop culture

pop culture [noun]

Music, TV, cinema, literature, etc. that is popular and enjoyed by ordinary people, rather than experts or very educated people

US /ˌpɑːp ˈkʌl.tʃɚ/ 
UK /ˌpɒp ˈkʌl.tʃər/ 
Example: 

Pop culture involves the aspects of social life

Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English

pop culture

ˈpop ˌculture BrE AmE noun [uncountable]
music, films, products etc in a particular society that are familiar to and popular with most ordinary people in that society

Cambridge Advanced Learner's Dictionary

Cambridge Advanced Learner's Dictionary - 4th Edition
 

ˌ pop ˈ culture noun [ U ]

music, TV, cinema, literature, etc. that is popular and enjoyed by ordinary people, rather than experts or very educated people

© Cambridge University Press 2013

weakness

weakness [noun]

the fact or state of not being strong or powerful

US /ˈwiːk.nəs/ 
UK /ˈwiːk.nəs/ 
Example: 

economic weakness

Oxford Essential Dictionary

weakness

 noun

1 (no plural) the state of not being strong:
He thought that crying was a sign of weakness.

2 (plural weaknesses) something that is wrong or bad in a person or thing
 opposite strength

Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English

weakness

weakness W3 /ˈwiːknəs, ˈwiːknɪs/ BrE AmE noun
[Word Family: noun: ↑weakling, ↑weakness; verb: ↑weaken; adverb: ↑weakly; adjective: ↑weak]
1. FAULT [countable] a fault in someone’s character or in a system, organization, design etc:
The legislation has a fundamental weakness.
The plan has strengths and weaknesses.
2. LACK OF POWER [uncountable] lack of strength, power, or influence
weakness in
weakness in the economy
weakness of
the growing weakness of local government
3. BODY [uncountable] the state of being physically weak:
muscular weakness
weakness in
weakness in the right arm
4. CHARACTER [uncountable] lack of determination shown in someone’s behaviour:
He couldn’t explain his weakness in giving in to her demands.
I dared not cry or show any sign of weakness.
weakness of
his weakness of character
5. MONEY [uncountable] the condition of not being worth a lot of money
weakness of
the weakness of the pound against the dollar
6. a weakness for something if you have a weakness for something, you like it very much even though it may not be good for you:
I have a real weakness for fashionable clothes.

THESAURUS
■ something wrong
fault a problem in a machine, system, design etc that causes damage or makes it not work properly: The fire was caused by an electrical fault. | a fault in the engine
defect a fault in something such as a product or machine, resulting from the way it was made or designed: Cars are tested for defects before they leave the factory.
weakness a part of a plan, system, or argument that is not as good as the other parts, and makes it likely to fail: What are the strengths and weaknesses of each method?
flaw a fault in a plan, system, argument etc, especially one that makes it useless or not effective: Your argument has a fundamental flaw. | There was one major flaw in his suggestion – we didn’t have enough money.
bug a fault in a computer program: A bug in the system was quickly fixed.
glitch a small fault in the way something works, that can usually be easily corrected: I noticed a small glitch when installing the software.
mistake something that is wrong in someone’s spelling, grammar, calculations etc: The article was full of spelling mistakes.
there’s something wrong with something used when saying that there is a problem in a machine, car etc, but you do not know what it is: There’s something wrong with the computer – it won’t close down.

Oxford Advanced Learner's Dictionary

weakness

weak·ness [weakness weaknesses]   [ˈwiːknəs]    [ˈwiːknəs]  noun
1. uncountable lack of strength, power or determination
The sudden weakness in her legs made her stumble.
the weakness of the dollar against the pound
He thought that crying was a sign of weakness.

Opp:  strength

2. countable a weak point in a system, sb's character, etc
It's important to know your own strengths and weaknesses.
• Can you spot the weakness in her argument?

Opp:  strength

3. countable, usually singular ~ (for sth/sb) difficulty in resisting sth/sb that you like very much
He has a weakness for chocolate.  
Example Bank:
He saw compromise as a sign of weakness.
He worries a lot about his weight, but can't overcome his weakness for fatty foods.
I have a real weakness for chocolate.
In a moment of weakness I let him drive my car.
Make companies aware of potential weaknesses so they know what steps to take.
Service conditions soon revealed the inherent weaknesses in the vehicle's design.
She didn't seem to have any obvious weaknesses.
The appraisal system seeks to assess employees' strengths and weaknesses.
The criminals exploit apparent weaknesses in the system.
The greatest weakness of the plan lies in its lack of government support.
The management had to address specific weaknesses in training.
The team doesn't have any glaring weaknesses.
They know their strengths and weaknesses.
a fatal weakness in his theory
a position of relative weakness
business leaders who refuse to admit their weaknesses
humanity's moral weakness and capacity for evil
the primary methodological weakness of this study
the underlying weakness of the coalition's position
Can you spot the weakness in that argument?
Certain structural weaknesses have to be overcome before the economy can recover.
He regarded asking for help as a sign of weakness.
She admits that her love of luxury is one of her greatest weaknesses.
The fundamental weakness of the organization is its lack of effective communication.
There are a number of weaknesses in this approach.
Try to consider the relative strengths and weaknesses of your work.
We all have our weaknesses.
We are all subject to some form of human weakness.
• You need to be aware of your own strengths and weaknesses.

• Young recruits were urged to overcome their own innate weaknesses.

Cambridge Advanced Learner's Dictionary

Cambridge Advanced Learner's Dictionary - 4th Edition

weakness     / wik.nəs /   noun   
  
    B2   [ U ]   the fact or state of not being strong or powerful:  
  Any change of policy will be interpreted as a sign of weakness. 
    B2   [ C ]   a particular part or quality of someone or something that is not good or effective:  
  There are definite weaknesses in their security arrangements. 
  His main weakness as a manager is his inability to delegate. 
  The later novels show none of the weaknesses of his earlier work. 
  weakness for 
    C2     a strong liking, usually for something that might have unpleasant or unwanted effects:  
  My diet would be fine if only I didn't have this weakness for sweet things. 

 
© Cambridge University Press 2013

Collins COBUILD Advanced Learner’s English Dictionary

weakness

[wi͟ːknəs]
 weaknesses
 N-COUNT: usu sing, oft N for n
 If you have a weakness for something, you like it very much, although this is perhaps surprising or undesirable.
 → See also weak
  Stephen himself had a weakness for cats...
  His one weakness, apart from aeroplanes, is ice cream.

Merriam-Webster's Advanced Learner's Dictionary

Merriam-Webster's Advanced Learner's Dictionary: 

weakness

weak·ness /ˈwiːknəs/ noun, pl -ness·es
1 [noncount] : the quality or state of being weak
• muscle weakness
• The weakness of her voice surprised me.
• The incident exposed his weakness as a leader.
• Some see compromise as a sign of weakness.
• moral weakness
• the weakness of a radio signal/Internet connection
• the weakness of the dollar/economy
• I told them my secret in a moment of weakness.
2 [count] : a quality or feature that prevents someone or something from being effective or useful
• The tutor assessed the student's strengths and weaknesses.
• The basketball team has few weaknesses.
3 [count]
a : something that you like so much that you are often unable to resist it
• Chocolate is my greatest weakness.
b : a strong feeling of desire for something
• He has a weakness for desserts.

pessimism

pessimism [noun]

emphasizing or thinking of the bad part of a situation rather than the good part, or the feeling that bad things are more likely to happen than good things

US /ˈpes.ə.mɪ.zəm/ 
UK /ˈpes.ɪ.mɪ.zəm/ 
Example: 

There is now a mood of deepening pessimism  about/over  the economy.

Oxford Essential Dictionary

pessimism

 noun (no plural)
thinking that bad things will happen opposite optimism

>> pessimist noun:
Lisa's such a pessimist.
 opposite optimist

>> pessimistic adjective:
Don't be so pessimistic – of course it's not going to rain!
 opposite optimistic

Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English

pessimism

pessimism /ˈpesəmɪzəm, ˈpesɪmɪzəm/ BrE AmE noun [uncountable]
[Date: 1700-1800; Language: French; Origin: pessimisme, from Latin pessimus 'worst']
a tendency to believe that bad things will happen OPP optimism
pessimism about/over
There is deep pessimism about the future.

Oxford Advanced Learner's Dictionary

pessimism

pes·sim·ism   [ˈpesɪmɪzəm]    [ˈpesɪmɪzəm]  noun uncountable ~ (about/over sth)
a feeling that bad things will happen and that sth will not be successful; the tendency to have this feeling
There is a mood of pessimism in the company about future job prospects.
This widespread pessimism does not seem justified.
Opp:  optimism  
Word Origin:
[pessimism] late 18th cent.: from Latin pessimus ‘worst’, on the pattern of optimism.  
Example Bank:
He warned against the dangers of undue pessimism.
The article reflects the pessimism of its author.
• There were good grounds for pessimism about future progress.

• the widespread pessimism among young people today

Cambridge Advanced Learner's Dictionary

Cambridge Advanced Learner's Dictionary - 4th Edition

pessimism     / pes.ɪ.mɪ.z ə m /   noun   [ U ]   
  
        emphasizing or thinking of the bad part of a situation rather than the good part, or the feeling that bad things are more likely to happen than good things:  
  There is now a mood of deepening pessimism  about/over  the economy. 
  An underlying pessimism infuses all her novels.   
 →  Opposite     optimism 
  
pessimist     / -mɪst /   noun   [ C ]   
      
  Don't be such a pessimist! 

 
© Cambridge University Press 2013

Collins COBUILD Advanced Learner’s English Dictionary

pessimism

[pe̱sɪmɪzəm]
 N-UNCOUNT: oft N about/over n
 Pessimism is the belief that bad things are going to happen.
  ...universal pessimism about the economy...
  My first reaction was one of deep pessimism.
 Ant:
 optimism

 

Merriam-Webster's Advanced Learner's Dictionary

Merriam-Webster's Advanced Learner's Dictionary: 

pessimism

 

pes·si·mism /ˈpɛsəˌmɪzəm/ noun [noncount] : a feeling or belief that bad things will happen in the future : a feeling or belief that what you hope for will not happen
• She has expressed pessimism over the outcome of the trial. [=she thinks the outcome will be bad]
• Although the economy shows signs of improving, a sense of pessimism remains.
• He expressed his pessimism about politics and politicians. [=his belief that politics and politicians are generally bad]
- opposite optimism

 

chance

chance [noun] (OPPORTUNITY)

an occasion that allows something to be done

US /tʃæns/ 
UK /tʃɑːns/ 
Example: 

He put the phone down before I had a chance to answer.

Oxford Essential Dictionary

chance

 noun

1 (no plural) a possibility that something may happen:
There's no chance that she'll come now.
She has a good chance of becoming team captain.
He doesn't stand (= have) a chance of passing the exam.

2 (plural chances) a time when you can do something same meaning opportunity:
It was their last chance to escape.
Be quiet and give her a chance to explain.

3 (no plural) when something happens that you cannot control or that you have not planned same meaning luck:
We must plan this carefully. I don't want to leave anything to chance.
We met by chance at the station.

no chance (informal) used to say that there is no possibility of something happening:
'Perhaps your mum will give you the money.' 'No chance!'

take a chance to do something when it is possible that something bad may happen because of it:
We may lose money but we'll just have to take that chance.

Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English

chance

I. chance1 S1 W1 /tʃɑːns $ tʃæns/ BrE AmE noun
[Date: 1200-1300; Language: Old French; Origin: Vulgar Latin cadentia 'fall', from Latin cadere 'to fall']
1. POSSIBILITY [uncountable and countable] the possibility that something will happen, especially something you want:
There’s always the chance that something will go wrong.
chance of
What are the team’s chances of success?
If we did move to London, I’d stand a much better chance (=have a much better chance) of getting a job.
There is little chance of her being found alive.
Chances are (=it is likely that) you’ll be fine.
2. OPPORTUNITY [countable] a time or situation which you can use to do something that you want to do SYN opportunity
chance to do something
Ralph was waiting for a chance to introduce himself.
chance of
our only chance of escape
I’m sorry, I haven’t had a chance to look at it yet.
If someone invited me over to Florida, I’d jump at the chance (=use the opportunity eagerly).
3. RISK take a chance to do something that involves risks:
The rope might break, but that’s a chance we’ll have to take.
After losing $20,000 on my last business venture, I’m not taking any chances this time.
take a chance on
He was taking a chance on a relatively new young actor.
He decided to take his chances in the boat.
4. LIKELY TO SUCCEED sb’s chances how likely it is that someone will succeed:
Ryan will be a candidate in next month’s elections, but his chances are not good.
sb’s chances of doing something
England’s chances of winning the series have all but disappeared.
not fancy/not rate sb’s chances British English (=think someone is unlikely to succeed)
I don’t fancy their chances against Brazil.
► Do not say ‘someone’s chances to do something’. Say someone’s chances of doing something.
5. LUCK [uncountable] the way some things happen without being planned or caused by people ⇨ fate
by chance
I bumped into her quite by chance in Oxford Street.
leave something to chance (=to not plan something but just hope that everything will happen as intended)
Dave had thought of every possibility, he was leaving nothing to chance.
pure/sheer/blind chance (=not at all planned)
It was pure chance that they ended up working in the same office in the same town.
As chance would have it, the one time I wanted to see her, she wasn’t in.
6. by any chance spoken used to ask politely whether something is true:
Are you Mrs Grant, by any chance?
7. any chance of ...? spoken used to ask whether you can have something or whether something is possible:
Any chance of a cup of coffee?
Any chance of you coming to the party on Saturday?
8. be in with a chance if a competitor is in with a chance, it is possible that they will win:
I think we’re in with a good chance of beating them.
9. no chance!/fat chance! spoken used to emphasize that you are sure something could never happen:
‘Maybe your brother would lend you the money?’ ‘Huh, fat chance!’
10. on the off chance if you do something on the off chance, you do it hoping for a particular result, although you know it is not likely:
I didn’t really expect her to be at home. I just called on the off chance. ⇨ ↑off-chance
11. chance would be a fine thing! British English spoken used to mean that the thing you want to happen is very unlikely:
‘Do you think you’ll get married?’ ‘Chance would be a fine thing!’
game of chance at ↑game1(15)

COLLOCATIONS (for Meaning 1)
■ verbs
have/stand a chance (of something) (=it is possible you will do it) I think you have a good chance of getting the job.
give somebody a chance of doing something (=say how likely it is that they will do it) He has been given a fifty-fifty chance of being fit for Sunday’s match.
increase the chance of something Certain foods increase the chance of heart disease.
improve the chance of something The book shows you how to improve your chance of success.
reduce/lessen the chance of something The talks were aimed at reducing the chance of war.
ruin any chance of something (=make it impossible for something to happen) Drinking alcohol can ruin any chance of weight loss.
jeopardize any chance of something (=make something less likely to happen) This could jeopardize any chance of a ceasefire.
■ adjectives
a good chance (=when something is likely) I think there is a good chance that he will say yes.
every chance (=a good chance) There’s every chance that the baby will survive.
some chance There’s some chance of snow later this week.
a small/slight/slim chance He only has a very small chance of being elected. | There’s a slight chance of some sunshine in the west.
no/little/not much chance The prisoners knew there was little chance of escape.
a one in three/four/ten etc chance (=used to say how likely something is) People in their 30s have a one in 3,000 chance of getting the disease.
a fair chance (=a fairly good chance) If you work, you have a fair chance of passing the test.
a sporting chance (=a fairly good chance) The proposals had at least a sporting chance of being accepted.
a fighting chance (=a small but real chance) The Republican Party has a fighting chance at the next election.
a fifty-fifty chance (=an equal chance that something will or will not happen) I’d say there is a 50–50 chance that the deal will go through.
an outside/a remote chance (=a very small chance) He still has an outside chance of winning the championship.
a million-to-one chance/a one in a million chance (=when something is extremely unlikely) It must have been a million-to-one chance that we’d meet.

COLLOCATIONS (for Meaning 2)
■ verbs
get/have a chance to do something I’d like a job in which I get the chance to travel.
give somebody/offer/provide a chance I was given the chance to play the main part in the play. | Sport provides a chance for you to get outside with friends.
take a chance (=accept an opportunity) If I was offered the chance to be in the team, I’d take it.
jump at a chance (=use an opportunity eagerly) Ed jumped at the chance to earn some extra money.
grab/seize a chance (=quickly use an opportunity) As soon as she stopped speaking, I grabbed the chance to leave.
miss/lose a chance (=not use an opportunity) He missed a chance to score just before half time.
throw away/pass up/turn down a chance (=not accept or use an opportunity) Imagine throwing up a chance to go to America!
welcome the chance to do something I’d welcome the chance to discuss the problem with someone.
deserve a chance Every kid deserves a chance in life.
blow a chance informal (=have a special opportunity and fail to use it) He thought he’d blown his chance of happiness.
■ adjectives
a second chance/another chance The interview went badly, so I didn’t think they would give me a second chance.
sb’s last chance This is my last chance to try and pass the exam.
■ phrases
the chance of a lifetime (=one that you are very unlikely to have again) If you don’t decide soon, you’ll have missed the chance of a lifetime.
now’s your chance spoken (=you have the opportunity to do something now) You’re not working so now’s your chance to write a book.
given the chance/given half a chance (=if there is an opportunity to do something) Goats will eat anything, given half a chance.

THESAURUS
luck noun [uncountable] when good or bad things happen to people by chance: The game involves an element of luck as well as skill.
chance noun [uncountable] the way that some things happen without being planned or caused by people: I met her by chance on a plane to Tokyo. | Like all top athletes, he leaves nothing to chance, and trains harder than anybody.
fortune noun [uncountable] luck and the effect it has on your life: I had the good fortune to work with some great people. | The tour was dogged by ill fortune (=it had a lot of bad luck) from the start. | Fortune has shone on the team so far this season (=they have been lucky).
fate noun [uncountable] a power that some people believe controls what happens to people and which cannot be changed or stopped: Fate dealt him a cruel blow with the death of his wife at the age of 32. | It must have been fate that brought them together, and fate that tore them apart. | We can’t just leave it to fate.
providence noun [uncountable] a power which some people believe controls what happens in our lives and protects us: Do you believe in divine providence (=God’s power to make things happen)? | Her life was mapped out for her by providence.
fluke noun [countable usually singular] informal something good that happens because of luck: Their second goal was a fluke. | They won by a fluke.

Oxford Advanced Learner's Dictionary

chance

 

chance [chance chances chanced chancing] noun, verb, adjective   [tʃɑːns]    [tʃæns] 

 

noun
1. countable, uncountable a possibility of sth happening, especially sth that you want
~ of doing sth Is there any chance of getting tickets for tonight?
She has only a slim chance of passing the exam.
~ that… There's a slight chance that he'll be back in time.
There is no chance that he will change his mind.
~ of sth happening What chance is there of anybody being found alive?
~ of sth Nowadays a premature baby has a very good chance of survival.
The operation has a fifty-fifty chance of success.
an outside chance (= a very small one)

• The chances are a million to one against being struck by lightning.

2. countable a suitable time or situation when you have the opportunity to do sth
It was the chance she had been waiting for.
Jeff deceived me once already— I won't give him a second chance.
This is your big chance (= opportunity for success).
~ of sth We won't get another chance of a holiday this year.
~ to do sth Please give me a chance to explain.
Tonight is your last chance to catch the play at your local theatre.

~ for sb to do sth There will be a chance for parents to look around the school.

3. countable an unpleasant or dangerous possibility
When installing electrical equipment don't take any chances. A mistake could kill.

• The car might break down but that's a chance we'll have to take.

4. uncountable the way that some things happen without any cause that you can see or understand
I met her by chance (= without planning to) at the airport.
Chess is not a game of chance.
It was pure chance that we were both there.
We'll plan everything very carefully and leave nothing to chance.
more at not have/stand a cat in hell's chance at  cat, not have a dog's chance at  dog  n., have an even chance at  even  adj., with an eye for/to the main chance at  eye  n., fat chance at  fat  adj., a fighting chance at  fight  v., not have a snowball's chance in hell at  snowball  n., a sporting chance at  sporting  
Word Origin:
Middle English: from Old French cheance, from cheoir ‘fall, befall’, based on Latin cadere.  
Thesaurus:
chance noun
1. C, U
Is there any chance of getting tickets now?
possibilityprospectoddslikelihoodprobability
a chance/a possibility/the prospect/the odds/the likelihood/a probability of/that…
little/no chance/possibility/prospect/likelihood
the chances/odds/likelihood/probability is/are that…
increase/reduce the chance/possibility/odds/probability/likelihood
2. C
This is your big chance.
opportunitystartpossibilities|informal break|especially spoken moment|especially business window
a chance/the opportunity to do sth
have a/an chance/opportunity/break/moment/window
get/give sb a/an chance/opportunity/break/moment/start
take advantage of a chance/an opportunity/the possibilities/a window
Chance or opportunity? Opportunity tends to be more formal. In some cases only one of the words can be used:
I won't give him a second chance.
 ¤ I won't give him a second opportunity.:
job/equal opportunities
 ¤ job/equal chances
3. C
The manager took a chance on a young, inexperienced player.
gamblerisk
take a chance/gamble/risk on sth
take a chance/risk with sth
a big chance/gamble/risk
Chance, gamble or risk? Risk is used especially when there is danger to life or sb's safety; gamble is used about less serious danger, or when you risk money. When you decide to give/not to give sb the opportunity to do sth, you take a chance/take no chances.
4. U, sing.
We met by chance at the airport.
coincidenceaccidentluck
by chance/coincidence/accident/luck
pure/sheer chance/coincidence/accident/luck
a/an happy/unfortunate/strange chance/coincidence/accident 
Synonyms:
luck
chance coincidence accident fate destiny
These are all words for things that happen or the force that causes them to happen.
luckthe force that causes good or bad things to happen to people: This ring has always brought me good luck.
chancethe way that some things happen without any cause that you can see or understand: The results could simply be due to chance.
coincidencethe fact of two things happening at the same time by chance, in a surprising way: They met through a series of strange coincidences.
accidentsomething that happens unexpectedly and is not planned in advance: Their early arrival was just an accident.
fatethe power that is believed to control everything that happens and that cannot be stopped or changed: Fate decreed that she would never reach America.
destinythe power that is believed to control events: I believe there's some force guiding us— call it God, destiny or fate.
fate or destiny?
Fate can be kind, but this is an unexpected gift; just as often, fate is cruel and makes people feel helpless. Destiny is more likely to give people a sense of power: people who have a strong sense of destiny usually believe that they are meant to be great or do great things.
by …luck/chance/coincidence/accident
It's no coincidence/accident that…
pure/sheer luck/chance/coincidence/accident
to believe in luck/coincidences/fate/destiny 
Example Bank:
After a poor start, they are now in with a chance of winning the league.
Are you by any chance Mr Ludd?
As long as there is an outside chance, we will go for it.
By a happy chance he bumped into an old friend on the plane.
Chess is not a game of chance.
Fat chance of him helping you!
Given the chance, I'd retire tomorrow.
He blew four of his seven save chances.
He deserves the chance to give his side of the story.
He didn't want to risk the chance of being discovered.
He doesn't stand a chance of winning against such an experienced player.
He had wasted a golden chance to make history.
He had zero chance of survival.
He realized that this might be his only chance to save himself.
How do you rate our chances of finding her?
I don't fancy our chances of getting there on time.
I finally had the chance to meet my hero.
I got most answers right through sheer chance.
I rang the company just on the off chance that they might have a vacancy.
I would welcome the chance to give my opinion.
I wouldn't pass up the chance of working for them.
If she let this chance slip, she would regret it for the rest of her life.
It was a mistake which eliminated any chance of an Australian victory.
Katie was his last real chance at happiness.
Leaving nothing to chance, he delivered the letter himself.
No child should be denied the chance of growing up in a family.
She has every chance of passing the exam if she works hard.
She played left-handed to give her opponent a fair chance.
She spotted her chance of making a quick profit.
Take every chance that comes your way.
The doctors gave him little chance of surviving the night.
The dog always runs off when it gets half a chance.
The guide book didn't mention the hotel, but we decided to take a chance.
The manager took a chance on the young goalkeeper.
The missing climber's chances of survival are slim.
The new college is intended to improve the life chances of children in the inner city.
The police came upon the hideout purely by chance.
The police were taking no chances with the protesters.
The results could simply be due to chance.
The teacher gave her one last chance to prove she could behave.
The team created several clear chances but failed to score.
There are no second chances in this business.
There is a very real chance that the film will win an award.
There is always an element of chance in buying a used car.
There isn't a snowball's chance in hell that I'll wear that thing!
There was only a million-to-one chance of it happening.
There's a fair chance that nobody will come to the talk.
They blew their chance to go second in the league.
They have a 90 per cent chance of success.
This is the ideal chance for him to show his ability.
This is your big chance— grab it with both hands.
Travis had left the door open— she seized her chance and was through it like a shot.
What are his survival chances?
When the chance came to go to Paris, she jumped at it.
the variety with the best chance for success
As chance would have it, John was going to London too.
Jeff deceived me once already— I won't give him a second chance.
Nowdays a premature baby has a very good chance of survival.
The car might break down but that's a chance we'll have to take.
There's a slight chance that she'll be back in time.
We met by chance at the airport.
We won't get another chance at a vacation this year.
We'll plan everything very carefully and leave nothing to chance.
When installing electrical equipment don't take any chances.
You'll have the opportunity/chance to ask questions at the end.
Idioms: as chance would have it  by any chance  chance would be a fine thing  chance your arm  chances are …  give somebody half a chance  in with a chance  no chance  on the off chance  stand a chance  take a chance  take your chances

Derived: chance on somebody 

 

Cambridge Advanced Learner's Dictionary

Cambridge Advanced Learner's Dictionary - 4th Edition
 

chance / tʃɑːns /   / tʃæns / noun [ C ] (OPPORTUNITY)

B1 an occasion that allows something to be done:

I didn't get/have a chance to speak to her.

[ + to infinitive ] If you give me a chance to speak, I'll explain.

Society has to give prisoners a second chance when they come out of jail.

He left and I missed my chance to say goodbye to him.

I'd go now given half a chance (= if I had the slightest opportunity) .

→  Synonym opportunity

Word partners for chance (OPPORTUNITY)

give / offer sb a chance • get / have a chance • miss / pass up a chance • jump at / leap at / seize a chance • a second chance • a last chance • a rare chance • a chance of doing sth

Word partners for chance (POSSIBILITY)

an outside / slight / slim / small chance • a fair / fighting / good / realistic chance • be in with / have / stand a chance • lessen / minimize / reduce the chances of sth • improve the chances of sth • fancy sb's chances

 

chance / tʃɑːns /   / tʃæns / noun [ S or plural ] (POSSIBILITY)

B1 the level of possibility that something will happen:

You'd have a better chance/more chance of passing your exams if you worked a bit harder.

[ + (that) ] There's a good chance (that) I'll have this essay finished by tomorrow.

There's a slim/slight chance (that) I might have to go to Manchester next week.

If we hurry, there's still an outside (= very small) chance of catch ing the plane.

"Is there any chance of speak ing to him?" " Not a/No chance, I'm afraid."

I don't think I stand/have a chance of winning.

UK John thinks they're in with a chance (= they have a possibility of doing or getting what they want) .

Her resignation has improved my chances of promotion.

What are her chances of survival?

[ + that ] What are the chances that they'll win?

→  Synonym likelihood

Word partners for chance (OPPORTUNITY)

give / offer sb a chance • get / have a chance • miss / pass up a chance • jump at / leap at / seize a chance • a second chance • a last chance • a rare chance • a chance of doing sth

Word partners for chance (POSSIBILITY)

an outside / slight / slim / small chance • a fair / fighting / good / realistic chance • be in with / have / stand a chance • lessen / minimize / reduce the chances of sth • improve the chances of sth • fancy sb's chances

 

chance / tʃɑːns /   / tʃæns / noun [ C ] (RISK)

B2 a possibility that something negative will happen:

I'm delivering my work by hand - I'm not taking any chances.

There's a chance of injury in almost any sport.

→  Synonym risk noun

Word partners for chance (OPPORTUNITY)

give / offer sb a chance • get / have a chance • miss / pass up a chance • jump at / leap at / seize a chance • a second chance • a last chance • a rare chance • a chance of doing sth

Word partners for chance (POSSIBILITY)

an outside / slight / slim / small chance • a fair / fighting / good / realistic chance • be in with / have / stand a chance • lessen / minimize / reduce the chances of sth • improve the chances of sth • fancy sb's chances

 

chance / tʃɑːns /   / tʃæns / noun (LUCK)

B1 [ U ] the force that causes things to happen without any known cause or reason for doing so:

Roulette is a game of chance.

I got this job completely by chance.

[ + (that) ] It was pure/sheer chance (that) we met.

We must double-check everything and leave nothing to chance.

by any chance C2 used to ask a question or request in a polite way:

Are you Hungarian, by any chance?

Could you lend me a couple of pounds, by any chance?

You wouldn't, by any chance, have a calculator on you, would you?

Word partners for chance (OPPORTUNITY)

give / offer sb a chance • get / have a chance • miss / pass up a chance • jump at / leap at / seize a chance • a second chance • a last chance • a rare chance • a chance of doing sth

Word partners for chance (POSSIBILITY)

an outside / slight / slim / small chance • a fair / fighting / good / realistic chance • be in with / have / stand a chance • lessen / minimize / reduce the chances of sth • improve the chances of sth • fancy sb's chances

© Cambridge University Press 2013

Collins COBUILD Advanced Learner’s English Dictionary

chance

[tʃɑ͟ːns, tʃæ̱ns]
 
 chances, chancing, chanced
 1) N-VAR: oft N of -ing/n, N that If there is a chance of something happening, it is possible that it will happen.
  Do you think they have a chance of beating Australia?...
  This partnership has a good chance of success...
  The specialist who carried out the brain scan thought Tim's chances of survival were still slim...
  There was really very little chance that Ben would ever have led a normal life.
 2) N-SING: usu N to-inf, N for n to-inf If you have a chance to do something, you have the opportunity to do it.
  The electoral council announced that all eligible people would get a chance to vote...
  Most refugee doctors never get the chance to practice medicine in British hospitals...
  I felt I had to give him a chance.
 3) ADJ: ADJ n A chance meeting or event is one that is not planned or expected.
  ...a chance meeting.
 N-UNCOUNT
 Chance is also a noun. ...a victim of chance and circumstance.
 4) VERB If you chance to do something or chance on something, you do it or find it although you had not planned or tried to. [FORMAL]
  [V to-inf] A man I chanced to meet proved to be a most unusual character...
  [V to-inf] It was just then that I chanced to look round.
  [V upon/on/across n] ...Christopher Columbus, who chanced upon the Dominican Republic nearly 500 years ago.
  Syn:
  happen to
 5) VERB If you chance something, you do it even though there is a risk that you may not succeed or that something bad may happen.
  [V it] Andy knew the risks. I cannot believe he would have chanced it...
  [V n] He decided no assassin would chance a shot from amongst that crowd.
  Syn:
  risk
 6) → See also off-chance
 7) PHRASE: PHR after v, PHR with cl Something that happens by chance was not planned by anyone.
  He had met Mr Maude by chance.
  Syn:
  by accident
 8) PHRASE: PHR with cl (not first in cl) You can use by any chance when you are asking questions in order to find out whether something that you think might be true is actually true.
  Are they by any chance related?
  Syn:
  perhaps
 9) PHRASE: V inflects, usu PHR of -ing If you say that someone stands a chance of achieving something, you mean that they are likely to achieve it. If you say that someone doesn't stand a chance of achieving something, you mean that they cannot possibly achieve it.
  Being very good at science subjects, I stood a good chance of gaining high grades...
  Neither is seen as standing any chance of snatching the leadership from him.
 10) PHRASE: V and N inflect When you take a chance, you try to do something although there is a large risk of danger or failure.
  You take a chance on the weather if you holiday in the UK...
  From then on, the Chinese were taking no chances...
  Dennis was not a man to take chances.
  Syn:
  take a risk

Merriam-Webster's Advanced Learner's Dictionary

Merriam-Webster's Advanced Learner's Dictionary: 

1chance /ˈʧæns, Brit ˈʧɑːns/ noun, pl chanc·es
1 : an opportunity to do something : an amount of time or a situation in which something can be done

[count]

• I wanted to call you, but I never got/had the chance (to).
• I go to the beach every chance I get. [=I go whenever I can]
• This is the chance of a lifetime!
• You missed your chance.
• Everyone deserves a fair chance of winning the award.
• If you give me a chance, I know I can do a good job.
• He doesn't give second chances. [=opportunities to try something again after failing one time]
• If given half a chance [=if given some opportunity], she could show everyone how talented she is.
- often followed by to + verb
• Here's your chance to try something new.
• Give me a chance to explain.
• You have to give the wound a chance to heal. [=you have to allow time for the wound to heal]

[noncount]

• We didn't have much chance to talk about it.
✦To jump/leap/grab at the chance to do something is to have an opportunity to do something and to say in an excited way that you will do it or to do it in a very eager way.
• She jumped at the chance to go to New York City.
✦If you have a fighting chance to do something, you may be able to do it by making a great effort.
• The patient still has a fighting chance to survive.
• Their help gave us a fighting chance to finish the project on time.
2 : the possibility that something will happen

[count]

• There's a good chance that we'll finish on time.
• There's still a slim chance [=a small possibility] that we can win.
• There's an outside chance [=a small possibility] that something could go wrong.
Chances are [=it is very likely that] she has already heard the news.
- often + of
• It increases/reduces the chance of getting the disease.
• There's a 50 percent chance of rain this afternoon.
• (Brit, informal) The challenger may not have much experience, but I still think he's in with a chance of winning. [=he has a possibility of winning]
- often plural
• What are the chances [=how likely is it] that we'll have nice weather today?
• I think her chances of winning the election are good.
• “How do you think the team will do this year?” “I like their chances.” [=I think they have a good chance of succeeding/winning]

[noncount]

• If you are free tonight, is there any chance you could join me for dinner?
- often + of
• If you want to have any chance of getting the job, you'll have to dress nicely.
• The prisoners had little/no chance of escape/escaping.
✦The phrase by any chance is used when asking questions in a polite way.
• Are you free tonight, by any chance?
✦The informal phrases fat chance and not a chance are used as a forceful way of saying that there is no possibility that something will happen.
• “He says that he'll get here on time.” “Fat chance!”
• “Do you think they'll win?” “Not a chance!”
Fat chance of that happening!
3 [noncount] : the way that events happen when they are not planned or controlled by people : luck
• There is an element of chance [=luck] to winning a card game.
• Which cards you're given is simply a matter of chance.
• We planned for everything and left nothing to chance. [=we prepared for everything possible]
• That's not the kind of thing you want to leave to chance. [=that's not the kind of thing you don't want to plan or prepare for]
✦If something happens by chance, people have not planned it or tried to make it happen.
By (pure/sheer) chance, I saw him again at the grocery store.
• We found the house entirely by chance.
✦The phrase as chance would have it is used to say that something happened because of good or bad luck.
• Our car broke down on the road, but as chance would have it [=as it turned out], there was a garage nearby.
✦A game of chance is a game (such as a dice game) in which luck rather than skill decides who wins.
Games of chance are illegal in some states.
chance would be a fine thing Brit informal
- used to say that something good or desirable is not likely to happen
• This candidate promises to solve all the country's financial problems in six months. Chance would be a fine thing! [=if only that were possible]
on the off chance
- used to talk about something that might happen or be true but that is not likely
• I called his office on the off chance that he would still be there [=I called because I thought there was a slight chance that he would still be there], but he had already left.
stand a chance : to have a possibility of succeeding
• The team stands a chance of doing well this year.
• I think she stands a good chance of winning the election.
- often used in negative statements
• He doesn't stand a chance against the champion.
• She stands no chance of winning. [=she has no chance of winning]
take a chance : to do something that could have either good or bad results
• She's trying to find a publisher who will take a chance on her book. [=will publish her book without knowing for certain that it will succeed]
• It might not work, but it's a chance we'll have to take.
• I'm not willing to take that chance.
• He said he couldn't afford to take any chances.
• He's not afraid to take chances. [=to do things that are risky or dangerous]
• She was taking no chances. = She wasn't taking any chances.
• “You might not succeed.” “I know, but I'll take my chances anyway.”

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